You are on page 1of 101

Quality Management

B. Purushothama

What is Quality ?
‡ The degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements -- ISO 9000:2000 ‡ The totality of features and / or characteristics of a product and / or service that lead to Customer Satisfaction´ ± ISO 9000:2005

Quality
³All quality improvement occurs on a project-by-project basis and in no other way.´ - Juran
Quality cannot be inspected into a product; it is either there or not. It must be bred into the making of the product by the operative; this is where quality starts ± Phillip Crosby
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 3

monitoring and controlling the activities can be called as real Management. coordination. ‡ Getting Results? ± ± Only getting results is not management. it should be sustainable. ± The results should be an out come of the activity and not a chance. implementation. . ‡ Getting sustainable results by proper planning. You should get the results.What is Management? ‡ Getting Work Done? ± ± Only getting the work done is not management.

QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quality Planning Quality Control Quality Assurance Quality Improvement 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 5 .

and requirements. objectives. and how these requirements will be met.Quality Planning ‡ ³A set of activities whose purpose is to define quality system policies. and to explain how these policies will be applied. ISO 9000:2005 . how these objectives will be achieved. It is always future oriented´.

as appropriate to the product. projectspecific plan or more general documentation 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 7 . documents and resources ± the required checks and criteria for product acceptance ± the records needed ‡ The resulting plan may be a one-off.Quality Planning ‡ The product and service provision planning process in ISO 9001:2000defines the following controls. ± the quality objectives and regulations ± the necessary processes. which is called a quality plan.

Quality Control ‡ A system for ensuring the maintenance of proper standards in manufactured goods. Free dictionary 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 8 .msn. especially by periodic random inspection of the product. Encarta.com ‡ A system for achieving or maintaining the desired level of quality in a manufactured product by inspecting samples and assessing what changes may be needed in the manufacturing process .www. . Answer.

die. i.e. ± www.net 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 9 . that it is problem-free and well able to perform the task it was designed for.Quality Assurance ‡ A planned and systematic pattern of all actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that the product optimally fulfils customers' expectations.dictionary.

businessdictionary.com 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 10 .www. work-back flow. rework and losses in production process.Quality Improvement ‡ Systematic approach to reduction or elimination of waste.

Let us verify the Definition of Quality ‡ The totality of features and / or characteristics of a product and / or service that lead to Customer Satisfaction´ ± ISO 9000:2005 ‡ Any of the features that make something what it is. attribute. ‡ ³Fitness for Purpose´ ± Joseph Juran ‡ "Conformance to requirements". ‡ The degree of excellence which a thing possesses. the basic nature. ± Philips Crosby ‡ ³The characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs´ ± American Society for Quality 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 11 . characteristic element.

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 12 . ‡ They are ready to take any hardship and even sacrifice their life to meet the requirements of their customers. ‡ Terrorists are fulfilling their mission to the fullest satisfaction of their customers.Can we accept this definition? ‡ Smugglers and poachers are providing the goods and services to the satisfaction of their customers.

taxes are not paid to government.Take more examples ‡ Product quality is good and meeting the complete requirements of customers. Can we call this as a Quality? Quality Management 13 21-Aug-11 . ± strikes and agitations disturbing the normal life of public and so on. roads are frequently blocked because of the parking of heavy trucks. employees are harassed. but ± ± ± ± the company is polluting the environment.

The quality does not restrict itself to fulfilling the customer requirements. ‡ Understanding society needs and requirements and developing the systems and strategies to help community is essentially a part of quality. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 14 . but it should also consider the ethical and society needs and regulatory requirements.What is Real Quality? ‡ The definition of Quality has gone much beyond the product requirements to the customer requirements. and the International Quality Standards cover a bigger sphere.

