THE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

SHUBHAM YADAV

The Human Reproductive System 

The gonads-testes and ovaries-are endocrine glands that secrete sex hormones. However, the primary function of the gonads is not to produce hormones but to produce and store gametes-sperm and eggs.

Objectives: 

1. Identify the major structures of the male and female reproductive system. 2. Describe the function of each structure of the male and female reproductive system.

Reproductive System   The Reproductive System. unlike other systems we have studied. Reproduction is absolutely essential to the continuation of the SPECIES SOME OF US MUST REPRODUCE! . What the Reproductive System is important to is the Survival of the SPECIES. IS NOT ESSENTIAL to the survival of an INDIVIDUAL.

From a Fertilized Egg. or ZYGOTE.Review  The ways in which the Gametes are released make possible the fusion of Sperm (Male Gametes) and Egg (Female Gametes) in the process of FERTILIZATION. come all the cells in a human body. .

SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT   For the First SIX Weeks after fertilization. During the SEVENTH Week of development. major changes occur: . human male and female Embryos are Identical in appearance.

or the PRIMARY Reproductive Organs of a FEMALE Embryo.7th week changes:    A. . produce Steroid Hormones (Sex) known as ESTROGENS. . The TESTES. The tissue of the Embryo responds to these hormones by developing into the FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. Neither Testes or Ovaries are capable of producing Active Reproductive Cells (GAMETES) until PUBERTY. B. The OVARIES. The tissue of the Embryo responds to these hormones by developing into the MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS. begin to produce Steroid Hormones (Sex) known as ANDROGENS. which are the PRIMARY Reproductive Organs of a MALE.

Male Reproductive System .

3. the concentration of the hormone Testosterone is high enough to stimulate sperm production.THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM    1. 2. the adolescent stage of development when changes in the body make reproduction possible. Males begin to produce Sperm during Puberty. At this time. The TESTES develop within the Abdominal Cavity. Testosterone is the Main Androgen (Male Sex Hormone) produced by the Testes. . just before birth the Testes descend through a canal into an EXTERNAL SAC called the SCROTUM.

5.Male Reproductive System   4. outside the body. Sperm development in the Testes Requires the Lower Temperature. where the temperature is about 3 degrees C Cooler than the body internal temperature (27 degrees C). The Testes (two egg-shaped structures) remain in the Scrotum. .

Cells that respond to Testosterone are found all over the body. and Body Hair. Beard Grows. 7.Male Reproductive System     6. which means "SEED BEARING". The Testes are clusters of hundreds of Tiny Tubules called SEMINIFEROUS (sehm-uh-NIHF-er-uhs) TUBULES. As the Pituitary Gland begins to release FSH and LH. these Hormones stimulate the Testes to make the PRINCIPAL MALE SEX HORMONE TESTOSTERONE. Sperm Form through Meiosis in the specialized lining of this extensive network of tubules. . 9. Testosterone produces a number of SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS that appear in Males at Puberty Voice Deepens. 8.

Male Reproductive System  10. When large numbers of sperm have been produced in the Testes. the development process of Puberty is completed .THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM IS NOW FUNCTIONAL. FSH and Testosterone stimulate the development of Sperm. .

packed with energy releasing Mitochondria (Energy Source).which contains the Nucleus (The 23 Chromosomes) and enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the protective layers that surround and Egg Cell. . 2. B. The Chromosome number drops from 46 to 23.Sperm Development      1. TAIL Consists of a Single. Sperm are derived from Special Cells within the Testes that go through the process of MEIOSIS to form HAPLOID NUCLEI found in Mature Sperm. Powerful FLAGELLUM that propels the Sperm. MID PIECE . C. A Mature Sperm consists of THREE Regions: A. HEAD . The Mitochondria supply the energy that is required for sperm to reach an Egg. Four sperm cells result from each cell that begins meiosis.

In the Urethra. both Urine and Sperm exit the body through the Urethra. Although most Sperm remain stored in each Epididymis. In a Male.Male Reproductive System    4. 5. Bulbourethral Glands. Each Vas Deferens enters the Abdominal Cavity. some leave the Epididymis and pass into through the VAS DEFERENS. a duct that extends from the Epididymis. 6. . Sperm Mix with Fluids that are secreted by Three Exocrine Glands. where it loops around the Urinary Bladder and merges with the Urethra.the Seminal Vesicles.to produce SEMINAL FLUID -which Protects and Nourishes the Sperm. and the Prostate Gland.

.Male Reproductive System    THE COMBINATION OF SPERM AND SEMINAL FLUID IS KNOWN AS SEMEN BETWEEN 100 AND 200 MILLION SPERM ARE PRESENT IN 1 milliliter OF SEMEN OR ABOUT 5 MILLION SPERM PER DROP! The Penis is the Male Reproductive Organ that makes it possible for Sperm to be delivered to the body of the Female.

