Ch.

6: Communication, Integration & Homeostasis
Goals 

Describe cell to cell communication 
Electrical

or Chemical only 



Explain signal transduction Review homeostasis
N.B.: Running Problem, Diabetes Mellitus

Cell to Cell Communication
75 trillion cells (In Scientific Notation??)
4 basic methods of cell to cell communication (p 175): 1. Direct cytoplasmic transfer (Gap Junctions) 2. Contact dependant signals (Surface Molecules) 3. Short distance (local diffusion) 4. Long distance (through either chemical or electrical
signals)

Cell receiving signal = ? receptors

1. Gap Junctions for Direct Signal Transfer 
Connexins

from each cell form connexon (channel) open   cytoplasmic bridges form functional syncytium of electrical and chemical signals (ubiquitous,
but particularly in heart muscle and smooth muscle of GI tract) 

Gate 

Transfer

2. Contact-Dependent Signals ContactRequire cell-cell contact Surface molecules bind CAMs Cell Adhesion Molecules Bidirectional Communication Possible

eicosanoids Many act as both Autocrine . cytokines.3.= self Mode of transport .diffusion (slow) Histamine.= next to Auto. Short distance (local diffusion) Paracrines and Autocrines (Chemical signals secreted by cells) Para.

Long Distance Communication Body has two control systems:  Endocrine system communicates via hormones   Secreted where? Transported where and how? Only react with ____________  Nervous system uses electrical (along the axon) and chemical (at the synapse) signals Fig 6-2 (APs vs.4. neurotransmitters and neurohormones) .

Long Distance Communication .

autocrines or hormones  Comparison to hormones (sometimes blurry): Broader target range  Made upon demand (like steroids.Cytokines for Local and Long Distance Signaling as paracrines. no storage in specialized glands)   Act  Involved in cell development and immune response Terminology: A zoo of factors in a jungle of interactions surrounded by deep morasses of acronyms and bleak deserts of synonyms  .

Signal Pathways  Signal molecule (ligand)  Receptor  Intracellular  Target signal protein  Response .

Cytosolic or Nuclear  Lipophilic  enters ligand: cell and/or nucleus  Often activates gene  Slower response  Lipophobic  can't ligand enter cell  Membrane receptor  Fast response Fig 6-4 .Three Receptor Locations Membrane.

3. Ligand . 4.gated channel Receptor enzymes G-protein-coupled Integrin . 2.Membrane Receptor Classes 1.

Direct Mechanisms via Ligand-gated LigandChannel: Nicotinic ACh receptor Change in ion permeability changes membrane potential .

Signal Transduction  Activated receptor alters intracellular molecules to create response First messenger p transducer p amplifier p second messenger  Fig 6-8 .

e. 2.g. Hundreds of types known Bind GDP / GTP (name!) Activated G proteins Open ion channels Alter intracellular enzyme activity.: via adenyl cyclase (amplifier) p cAMP (2nd messenger) p protein kinase activation p phosphorylated protein .Most Signal Transduction uses GGProtein G-Protein is a membrane-associated protein that binds to GDP    1.

Protein mediated Signal Transduction Muscarinic ACh receptor .G .

Epinephrine Signal Transduction Compare to fig 6-11 .

.g.Other signal Molecules  Not all are proteins  Ca2+ is a common cytosolic messenger  NO (nitric oxide) is a neurotransmitter  Lipids:  Leukotrienes cause contraction of bronchiolar smooth muscle  Prostanoids have several communicative roles. e. inflammation .

yet . drug tolerance) Specificity.g.) .Multiple ligands for one receptor: Agonists (e.g. F-blockers etc. tamoxifen) . yet Receptors can be up.Multiple receptors for one ligand (see Fig 6-18) Competition Aberrations in signal transduction causes many diseases (table 6-3) Many drugs target signal transduction pathway (SERMs.g.Modulation of Signal Pathways Receptors exhibit Saturation.or down-regulated (e. antagonists (e. nicotine) vs.

.

In Summary: Receptors Explain Why Chemicals traveling in bloodstream act only on specific tissues One chemical can have different effects in different tissues .

Saturation D. B and C only E. B.Signal molecule receptors exhibit A. Competition C. A. and C . Specificity B.