Quality Requirements
‡ Customer ± Product features and tolerances. ‡ International Standards ± Testing procedures, Measuring systems, Labeling and Marking. ‡ Regulatory requirements ± Safety of product as well as users, general interests of the community and environment. ‡ Ethical requirements ± Human values, Business ethics, Social Obligations.
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 15

Legal and Regulatory Requirements - 1
‡ No violation of the law of the land like minimum wages, working hours, overtime, minimum age for employment, providing crèche facilities where women employees are working, safety regulations, bonus, PF and other welfare measures. ‡ When the activities are outsourced, it is the responsibility of the organization to ensure that the people are paid the minimum wages as per the Act, and the number of hours worked does no exceed the limits for both regular working and for overtime.
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 16

Legal and Regulatory Requirements ± 2
‡ The employees need to be adequately insured for their safety and health. ‡ All safety aspects are to be maintained as per the law of the country and beyond considering the nature of threat the activity is having on the employees and the environment. ‡ Providing appropriate training to the employees is the responsibility of the organization, as they are committing the quality to the customers.
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 17

formaldehyde and other banned chemicals. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 18 .Regulatory requirements relating to product safety and the safety of the consumer ‡ Use of metal free buttons and other accessories in garments. ‡ The washing instructions are to be given with the internationally accepted symbols. chlorine. ‡ Avoiding carcinogenic azoic dyes. ‡ Preventing metal pieces like broken needle parts and staple pins in the garments.

‡ The product description mentioned should match the actual.General Regulatory requirements ‡ The quantity despatched should match exactly the invoice and the delivery challan. ‡ The blend percent should be exactly as declared. ‡ The packages should have the details of period of manufacture and the country of manufacture. ‡ The contents mentioned on each package should match the actual contents. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 19 .

‡ Performance according to the promises given to the buyer. ‡ Making in-time payment to suppliers 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 20 .Business Ethics ‡ The garment/Fabric/Yarn shown in the catalogue should match with the final material delivered. ‡ The Product quality should match the samples shown while taking orders. ‡ Timely delivery of material is as important as its quality and price. ‡ Proper documentation and high quality label on the garments/ yarns.

Trade Regulations ‡ Apart from the International Standards. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 21 . packing systems. etc. packing materials. pesticides.. depending on the product and the end use. it is necessary to refer to the trade practices and the regulations prevailing in the country to which we export. ‡ It might include the ban on certain chemicals. permissible limits for the traces of heavy metals.

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 22 . frequent traffic jams because of the movement or parking of heavy and long trucks in narrow lanes adjacent to the factory. like the noise disturbing the sleep of people.Societal Safety Factors ‡ Clothes worn do not create problem to the wearer because of its constituents and finishes. ‡ There should not be any disturbance to the community because of us. frequent strikes and lockouts because of unhealthy industrial relation approaches etc. ‡ No loss is made to society or environment because of the processes. ‡ The industry should follow ethical standards and consider the community requirements.

implement the systems. verify the results and compare with the competitors and reengineer the systems to achieve improved results. ‡ We need to work towards achieving both in order to survive in the competitive international market. but also other requirements of customers as well as of society.Quality from a larger prospective ‡ The Quality not only addresses the basic product requirements. ‡ We need to have appropriate procedures to address the requirements. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 23 .

i. a fault.e.QUALITY STANDARDS ‡ Quality control and standards are one of the most important aspects of the content of any job. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 24 . ‡ By a Quality Standard we mean the establishment of the threshold at which level of severity a defect becomes unacceptable. ‡ It is the equivalent of tolerances applicable to measurable factors.

In the absence of such agreement the operative does not know what is expected of him or her. and leaves. with the ensuing needlessly high labourturnover and training costs of new labour. becomes frustrated.Agreed Quality Standards ‡ Quality Standards must be recognized and agreed by all levels of Management. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 25 .

Suppliers are clear. Customer feels the requirement when some one else has got it.Customer Requirements Specified Unspecified Expectations are clear. Customer feels the requirement when a problem arises. Customer has no time to sit and list out all requirements. Process is designed and monitored. Quality Management 26 21-Aug-11 . Customer expects the supplier to know. Customer knows the needs but does not effectively express. Customers are clear.

Specified Needs Unspecified Needs 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 27 .

How Quality is ensured? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ By devising correct work methods. Providing correct materials in time. Engaging competent personnel and training them adequately. Proactively inspecting the machines and maintaining them properly Checking the material in process and the process itself Reviewing the systems periodically for their continued suitability By inspecting the material produced Checking the documents produced Getting the services of an external inspection agency Rejecting the nonconforming materials Visiting customer place to study the working of our materials and taking corrective actions ‡ Getting customer feedback and taking measures to correct the situation Quality Management 28 21-Aug-11 .