400 million Sperm are released in the Reproductive Tract of a Female during a single Ejaculation. Only a few Sperm reach the site of Fertilization. are quit GOOD Most sperm are Killed by the Acidic Environment of the Female Reproductive Track.Male Reproductive System   300 . if one is available. the chances of a Single Sperm Fertilizing and Ovum (Egg OR Female Gamete). .

the Ovaries USUALLY produce only ONE EGG or OVUM per month. .EACH TIME AN EGG IS RELEASED. In addition to producing eggs. the female reproductive system has another important job to perform .Female Reproductive System   The Ovaries are located in the Lower Abdominal Cavity. THE BODY MUST BE PREPARED TO NOURISH A DEVELOPING EMBRYO.

Estrogen causes the reproductive system to complete its development. Widening of the Hips. .Enlargement of Breast and Reproductive Organs. and also produce SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTICS . and growth of Body Hair.Female Reproductive System    Puberty in females starts with changes in the Hypothalamus that causes the release of FSH and LH from the Pituitary Gland. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) stimulates cells within the Ovaries to produce the Hormone ESTROGEN.

averaging one egg about every 28 days. THIS PROCESS IS CALLED OVULATION . During her lifetime fewer than 500 Ova (Eggs) will actually be released. 2. which are clusters of cells surrounding a single ovum (egg).000 PRIMARY FOLLICLES. When a Follicle has completely matured.Female Reproductive System    Each Ovary contains about 400. the Ovum (Egg) is released.

or Non Identical Twins may result. The Fallopian Tubes provide a way for an egg to travel from the Ovary to the Uterus.Female Reproductive System    If TWO Eggs mature. . Ovulation begins at Puberty and USUALLY continues until a female is in her late forties. During Ovulation the Follicle literally ruptures. Fraternal. and the Ovum is swept from the Ovary into one of the TWO FALLOPIAN TUBES. when MENOPAUSE occurs.

Female Reproductive System .

the Ovum passes from the Fallopian Tube into the UTERUS .after that. After a FEW DAYS.Female Reproductive System   IT IS DURING ITS JOURNEY THROUGH THE FALLOPIAN TUBE THAT AN EGG CAN BE FERTILIZED. An Egg must be fertilized within 48 hours of its release . the egg begins to break down. Unfertilized eggs dissolve in the Uterus.

Female Reproductive System  Leading from the Uterus (CERVIX) to the outside of the body is a muscular tube called the VAGINA or Birth Canal. .

Menstrual Cycle    THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE IS THE SERIES OF CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN THE UTERUS EACH MONTH. OVULATION. The Menstrual Cycle has FOUR Stages: THE FOLLICULAR PHASE. THE LUTEAL PHASE AND MENSTRUATION These Stages are Regulated by the Hormones of the Endocrine System .

The development of an Egg in this stage of the Cycle takes about 14 DAYS . many tiny Blood Vessels grow into the thickened lining. and the Lining of the Uterus GROWS THICKER. in preparation for receiving a Fertilized Egg. the Egg Matures.Menstrual Cycle   During the 1st Stage-THE FOLLICULAR PHASE.

an egg is swept into a fallopian tube. Following Ovulation. the shortest phase in the Cycle (3-4 DAYS).Menstrual Cycle  The 2nd Stage. where it travels toward the uterus awaiting fertilization. is the release of an egg from a ruptured follicle. . OVULATION. The Egg has enough stored nutrients to survive about 48 hours.

LUTEAL PHASE. The Corpus Luteum begins to secrete large amounts of PROGESTERONE and ESTROGEN. forming a New Structure called a CORPUS LUTEUM. The Increase levels cause the Pituitary Gland to stop Secreting LH and FSH.Menstrual Cycle  The 3rd Stage. the Cells of the Ruptured Follicle grow larger and fill the cavity. lasts about 14 Days. .

and the Corpus Luteum begins to produce Less and Less Estrogen and Progesterone . the Corpus Luteum continues to release Hormones that causes the Uterus to maintain its thickened lining. Most of the time. An Embryo that settles into the lining of the uterus. no embryo arrives.Menstrual Cycle     Progesterone causes the lining of the Uterus to become even thicker The Lining is prepared to receive the Embryo four or five days after the Egg is released from the Ovary.

Menstrual Cycle    The Decrease in Levels of Estrogen and Progesterone causes the Blood Vessels in the uterine lining to begin closing and then Break. The Cells of the Uterine lining DO NOT receive adequate blood supply and come loose from the inside of the uterus The mixture of Blood and the Cells that made up the lining of the uterus is called MENSTRUAL FLUID. .

. The AVERAGE Menstrual Cycle is 28 DAYS LONG.THE FOLLICULAR PHASE.Menstrual Cycle   The passage of this Fluid through the Vagina and out of the body is called MENSTRUATION OR THE MENSTRUAL PERIOD THE LAST STAGE. a NEW Cycle Begins. At the end of the Period. IT USUALLY LASTS FROM THREE TO SEVEN DAYS.

Menstrual Period   Almost ALL Women START their Menstrual Period 14 DAYS AFTER Ovulation occurs. the period when the Follicle is growing. DIFFERS from women to women. The length of the First stage of the cycle. .

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