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Basic Electricity, Electric Locking Hardware and Access Control Systems. By Paul Chandler of IDN Inc.
What Is Electricity?
Movement of free electrons between atoms
What is Electricity?
The tendency to inhibit the movement of free electrons is called resistance Some elements are good conductors Some elements are poor conductors
What Is A Circuit? Power Source Load Conductors Switches .
Basic Circuit + Power Supply Load - Switch .
Ohm s Law E=IXR E is Electromotive Force or Volts I is Current or Amps R is Resistance or Ohms Ohm s Law is an Equation .
Ohm s Law E I R .
Power Formula P=IXE P is Power or Watts I is Current or Amps E is Electromotive Force or Volts Power Formula is also an Equation .
Power Formula P I E .
AC and DC DC is Direct Current Electrons move in only one direction AC is Alternating Current Electrons change direction 120 times a second .
DC .Direct Current + Power Supply DIRECT CURRENT Load - Switch .
AC .Alternating Current + Power Supply ALTERNATING CURRENT Load - Switch .
AC and DC AC is distributed by the power company AC is safer at high voltages DC is produced by a battery DC produces a stronger electromagnetic field .
Transformers Used to reduce voltage Class 2 transformers are power limited Internal fuse or circuit breaker prevent too much current flow Choose between plug-in and wire-in Specify Voltage and Power. expressed in VA volt-amps .
Power Supplies Convert AC to DC Regulate voltage output Filter noise and ripple Over-current protection Battery charge circuit .
Batteries Sealed. rechargeable battery Rated by volts and Amp-Hours .
Batteries Connect batteries in parallel for more amp-hours Charger PARALLEL BATTERIES 8 AMP-HOURS + - + 12VDC 4 AH Battery + 12VDC 4 AH Battery - .
Batteries Connect batteries in series for higher voltage Charger SERIES BATTERIES 24 VDC + - + 12VDC 4 AH Battery + 12VDC 4 AH Battery - .
Circuits Closed Circuit: Current can flow + Power Supply CLOSED CIRCUIT o Switch .
Circuits Open Circuit: Current flow is interrupted + Power Supply OPEN CIRCUIT Load Switch .
parallel to load.Circuits Short Circuit: Unintended current path. low ohms / high amps + Power Supply SHORT CIRCUIT Load Switch .
Series Circuit: Two or more loads in series
SERIES CIRCUIT Load 2
Parallel Circuit: Two or more loads in parallel
Power Supply PARALLEL CIRCUIT Lo Lo
Parallel and Series Loads
Two or more loads (or resistors) in series: Add the ohms.
2 OHMS SERIES CIRCUIT 6 OHMS Load 2
Parallel and Series Loads Two or more loads (or resistors) in parallel: Add 1/R1 + 1/R2 +1/R3 = 1/Rtotal + Power Supply PARALLEL CIRCUIT 1.3 OHMS Load 1 2 OHMS Switch Load 2 4 OHMS - .
Electrical Diagrams Schematic: Shows interconnection of various components + Power Supply PARALLEL CIRCUIT Load 1 Load 2 Switch .
Electrical Diagrams Riser: Shows wire requirements between components POWER SUPPLY 22AWG 6 COND. SHIELDED 18 AWG 2 COND. ACCESS CONTROL PANEL ELECTRIC STRIKE REMOTE RELEASE CARD READER .
Electrical Diagrams Elevation: Shows relative placement of components PIR MAG REX INSIDE CARD READER OUTSIDE 42´ 42´ .
often related to lightning Inductive Kickback: Spike caused by collapsing magnetic field .Voltage Variables Voltage Drop: Change in voltage caused by resistance of conductor or load Brownout: Voltage reduction caused by demand on the circuit Spikes: Momentary high voltage.
plenum or riser cable Shielded cable protects data from interference .Wire and Cable Solid or Stranded conductor Conductor thickness measured in AWG smaller number = thicker conductor Insulation material determines general purpose .
Multi-Meters Voltage tested on live circuit in parallel with the load + Power Supply VOLTAGE Load Switch .
Multi-Meters Amps tested on live circuit in series with the load + Power Supply CURRENT Load Switch .