Preparing Quality Plans ‡ Study the machinery available and their capabilities ‡ Decide on the machines to be used for the specific order ‡ Workout the date of starting the production and completing ‡ Decide the people to work on line ‡ Decide the points to be verified and the quality to be checked. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 29 .

Understand the Quality Objectives of Products ‡ Why the customer is ordering a specific product? ‡ How customer uses the material? ‡ What customer expects from the product? ‡ What are the concerns the customer is having? ‡ What problems were encountered by the customer earlier with similar products? 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 30 .

abrasion resistance. ‡ Effect of garment design on the functional aspects 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 31 . micronaire. elongation. absorbency. flammability etc.Understand the impact of various parameters on product quality ‡ Effect of fibre properties like length. permeability. ‡ Effect of yarn properties on fabric GSM. maturity. tear strength. optimum twist level. GSM. and strength on properties of yarn like uniformity. dimensional stability. spirality. etc. shade uniformity. strength. absorbency etc. fabric cover. ‡ Effect of fabric construction on fabric properties like strength. abrasion resistance. abrasion resistance. strip strength. absorbency. appearance. ballistic strength.

cost aspects etc.Design the products ‡ Understand the design inputs ± viz. customer needs. people to be trained. estimated cost of production. availability of materials. materials to be procured. ‡ Verify the design outputs ± settings to be made. company capabilities. etc 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 32 . parts to be replaced or modified. estimated production levels.

Tolerances ‡ All products are subject to variations in consistency. the variations are just as likely to give results that are too high as they are to give results that are too low . 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 33 . conditions. therefore. caused by variations in raw materials. This law of randomness is fundamental to an understanding of the statistical approach to quality control. However. The likelihood.the results will vary in a random manner. processes. operatives. measuring and so on. of a product being exactly to specification are remote.

3 Sigma Limits 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 34 .+/.

000 700.Six Sigma Process Capability SIGMA 6 sigma 5 sigma 4 sigma 3 sigma 2 sigma 1 sigma 21-Aug-11 DPMO 3.000 COPQ <10% of sales 10 to 15% of sales CAPABILITY World Class 15 to 20% of sales Industry average 20 to 30% of sales 30 to 40% of sales Noncompetitive Quality Management 35 .4 230 6200 67.000 310.

and executive management provides the Champion for each project.Six Sigma approach ‡ Strategy includes: ± Measure ± Analyze ± Improve ± Control ‡ Improvement projects must be integrated with the goals of the organization. Implementation is top‡ down. CEO drives. Uses concept of ³belts´ for levels of competency in Six Sigma implementation: ± MBB = Master Black Belt ± BB = Black Belt ± GB = Green Belt Quality Management 36 21-Aug-11 . ‡ Six Sigma uses a ³divide and conquer´ approach as opposed to Continuous Process Improvement.

A Road Map for Six Sigma  Appoint a Champion  Select a Cross-functional team  Develop quantifiable goals  Develop an implementation plan  Establish a training program  Address data collection requirements and issues  Develop a change control and maintenance program  Coordinate your road map 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 37 .

working conditions and variations in input and output materials. condition of machines. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 38 .Process Control Studies ‡ Process control studies are done to ensure that the process in place is as per requirement ‡ The parameters studied are speed. set parameters. working methods. breakages.

5% SL. UR%. Mean Length. 50% SL. Effective length. SFC ‡ Micronnaire ‡ Maturity coefficient ‡ Bundle strength and elongation ‡ Trash Content ‡ Nep level ± AFIS ‡ Colour ± Rd and +b Values ‡ Fluorescence ± Fibro Glow value 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 39 .Cotton Properties studied ‡ Length ± 2.

Weight per cone (average) Minimum strength and elongation to have good working with low variation.e. Twist per unit length with least variation Low unevenness [U%] and imperfections Lower yarn faults Quality Management 40 21-Aug-11 .Specified needs of yarn ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The linear density [Count] to get the required fabric density and its consistency Uniform yarn content in each cone i.

1           All the cones should run out at the same time on creel The cone should be easy to unwind There should be no winding defects or yarn defects The label should be clear The cone should be traceable to winder and winding drum The dimension of cones should be uniform. The cones should not get deshaped in-spite of bad handling at customer¶s end There should be no stain or contamination There should be no variation in shade / whiteness with in or between cones.Unspecified needs of yarn . Yarn should not break while working on warping or Knitting Quality Management 41 21-Aug-11 .

