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INTRODUCTION

The study of steady state stability is concerned with the determination of the upper limit of machine loadings before loosing synchronism provided the loading is increased gradually. When an ac generators were driven by reciprocating steam engines one of the major problems in the operation of machinery was caused by sustained oscillations in speed or hunting. Due to the periodic variations in the torque applied to generators. The variations caused in voltage and frequency were transmitted to the motors connected to the system. Oscillations of the motors caused by the variations in voltage and frequency sometimes cause the motors to loose synchronism entirely if there natural frequency of oscillation coincided with the frequency of oscillation caused by the engines driving the generators. Maintaining synchronism between the various parts of the power systems became increasingly difficult. This leads to the awakening of ´The stability problemµ.

**NECESSITY OF POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
**

The power system engineer is faced with a variable load ranging from minimum to maximum at or near a constant value of voltage. Voltage is a very important factor. The induction motor draws more current for the same torque when operated at lower voltages. The power transfer problem becomes much more complicated by the presence of synchronous machines in the electrical power system. If transfer of power is more than a certain value known as steady stability limit, the machines may fall out of step and supply of customers may be affected. The magnitude of power that can be transmitted from a source to synchronous or asynchronous loads depends upon the range of voltage that is available from the source which may be tolerated by the load. Power system stability initiates the synchronism between the power system components.

**STABILITY AND INSTABILITY
**

Stability means ability of the system to return to its normal and stable operation after having been subjected to some form of disturbance. Instability means a condition denoting loss of synchronism or falling out of step.

DIFFERENT KINDS OF STABILITY.

TYPES OF STABILITY

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Steady State Stability :-In this we basically concentrate on restricting the bus voltages close to their nominal values. We also ensure that phase angles between two buses are not too large and check for the overloading of the power equipment and transmission lines. These checks are usually done using power flow studies. Transient Stability :-Involves the study of the power system following a major disturbance. Following a large disturbance the synchronous alternator the machine power (load) angle changes due to sudden acceleration of the rotor shaft. Dynamic stability:- In a power system stability problems, a system is said to be dynamically stable if the oscillations do not acquire more than certain amplitude and die out quickly i.e. system is well damped. Dynamic stability can be significantly improved by the use of power system stabilizers.

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SWING EQUATION

What is ´swinging ´ of the machines? SWING EQUATION: Governs the rotational dynamics of the synchronous machine in stability analysis. Swing equation: The Swing Equation (pu) is given as (2H /Ws)(d2 /dt2) = Pm (pu) ² Pe (pu) Stability indicator.

= -wst

**STEADY STATE STABILITY
**

This form of instability results from the inability to maintain synchronism due to the continual changes in load and generation. Thus, Steady state stability is defined as the ability of the system to restore its initial condition after the small disturbances IMPORTANCE OF STEADY STATE STABILITY IN POWER SYSTEM: Safe operating limits Setting of controls

**STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT
**

WHAT IS STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT?

jXd· jXL Fixed (Infinite Bus) V/0

Pm

+ E·/

Pe

**Stability is governed by the Swing Equation
**

d2 /dt2 = ( f/H) (Pm-Pe) d /dt = - syn Pe = E· V sin ( ) /(Xd·+XL) Power Angle Equation Swing Equation

**STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT
**

Pmax C Pe

P

Pm Stable Unstable

Point C represents the maximum power that can be generated and transmitted Pmax= E·V/(X+XL) For loading > Pmax there are no equilibria. Pmax is the STEADY STATE STABILITY limit, i.e., the maximum operating power below which stability is guaranteed for sufficiently small changes

**IMPROVEMENT OF STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMIT
**

By

reducing X and increasing |E| or |V| or both.

Use of two parallel lines. Higher excitation voltage and quick excitation system.

BENEFITS:a) Increases power transfer capability. b) Improved power and voltage control.

**PHENOMENON LEADING TO TRANSIENT STABILITY CONCEPT
**

TRANSIENT DISTURBANCE/ FAULT

IMBALANCE IN POWER TRANSFER WITHIN THE CONNECTED MACHINES

SMALL FAULT

LARGE FAULT

SWINGING OF MACHINES

SYSTEM GRADUALLY ATTAINS STABILITY

**GENERATOR FALLING OUT OF STEP
**

TOTAL SHUTDOWN (TRANSIENTLY UNSTABLE)

TRANSIENTLY STABLE

MECHANICAL ANALOGY

Number of weights are suspended by elastic strings. The weights represent generators and the electric transmission lines are represented by the strings. The system is inter connected, thus when one weight is disturbed other weights also oscillate. If the weights oscillate too much one of the strings may tear causing other inter connected strings to tear too. This represents the unstable condition or ¶falling out of step· of alternators. If oscillations die out the entire system comes to rest. This phenomenon is analogues to ¶transient stability·.