Ligand receptor specificity is so precise that A. Each ligand will bind to only one type of receptor C. One can reliably predict the response of a target knowing the identity of the ligand D. and C E. Each receptor will bind only one ligand B. B. A. None of the above .

The intracellular effector in chemical signaling is often A. ATP D. protein kinase C. cholesterol . a hormone B. a membrane receptor molecule E.

4. 2. Nervous regulation of internal environment Tonic level of activity Fig 6-19 Antagonistic controls (insulin/glucagon) Chemical signals can have different effects on different tissues Failure of homeostasis? .Homeostasis and Homeodynamics Cannon's Postulates (concepts) of properties of homeostatic control systems 1. 3.

Tonic Control .

reflex control  Nervous  Endocrine  Cytokines .Control Pathways: Response and Feedback Loops Maintain homeostasis  Local paracrines and autocrines  Long-distance Long- .

Steps of Reflex Control Stimulus Sensory receptor Afferent path Integration center Efferent path Effector (target cell/tissue) Response .

Receptors (or Sensors)  Different meanings for receptor : sensory receptor vs. membrane receptor be peripheral or central monitor environment Fig 6-23  Can  Constantly  Threshold (= minimum stimulus necessary to initiate signal) .

.

Afferent Pathway From receptor to integrating center Afferent pathways of nervous system: ? Endocrine system has no afferent pathway (stimulus comes directly into endocrine cell) .

Integrating Center  Neural reflexes usually in the CNS. endocrine integration in the endocrine cell itself Receives info about change Interprets multiple inputs and compares them with set-point Determines appropriate response ( alternative name: control center)    .

Efferent Pathway From integrating center to effector NS p electrical and chemical signals ES p chemical signals (hormones) .

Effectors Cells or tissues carrying out response for NS: Target muscles and glands and some adipose tissues Target for ES: any cell with proper receptor .

a response mechanism .In a feedback loop. a stimulus B. effectors that bring about change receive information from A. the control center C. receptors D.

Systemic response at organismal level   vasodilation.. vasoconstriction Lowering of blood pressure etc. ...Responses 1... 2.   at 2 levels: Cellular response of target cell opening of a channel Modification of an enzyme etc.

Feedback Loops Modulate the Response Loop  Response loop is only half of reflex! p Response becomes part of stimulus and feeds back into system.  Purpose: keep system near a set point Fig 6-25 2 types of feedback loops: .feedback loops + feedback loops Fig 6-26 .

Homeostasis = Dynamic Equilibrium with Oscillation around Set Point Fig 6-15 .

feedback + feedback Homeostatic NOT homeostatic !! examples .Negative and Positive Feedback .

Negative Feedback Example .

fig 6-27: + Feedback Loop .

Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. C. A and C . B. D. one hormone binds to a receptor on the cell membrane and the other to an intracellular receptor. This information implies that A. E. the two hormones bind to different cell surface receptors. both hormones interact with receptors at the cell nucleus. each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger. The response of the target cells to each of these two hormones is opposite.

C. while negative feedback loops assume that secondary effects tend to _________ the basic trend. counteract.Positive feedback loops in models assume that secondary effects ________ the basic trend. . A. counteract. D. reinforce. enhance. promote. self-limit. reinforce B. retard.

specificity and duration of action The two systems allow for 4 different types of biological reflexes 1. 4. 2. 3.  Simple (pure) nervous Simple (pure) endocrine Neurohormone Neuroendocrine (different combos) Fig 6-30 .The Body s 2 Control Systems  Variation in speed.

NS & ES are linked in a continuum 6 basic patterns 1 2 3 .

. . .Continuum continued . 4 5 6 .

All of the above are used to maintain homeostasis . hormonal action C. behavioral changes B.Which of the following is not a method used in maintaining homeostasis in the body? A. positive feedback loops E. negative feedback loops D.

and raises the blood pH. a rise in blood carbon dioxide concentration D.The act of breathing raises the blood oxygen level. a rise in blood oxygen B. According to the principles of negative feedback. lowers the blood CO2 concentration. all of the above . a rise in blood pH C. sensors that regulate breathing should respond to A.

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