The feel should be appropriate to the purpose of fabric. maximum whiteness should be achieved with lesser quantity of bleaching chemicals. Packing should be intact but easy to open The packing materials should be disposable. simple but attractive. Quality Management 42 21-Aug-11 .2          If bleached. Yarn should reach the working place just in time Yarn content in carton / bag should be slightly more than that specified on the package.Unspecified needs of yarn . Supplier should give free replacement incase of any problem. Packing should be clean. Packages should be easy to handle.

Normal Quality Parameters tested for yarn ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mean Count and Count CV% TPM and TPM CV% Lea strength and CSP Single thread strength and RKM Elongation at break U% and imperfection Hairiness index Classimat / Classifault Quality Management 43 21-Aug-11 .

Normal quality parameters checked on a cone ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cone dimensions Cone hardness The label Cone tip markings Tail end Absence of ribbons Absence of stitches Friction value for waxed yarns Quality Management 44 21-Aug-11 .

Water Perspiration. Rubbing ‡ Count and strength ‡ Friction value 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 45 .Normal quality parameters checked in dyed yarn ‡ Shade comparison with original ‡ Lot to lot shade variation ‡ Cone to cone shade variation ± With in lot shade variation ‡ Within cone shade variation ‡ Fastness properties ± Washing.

Normal quality parameters checked on a woven fabric ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Width and width variations Construction and repeats Weight per square metre Selvedge quality and alignment Permeability Fabric defects ± Four point method Tear strength and Strip Strength Abrasion resistance Dimensional Stability Drape Hand ± Kawabata technique Pilling Quality Management 46 21-Aug-11 .

Normal quality parameters checked in a knitted fabric ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Weight per square meter ± GSM Loop length and Loop Shape Factor Course and Wales per inch Shrinkage Knitting Defects Width (Diameter) consistency Colour fastness Quality Management 47 21-Aug-11 .

Normal Quality parameters checked in Canvas ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Ends per inch and Picks per inch Weight per square metre Fabric Thickness Strip Strength Tear strength Bursting strength Width variations Quality Management 48 21-Aug-11 .

Normal Quality parameters checked in Towels ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Water absorbency Weight per square Metre Design and construction Width consistency Label Colour fastness 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 49 .

Normal checking of packages ‡ Gross weight ‡ Dimensions ‡ Markings ± Regulatory needs ± Customer needs ± Traceability needs of the company ‡ Compactness ‡ Cleanliness 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 50 .

Decide the tests ‡ Understand the customer requirements ‡ Understand the impact of product parameters on the performance at customer¶s end ‡ Make a Failure Mode effect Analysis {FMEA} and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points {HACCP} analysis before deciding the tests. ‡ Decide the tolerances 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 51 .

‡ Process evaluation. ‡ Assessment of quality on line and assuring quality.Use of Statistical techniques in QUALITY ASSURANCE. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 52 . ‡ Assessment of present status of quality and monitoring steps for improvement. ‡ Root cause analysis for failures and complaints. ‡ Assessment of raw material quality to help procurement.

‡ Understanding the problems faced by the company. ‡ Understanding the sample test results and predicting the bulk properties. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 53 .Use of Statistical Techniques in RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. ‡ Surveying the literature and identifying the appropriate technology / system for solving the problem.

‡ Machine and process efficiency and productivity.Use of Statistical Techniques in PRODUCTION. ‡ Planning and forecasting the requirements of raw materials. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 54 . equipment and men. chemicals. ‡ Planning for improvement. ‡ Analysis of failures and preventive actions. colours.

Sampling inspection. ‡ Test of significance. ‡ Cause and effect diagram. Vendor rating and development. Control charts. ‡ Regression analysis. ‡ Precision of test methods. ‡ Process capability. ‡ Pareto diagram. 21-Aug-11 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Method of sampling. ‡ Design of experiments and analysis of variance.NORMAL STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES. ‡ Normal distribution. Quality Management 55 . ‡ Summarization of analysis and data.