Fig: Inter connected strings suspended with mechanical loads

N.B: The strings are loaded below their static limit.i.e. the system is also loaded below static limit.

**WHAT IS TRANSIENT STABILITY?
**

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DEFINITION: The ability of a power system to survive the transition following a large disturbance and reach an acceptable operating condition is known as transient stability. IMPORTANCE OF TRANSIENT STABILITY STUDY: Almost all the faults in an power system are transient in nature. Any unbalance between the generation and load initiates transients thus causing the rotor of alternator to swing and cause instabilities. If rotor swings are large enough to cause the alternator to loose its synchronism then total shut down of the system may take place.

**THE EQUAL AREA CRITERION
**

Enables the quick determination of stability of single machine or two machine system after transient disturbance by graphical interpretation of energy stored in rotating mass. After occurrence of transients in the system mechanical power and electrical power get unbalanced and causes accelerating power (Pa) to act on rotor.

Pa causes rotor to swing about its new position 1. Ultimately the rotor settles at its new position 1. Thus for the system to be stable the accelerating power has to be equal to the decelerating power during oscillations about the new equilibrium position.

Fig: Electrical and mechanical power vs.

.

**CALCULATIONS RELATED TO EQUAL AREA CRITERIA
**

Multiplying both sides of swing equation by d /dt ,then by integrating both sides from 0 from we obtain

For the system to be stable d /dt has to be zero at some point. Thus we get :

Now if we separate the equation into accelerating and decelerating areas we obtain the following equation:

In order to satisfy the above equations the area A1 (accelerating area) &A2(decelerating area must be equal &hence the name ¶equal area· criteria.

**TRANSIENT STABILITY GOVERNING FACTOR
**

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**CLEARING ANGLE ( c): It rotor position at which the fault is cleared
**

by the circuit breaker.

**CLEARING TIME (tc): Time taken by the circuit breaker to clear the
**

fault.

IMPORTANCE:

Area A1(acclerating area) depends on the time taken to clear the fault. Thus, if c increases then A1 also increases. By equal area criteria , for the system to be stable A1(accelearating area)= A2(decellerating area) or, Increase in A1=Increase in A2 Thus for a stable system maximum swing becomes l. Any further delay may cause the critical clearing angle( cr) to exceed, causing loss of synchronism. The maximum allowable time for the fault clearing without the loss of synchronism is known as critical clearing time (tcr). The rotor position corresponding to this time is known as critical clearing angle ( cr).

CAUSES OF POWER SYSTEM TRANSIENTS

External:- a) Lightning Internal:- a) Switching b) Insulation Failure c) Resonance d) Arcing Ground

**METHODS OF IMPROVING TRANSIENT STABILITY LIMIT
**

1. Improve the maximum power transfer capability. 2. Use of high speed excitation system. 3. Implement single pole switching. 4. Use of high speed of reclosing breakers. 5. Breaking resistors.

DYNAMIC STABILITY

Dynamic stability is made possible by the action of fast acting voltage regulators which are capable of changing the flux at a faster rate. The system does not operate on a single power angle curve. It can significantly improved through the use of power system stabilizers.

**Typical swing curves in the loss of stability
**

At the power transfer limit (steady-state stability), the generator falls out of synchronism as a result of a small transient phenomenon on the network Transient stability is lost as a result of a fault on the network; the generator accelerates (speeds up) after the loss of synchronism Dynamic stability is lost as a result of sustained power angle oscillations caused by a fault

CONCLUSION

Whether the system is stable on occurrence of fault depends not only on the system itself, but also on the type of fault, rapidity of clearing and method of clearing. The transient stability limit is almost lower than the steady state limit, but unlike the latter, it may exhibit different values depending on the nature , location and magnitude of disturbance.

PRESENTED BY:

1. VINAY KUMAR RAJPUT 2. SUPRAVA CHAKRABORTY 3. MAYUMI CHAKRABORTY 4. JASMEET DUA

THANK YOU«

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