Models in Learning 

Kolb learning styles Proctor's (1984) Cruickshank's Model Huitt's Model Deborah A. McIlrath and William G. Huitt

Proctor's (1984) 


teacher and student behaviors as predictors of student achievement emphasize teacher expectations This model begins with the factor of the School's Social Climate. Climate. student characteristics as race, gender, economic level, and past academic performance. The student characteristics also influence teacher attitudes and teacher efficacy. efficacy. student self-image and behavior are affected by teacher efficacy. selfThe next category of variables is the interaction among the individuals involved in the schooling process. This includes the input of administrators as well as that of teachers and students. If expectations of learning are high (i.e., the school has good, qualified teachers and students who can learn) and there is high quality instructional input, corrective feedback, and good communication among students, parents, and educators, then the intermediate outcomes of student learning and student selfselfexpectation goes up. On the other hand, adverse or negative attitudes on the part of instructors and administrators will cause student self-esteem, and consequently, selfstudent achievement to spiral downwards. The interactions model include the school's overall policy on allowing time for children to learn or promoting other forms of student-based help when needed. This could studentinclude quality of instruction or teacher classroom behaviors.These behaviors behaviors.These have an effect on student classroom performance (especially academic learning time and curriculum coverage) and self-expectations. selfthe student's achievement level in this model is an outcome of all previous factors and variables. It is hypothesized that there is a cyclical relationship among the variables. The main concept of this model is that achievement in a specific classroom during a particular school year is not an end in itself. It is refiltered into the social climate of the school image and the entire process begins all over again. Proctor's model implies that change can be made at any point along the way. These changes will affect school achievement, which will continue to affect the social climate of the school.

Cruickshank's Model    

Product is learning on the part of the student (change in behavior or behavior potential) while process involves interaction between student and teacher. Presage is the teacher's intelligence, level of experience, success and other teacher characteristics. Presage is supposed to affect process and then, of course, process will affect the product. Biddle (as cited in Biddle & Ellena, 1964) showed a relationship between specific learning activities and teacher effects. In his model, Biddle offers seven categories of variables related to schooling and student achievement: school and community contents, formative experiences, classroom situations, teacher properties, teacher behaviors, intermediate effects, and long-term consequences. This provides the longfoundation for Cruickshank's (1985) model. Biddle also contributed a model of the transactional process of the classroom by analyzing the structure and function of the communication process. This is reflected in Cruickshank's model through the use of arrows depicting the interaction between teacher and pupil classroom behavior.

Huitt's Model  

This model shows Input and Output as the beginning and end of the teaching/learning process educators must first identify or propose an end result 

Huitt's (1995) model adds variables related to context and student and teacher characteristics, characteristics, Huitt advocates that important context variables must be considered because our society is rapidly changing from an agricultural/industrial base to an information base. From this base. perspective, children are members of a multi-faceted society, which multiinfluences and modifies the way they process learning as well as defines the important knowledge and skills that must be acquired to be successful in that society. Huitt's model shows a relationship among the categories of Context (family, home, school, and community environments), Input (what students and teachers bring to the classroom process), Classroom Processes (what is going on in the classroom),and Output (measures of learning done outside of the classroom). These categories appear superimposed in the model since it is proposed they are essentially intertwined in the learning process.

Deborah A. McIlrath and William G. Huitt 

The size and region of the community combine with family characteristics and processes to impact teacher and student characteristics School and state policies combine with teacher and student characteristics to impact teacher behavior, while student characteristics and teacher behavior influence student behavior. Student classroom behavior then influences teacher classroom behavior in an interactive pattern that eventually results in student achievement as measured by instruments influenced by state policies. Student achievement at the end of one school year then becomes a student characteristic at the beginning of the next.   

Reference (kolb s model) Proctor, C. (1984). Teacher expectations: A model for school improvement. The Elementary School Journal, Journal, 469469-481. Cruickshank, D. (1985). Profile of an effective teacher. Educational Horizons, 90-92. Horizons, 90Huitt, W. (1995). A systems model of the teaching/learning process. Valdosta, GA: College process. of Education, Valdosta State University. ml

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