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 56 .Summarization and analysis of data: This is applicable for all departments and activities. One has to continuously monitor his work and verify whether he is on the correct track. Each one has to have a target and work to achieve that.

Preventive and corrective actions. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 57 . Arriving at acceptance limits. Contract review. Control of measuring and test equipments.Where to use a Normal Distribution? Quality systems and quality planning. Design control.

Entry into markets Contract review.Use of PROCESS CABABILITY STUDIES. Designing process to meet Customer needs. Budgets and Cost estimations Expansions and improvement plans 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 58 . Process control.

Product identification and traceability. Control of non-conforming products. Internal quality audits. Corrective and preventive actions.WHERE PARETO ANALYSIS IS USED? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ To decide priorities. Customer satisfaction analysis. Purchasing. Quality Management 59 21-Aug-11 . Inspection and testing. Process control.

Inspection and testing. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 60 . Customer and employee satisfaction analysis. Corrective and preventive action. Internal quality audits. Purchasing. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Root cause analysis. Quality improvement efforts. Process control.USE OF CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM.

‡ Sampling inspection is done at Purchasing. and training.SAMPLING ‡ Sampling is used to monitor and is applicable to all elements of activities in an organisation. Inspection and testing. Product identification and traceability. Control of customer supplied products. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 61 .

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 62 . Quality assurance. Purchasing. Control of non ± conforming products. Cost control. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Process monitoring and control.USE OF CONTROL CHARTS.

Vendor Rating and Vendor Development ‡ Identification of reliable vendors who can give material of our requirement. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 63 . ‡ This is used for purchasing and contract review.

‡ We might take a decision. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 64 . modify a system or procedure which might affect other activity. ‡ We need to understand the relations and links to ensure that systems do not affect elsewhere and are implemented fully. ‡ Each activity has a link with some other activity.LINKING EXERCISES ‡ We are doing number of activities.

Poor light Power POWER FAILURE fail Bins full Imbalance of batch Back stuff short Men short Unskilled Associate Poor working Style change Low Production Machine repair MC REPAIR Spare short fire Production plan 21-Aug-11 Strike Shifting SHIFTING Poor Layout 65 Quality Management .

Customer Expectations Company Policies and Objectives Departmental Policies and Objectives Statutory. Legal and regulatory requirements Company Manual and General Procedures Organization structure Departmental Procedures Work Instructions Training 21-Aug-11 Job Descriptions Records Quality Management 66 .

[Linkage matrix] ‡ You are following some system which has a link to another system or document. ‡ You have identified certain objectives.Find the Links ‡ In Documents you have given reference of other documents. ‡ You have used some word or term in different documents. ‡ You have identified some records. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 67 . ‡ You have developed data collection check sheets.

PROBLEM SOLVING STEPS Suggested by Dr. Juran ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ IDENTIFIATION OF THE PROBLEM OBSERVATION ANALYSIS ACTION CHECK STANDARDISATION CONCLUSION Quality Management 68 21-Aug-11 .

‡ We need to identify the roots of the problem and eliminate it.Root cause analysis ‡ What we normally see as a problem/reason is not the real problem/reason. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 69 . ‡ We need to identify the real problem/reason which is hidden. ‡ We see only the symptoms.

QUALITY CONTROL TOOLS 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 70 .

The failure of a product to conform to specification. ‡ Failure to conform to requirements 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 71 . Something which hinders the process. Something which is not liked.What is a defect? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Something not as per our plan. ‡ Any type of undesired result. ‡ A failure to meet one of the acceptance criteria of customers.

Variations in material.Reasons for defects ‡ Defects may be due to one or more of the following causes:± Faulty raw materials ‡ ‡ Materials of different specification. Faulty settings Poor maintenance Inadequate training Poor work practices Poor house keeping Failures in communication Appropriate method not adopted. Quality Management 72 ± Faulty machinery ‡ ‡ ± Faulty operative performance ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 21-Aug-11 .

Reduce variations Effect of variation 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 73 .

Faulty Raw Material Example of a garment ‡ Material of different specification ± Difference in GSM of fabrics ± Difference in shade than specified ± Difference in construction ± Sewing thread of different material or colour ± Button of different type or size ± Zipper of different size ± Appliqué with different design 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 74 .

