By Thirupathaiah.

S M-Tech(DECS)


Introduction to 4G Overview of 1G Overview of 2G Overview of 3G 4G

Objectives of 4G Principle technology used in 4g Parameters of 4G advantages of 4G Difference between 3G&4G

Fourth generation wireless system with wide area coverage and high throughput.  Any where any time multimedia  4G is a successor to 3G and 2G standards  It is going to be launched in the year 2010. 


4Kbps 1G technology which allows users to make voice calls within one country.     AMPS ( Advance mobile phone system ) was first launched by US in 1980¶s the radio signals that 1G networks use are analog Up to 2. Access technology used is fdma .

FDMA FDMA divides the given spectrum into channels by the frequency domain. In the figure above. each band represents one call. . Each phone call is allocated one channel for the entire duration of the call.


2) High level.   2G cellular telecom networks were commercially launched in 1991 Digital ±consists of 1s and 0s Digital signal: 1) Low level. 3) Rising edge. and 4) Falling edge .

  Second Generation (2G): Digital voice systems  CDMA. PDC (Japan) D-AMPS(Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System)  PCS Systems Second Generation ± advanced (2.  TDMA  GSM (Global System for Mobile communication).5G): Combining voice and data communications  Providing enhanced data rate  GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) o email and web browsing .

TDMA TDMA enhances FDMA by further dividing the spectrum into channels by the time domain as well. In the figure above. each horizontal band represents the channel divided by the time domain. . Within that is the vertical division in the frequency domain. A channel in the frequency domain is divided among multiple users.

CDMA CDMA utilizes the entire spectrum for transmission of each call.  Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum .

Ð Ð Ð Ð Global System for Mobile Communications Tdma based 900-1800 MHZ freq used SIM(subscriber identity module) is used GSM offers a variety of data services .

lowers the noise level  Introduction of digital data transfer .SMS ±³short message service´ .increase sound quality .Advantages:  The lower powered radio signals require less battery power  The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking .E-mail .

Disadvantages:  Cell towers had a limited coverage area  Low data transfer rate .


128 Kbits/second for fast moving devices. such as a handset carried by a walking user. A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth  .05 Mbits/second to stationary devices. 384 Kbits/second for slowly moving devices. such as handsets in moving vehicles.   2.

 multimedia services. security. and reliability  Fixed and variable data rates.  Global roaming  Large capacity and broadband capabilities .Advantages  More bandwidth.

Disadvantages of 3G  3G phones are expensive  High input fees for the 3G service licenses  Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service  network deployment costs  Base stations need to be closer to each other(more cost) .


Time-Line of ³Generations .

CDMA or OFDM Packet 200 kmph Switching Mobile top speeds Circuit/Packet 200 kmph .3G 1.5 GHz 5-20 MHz Up to 2Mbps 4G 2 .8 .8 GHz 5-20 MHz Up to 20 Mbps or more Frequency Band Bandwidth Data rate Access Wideband CDMA Multi-carrier .2.

mobile TV. video chat. minimal services like voice and data A data rate of at least 100 Mbps between any two points in the world . Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB). Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS).Objectives    4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service Improve applications like wireless broadband access.

Principal technologies   OFDM MIMO: To attain ultra high spectral efficiency .

code. thus they are able to overlap without interfering It allows transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time. sub-carriers in an OFDM system are precisely orthogonal to one another. etc) .   single channel utilizes multiple sub-carriers on adjacent frequencies. frequency.


User data rate Modulation Coding rate Data subcarriers Symbol duration Guard interval Subcarrier spacing Channel Spacing Carrier frequency 2.384 optional 200µs 40µs 6.56 .QAM 1/2 .25 MHz optional) --2GHz .8.96 Mbps QPSK. 256.7/8 512 (average) (128.25 kHz 5 MHz (1.

Smart antennas are used which can increase systems capacity Spatial multiplexing is used .

8 GHz 5 .20 MHz (might even go to 100 MHz or higher) Up to 20 Mbps (might even reach 100 Mbps or more) Multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA)or OFDM(TDMA) Packet 200 km/hr 2007-2010 Access Technology Switching Design Basis Mobile Top Speeds Deployment .PARAMETERS Key Requirement IP Frequency Band Bandwidth Data Rate 4G Data and voice converged over IP All IP (lPv6) Higher frequency bands 2 .

     High speed low cost per bit High quality of service Variety of services On connectivity .



pdf? isnumber=11648&arnumber=529459 6. vol. Evolving Perspectives of 4th GenerationMobile Communication . Toskala.~ Berezdivin. Gazis. CDMA or TDMA? CDMA for GSM? by Paul Walter Baier http://ieeexplore. IEEE PIMRC 2002. Portugal. Ed.3g4g. Sept2004 2. John Wiley.http://en. IEEE Wireless Communication. R.3gpp.1. WCDMA for 4. 9.Lu. W. issue 2.Coimbra. 2001 3.~ "Technologies on FourthGeneration Mobile Communications". April 2005 5. Holma and H. V.

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