Multi-Meters Ohms tested on dead circuit in series with the load Continuity checks for a closed circuit + Power Supply RESISTANCE Load Switch .
etc.Switches Used to open or close a circuit Maintained switches can be toggled from open to closed. Momentary switches return to a normal open or closed condition .
double throw SPST SPDT .Switches SPST = Single pole. single throw SPDT = Single pole.
single throw DPDT = Double pole.Switches DPST = Double pole. double throw DPST DPDT .
Switches Use a double pole exit switch for Double Break lock control Mag Lock DOUBLEBREAK REX Access Control Panel Power supply c c nc nc .
Switches Fail Safe locks require normally closed switches in series + Power Supply Fail Safe N C Switc N C Switc .
Switches Fail Secure locks require normally open switches in parallel + Power Supply Fail Secure Switch .
Latching relays stay activated until reset .Relays Relays are electrically operated switches Form C relays are SPDT switches Dry Contact relays have electrically isolated coil and contacts.
Relays Relays are used in all access controllers Relays can be radio-controlled Relays are included in passive infrared motion detectors for egress control Relays are built into touch-sensitive exit bars .
Timers 7-Day / 24-Hour timers used to schedule door locking/unlocking Delay timers used to keep door unlocked without holding in a switch All access controllers have delay timers Some access controllers have scheduling timers .
Electro-Mechanical Locks Solenoid-Operated bolts Cabinet locks Electrified locksets Electric latch retraction panic devices Electric trim for panic devices Strike actuated mortise locks .
Electro-Mechanical Locks Disadvantage: Mechanical wear Disadvantage: Binding under load Disadvantage: Power out to the door Advantage: Mechanical egress Advantage: Hardware compatibility Advantage: Use on fire-labeled doors .
Electro-Magnetic Locks Mag Locks use pure magnetism to secure a door or gate Options include door status and bond sensing circuits .
Electro-Magnetic Locks Available in 600 to 2000 pound models .
Electro-Magnetic Locks Inswing doors require special hardware .
Electro-Magnetic Locks Shear locks are used for sliding and double-acting doors Movable strike plate interlocks with magnet surface .
Electro-Magnetic Locks Disadvantage: Switch required to exit Disadvantage: Aesthetically unattractive Advantage: Easy to install Advantage: Low power requirement Advantage: Inherently Fail Safe Advantage: Excellent physical security .
Electric Strikes Companion to mechanical lock Available Fail Secure or Fail Safe Disadvantage: Lower physical security Disadvantage: Difficult to install Advantage: Mechanical egress Advantage: Aesthetically neutral Advantage: Retain mechanical key .
Electric Strikes UnLatch works differently than conventional strikes No cutting of frame face required Models for cylindrical and mortise locks .
determines faceplate size and shape Cylindrical Lock Mortise Lock Exit Device .Electric Strikes . wood.Mechanical Type of jamb: hollow metal. aluminum.
DC silent Continuous or Intermittent Duty Fail Secure or Fail Safe Current requirements .Electrical Voltage usually 12 or 24 volts AC or DC AC buzzes.Electric Strikes .
Putting It Together Select electric locking device Select Access Control system Determine means of egress Plan additional switches. relays and timers Select appropriate power source .
Benefits Of Electronic Locking Systems Keyless Entry Timed Locking/Unlocking Remote Unlocking Delayed Egress Easy Adds & Deletes Audit Trail Times Zones .
Hardwired or Wireless? Audit Trail? Time Restrictions? Remote Monitoring? Programming options.Design Your System Access Technology. .
Memory Chips. Keys. . Something About You: Biometrics. Something You Have: Cards.Access Technology Something You Know: Personal Identification Number.
Card Technologies Bar Code Hollerith Magnetic Stripe Wiegand Barium Ferrite Infrared .
Card Technologies Proximity Smart Card Dallas Semiconductor i-Button Data Chip Keys .
Generic Features Lock Release Memory Cardholders Memory Events Alarm Shunt Request-To-Exit .
Generic Features Anti-Passback Anti-Tailgating Communications Badging Integration .
Access Control Pyramid Easy Adds and Deletes Audit Trail Time Zones Integrated Systems .
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