Variation in material Example of a garment ‡ Shade variation with in or between panels ‡ Uneven fabric density ± Construction variations ± Yarn count variations ± Tension variations ‡ Size difference between buttons ‡ Width variations in trims ‡ Bead to bead size and shape difference 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 75 .

Defects in raw materials Example of a garment ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Hole in the fabrics Loose ends or floats Contaminations Damages Starting marks Stains Slubs or thick places Barre Quality Management 76 21-Aug-11 .

Faulty Machinery  Faulty Settings  Wrong needle   Stitch per inch not proper Time inadequate in fusing Poor Maintenance     21-Aug-11 Worn-out parts Loose spring Improper presser pressure Blunt cutters Quality Management 77 .

Faulty Operative Performance ‡ Not adequately trained ‡ Not matured enough ‡ No periodic review by supervisor ‡ Physically not competent ‡ Mentally not competent 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 78 .

Not attentive while taking instructions Not taking corrective actions immediately after noticing the deviations.Poor work practices ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Not having appropriate work method Not referring to instructions Not keeping the work area clean. ‡ Rough handling of material ‡ Not properly covering the materials in stock. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 79 .

‡ Not arranging the required materials in an order easy to retrieve. to lye on floor. water. chindis etc. ‡ Not providing easy access for men and material to move. ‡ Not clearing wastes in time..Poor house keeping ‡ Not removing the unwanted materials from the place of use. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 80 . dust. ‡ Allowing oil.

Failure in Communication ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Work instructions not available at work spot Missing papers in Standard Operating Instructions Instructions not given in writing The product objectives not defined and explained. Not verifying the titles/labels and records before taking material Not asking question and verifying while receiving a communication. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 81 . Not cross checking whether the communication was effective. Not verifying the documents received for their correctness.

Appropriate work method ‡ Whether the work instructions are suitable to achieve targets? ‡ Whether the flow is explained clearly? ‡ Whether all control points and check points are documented adequately? ‡ How it helps in eliminating defects? ‡ Is implementation practical? ‡ Whether it is being followed by all? 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 82 .

STEPS TO FOLLOW ‡ Study the nature and the frequency of defects. ‡ Stratify the data and identify the area to be attacked. ‡ Collect data from the source contributing for maximum defects ‡ Identify the root cause ‡ Take action ‡ Train people 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 83 .

Stretch the targets Re ision o targets 140 120 100 De ects 1000 pcs 80 60 40 20 0 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 4 Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 4 Quarter 1 Quarter 2 Quarter 4 Quarter 3 Quarter 3 Quarter 3 Quarter De ects 1000 garments Target De ects 1000 garments Actual Lower is better eriod 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 84 .

REVISE PROCEDURES
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Devise systems to achieve stretch targets. Revise procedures. Modify the equipments. Provide training to the people to achieve stretched targets. ‡ Increase the frequency of review. ‡ Measure and Monitor
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 85

Supervision
The supervisor in operator-dominated stages of manufacture (e.g. reeling, spinning, winding, cutting, stitching, pressing, and inspection), must make systematic checks of the work. These should cover each operative in all operations that they carry out, and at varying times of the day and days of the week. The checks should be irregular.

21-Aug-11

Quality Management

86

Training for faults
‡ Faults must be explained in a fully comprehensive manner to trainees as well as regular employees from time to time by the supervisors and in-charges. ‡ Telling is not sufficient. They must be shown examples of faults and the way to correct or prevent them. ‡ Faults must be explained and demonstrated. This is where quality-control begins, and only in training it will have the long-term desired effect. ‡ Without proper training there can be no effective and fair redress of malfunctioning operatives.
21-Aug-11 Quality Management 87

faults do not normally come readily to mind. ‡ With the exception of glaring examples. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 88 . ‡ It is desirable.Fault Analysis ‡ An analysis of faults is a description of all faults in a product. correct or return. if possible. Therefore. expected to recognise and take action upon. in order to teach quality standards well. seeing examples of faults as they occur. it is important to make a habit of noting and. which the operative is. whether to report. to build up progressively a library of these faults.

‡ Border line examples are vastly more important than obvious ones. which a trainee would readily recognise anyway.Recognition of faults ‡ Where it is difficult to decide what will just and what will just not pass it is best to keep several well-labelled examples for anyone to check with. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 89 . ‡ Collect faults that will marginally pass and those that will marginally fail.

