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Some bacteria excrete a viscous substance which coats the cell called a capsule A capsule is a slime layer that surrounds the bacterial cell EX:
others are made of protein Capsule layers are water soluble . while others are very thin Most capsules are made of polysaccharides.Capsule Structure Some capsule layers are thick.
Functions of a Capsule Provides an osmotic barrier for the cell Carbohydrate Reserve Adhering to surfaces (sticks to surfaces) Protection from phagocytosis (the slime layer is difficult to ingest or absorb by phagocytes) .
capsules do not stain) .Capsule Staining Theory Capsule staining is a negative stain Most staining techniques are based on formation of an ionic bond between the stain and the recipient (cell structure) Because the capsules are non-ionic. dyes will not bind to the capsule ± (so.
because the structure we want to visualize is not stained . we visualize the capsule indirectly by staining the cell and the area outside the capsule This is called a negative stain.Capsule Staining Theory (continued) Therefore.
causing a false impression of a capsule . shrinking caused by heat-fixing would cause an artificial white halo around those cells. because the cells are dried in the Congo red stain.Capsule Stain Procedure 1. Make a smear in a drop of Congo red dye 2. Air dry ± DO NOT HEAT FIX!! (we cannot heat fix capsule smears because the heat will denature the protein or melt the polysaccharide) ± Also.
Drain and rinse with DI water 5. Use oil immersion objective to view Each person will make a smear and capsule stain of: Klebsiella pneumoniae (G -) .Capsule Stain Procedure (continued) 3. they are likely to wash off the slide) 6. Flood the stain with Maneval¶s stain. let stand for 1 minute 4. DO NOT BLOT DRY! (because if smears are not heat fixed.
Capsule Stain Example .