CAUSE. ACTION. APPEARANCE. Quality Management 90 21-Aug-11 . PREVENTION.FACERAP Card ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ FAULT. RESPONSIBILITY. EFFECT.

cost of the fault.faulty cutting. loss of incentive pay.Which defects are trainees' own fault and which are the responsibility of others. (Trainee cannot take remedial action unless he/she can recognize the appearance or feel of the fault).All the main causes.What action is to be carried out on discovery of the fault? ‡ PREVENTION . 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 91 .Clear description or an example attached.Result of the fault.weak edges likely to break away.FACERAP ‡ FAULT . incorrect machine setting.Any action which can or should be taken to avoid a recurrence of the fault should be recorded. mistake by operative or previous operatives. do not blame unfairly. machine breakdown. for example: . Do not encourage the passing of blame. etc.) ‡ APPEARANCE .Correct name/agreed name. ‡ CAUSE . ‡ EFFECT . similarly. scrapped or seconds. for example: . for example: .check tensions and stitches on every third garment. (Taught so that trainees can report to the Instructor/Supervisor/Mechanic. Ensure edges match before sewing. ‡ RESPONSIBILITY . ‡ ACTION .

FMEA Recommended specifically for Technical Textiles and Functional Textiles Failure mode Effects S (severity rating) Cause (s) O (occurrence rating) Current controls D (detection rating) CRIT (critical characteristic RPN (risk priority number) Recommended actions 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 92 .

The HACCP Seven Principles Compulsory for Textiles going for food packaging and medical use 1: Conduct a hazard analysis 2: Identify critical control points 3: Establish critical limits for each critical control point 4: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements 5: Establish corrective actions 6: Establish record keeping procedures 7: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 93 .

analysis. for example if a sample is analysed. This can involve multiple independent scientists performing the test with the use of the same method in different equipment. or even just by different units of equipment of identical construction 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 94 . or a variety of methods and equipment. or experiment) performed independently several times. In reality it is often a combination of the two.Round Robin tests Recommended for Self assessment of Testing Laboratories ‡ A round robin test is a test (measurement. or one (or more) of its properties is measured by different laboratories using different methods.

Calibration ‡ Calibration is the process of establishing the relationship between a measuring device and the units of measure. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 95 . This is done by comparing a device or the output of an instrument to a standard having known measurement characteristics.

yarns. ‡ They have been made for quality benchmarking on the corporate level and they regularly serve as a platform for yarn contracts and product specifications in the framework of commercial transactions 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 96 .Uster Statistics ‡ The USTER STATISTICS are quality reference figures which permit a classification of fibers. rovings and slivers with regard to the world production. ‡ They are established by testing actual yarn and fiber samples that are procured on a global scale.

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 97 . and agencies like Bureau of Indian Standards which certify mills for quality system standards.SITRA Norms ‡ SITRA conducts productivity surveys once in two years and its standard productivity norms for the spinning industry often serve as the referral point with regard to the labour and machine productivity for the spinning sector as a whole ‡ SITRA norms are frequently quoted as benchmarks by High Power Committees and other bodies set up by the Government of India to study the problems of the textile industry. financial institutions. ‡ The norms reflect the top 10% level of productivity and quality in the Indian Textile Industry.

BTRA Norms ‡ The Bombay Textile Research Association (BTRA) has brought out µNorms for Chemical Processing¶ that provide useful guidelines to the textile wet processing industry. pilot plant studies and mill samples analyzed in BTRA laboratories. This covers all aspects of chemical processing of textiles. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 98 . The norms are based on the data collected during shop-floor studies.

Conclusions ‡ Understand the customer need and decide on the parameters to be controlled and checked ‡ Decide the testing methods and the tolerances ‡ Ensure your testing equipments are accurate and reliable and the test methods are correct ‡ Submit the test findings for taking suitable actions for improvement ‡ Always be on toe to implement the systems inline with the changing scenario. 21-Aug-11 Quality Management 99 .

Five Golden Questions ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Are we having a procedure? How do we ensure it as the best? How did we implement it? Did we achieve the results as anticipated? How do we compare with our competitors? Quality Management 100 21-Aug-11 .

21-Aug-11 Quality Management 101 .