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Characteristics IEEE 802.11
PHY MAC Roaming .11a, b, g, h, i …
HIPERLAN Bluetooth / IEEE 802.15.x IEEE 802.16/.20/.21/.22 RFID Comparison
Mobile Communication Technology according to IEEE
Local wireless networks WLAN 802.11
802.11h 802.11i/e/…/w 802.11g
Personal wireless nw WPAN 802.15 802.15.1
802.15.4a/b 802.15.5 802.15.3 802.15.3a/b
Wireless distribution networks WMAN 802.16 (Broadband Wireless Access)
802.20 (Mobile Broadband Wireless Access)
Characteristics of wireless LANs
very flexible within the reception area Ad-hoc networks without previous planning possible (almost) no wiring difficulties (e.g. historic buildings, firewalls) more robust against disasters like, e.g., earthquakes, fire - or users pulling a plug...
typically very low bandwidth compared to wired networks (1-10 Mbit/s) due to shared medium many proprietary solutions, especially for higher bit-rates, standards take their time (e.g. IEEE 802.11) products have to follow many national restrictions if working wireless, it takes a vary long time to establish global solutions like, e.g., IMT-2000
but also location awareness if necessary .Design goals for wireless LANs global. privacy (no one should be able to collect user profiles). safety (low radiation) transparency concerning applications and higher layer protocols. seamless operation low power for battery use no special permissions or licenses needed to use the LAN robust transmission technology simplified spontaneous cooperation at meetings easy to use for everyone. simple management protection of investment in wired networks security (no one should be able to read my data).
multiple reflections (walls. furniture etc.Comparison: infrared vs.) Disadvantages interference by sunlight. diffuse light. radio transmission Infrared Radio uses IR diodes. heat sources etc. available in many mobile devices no licenses needed simple shielding possible Advantages experience from wireless WAN and mobile phones can be used coverage of larger areas possible (radio can penetrate walls. interference with other electrical devices Example Example IrDA (Infrared Data Association) interface available everywhere Many different products . cheap.) typically using the license free ISM band at 2. furniture etc.4 GHz Advantages simple. many things shield or absorb IR light low bandwidth Disadvantages very limited license free frequency bands shielding more difficult.
Comparison: infrastructure vs. ad-hoc networks infrastructure network AP AP wired network AP: Access Point AP ad-hoc network .
Architecture of an infrastructure network 802.11 LAN Station (STA) 802.x LAN terminal with access mechanisms to the wireless medium and radio contact to the access point group of stations using the same radio frequency station integrated into the wireless LAN and the distribution system bridge to other (wired) networks interconnection network to form one logical network (EES: Extended Service Set) based on several BSS STA1 BSS1 Access Point Portal Basic Service Set (BSS) Access Point Distribution System ESS BSS2 Access Point Portal Distribution System STA2 802.11 LAN STA3 .802.11 .
Architecture of an ad-hoc network Direct communication within a limited range Station (STA): terminal with access mechanisms to the wireless medium Independent Basic Service Set (IBSS): group of stations using the same radio frequency 802.11 LAN .11 LAN STA1 IBSS1 STA3 STA2 IBSS2 STA5 STA4 802.802.11 .
3 MAC 802.3 MAC 802.11 fixed terminal mobile terminal infrastructure network access point application TCP IP LLC 802.3 PHY application TCP IP LLC 802.11 PHY LLC 802.11 MAC 802.IEEE standard 802.11 PHY 802.11 MAC 802.3 PHY .
MIB. roaming. MIB coordination of all management functions MAC Management PMD Physical Medium Dependent PHY Management Station Management DLC LLC MAC PLCP PHY Management MAC Management PHY a Mnot a S i t PMD . power management clear channel assessment signal (carrier sense) modulation.802. fragmentation. coding channel selection.11 . encryption synchronization.Layers and functions MAC PLCP Physical Layer Convergence Protocol access mechanisms.
+1. radiated power 1 W (USA). -1. 1 IR data rates 1 or 2 Mbit/s FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) spreading. 1 Mbit/s min. signal strength.5 frequency hops/s (USA). rest of transmission 1 or 2 Mbit/s chipping sequence: +1.11 . 1mW Infrared 850-950 nm. -1. +1. +1. despreading. two-level GFSK modulation DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum) DBPSK modulation for 1 Mbit/s (Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying). typ. typ. 2. -1. 2. min. DQPSK for 2 Mbit/s (Differential Quadrature PSK) preamble and header of a frame is always transmitted with 1 Mbit/s. -1. -1 (Barker code) max. synchronization . 10 m range carrier detection.4 GHz).Physical layer (classical) 3 versions: 2 radio (typ. diffuse light. energy detection.802. +1. +1. 100 mW (EU).
32 bit CRC of payload.. PLW < 4096 data of payload (1 or 2 Mbit/s) CRC with x16+x12+x5+1 80 16 SFD 12 PLW 4 PSF 16 HEC variable payload bits SFD (Start Frame Delimiter) PLW (PLCP_PDU Length Word) PSF (PLCP Signaling Field) HEC (Header Error Check) synchronization PLCP preamble PLCP header . pattern 0000110010111101 start pattern length of payload incl..FHSS PHY packet format Synchronization synch with 010101.
. service and length. frequency offset compensation 1111001110100000 data rate of the payload (0A: 1 Mbit/s DBPSK. 00: 802. 14: 2 Mbit/s DQPSK) SFD (Start Frame Delimiter) Signal Service Length future use.DSSS PHY packet format Synchronization synch.11 compliant length of the payload HEC (Header Error Check) protection of signal. x16+x12+x5+1 128 16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits synchronization signal service length HEC PLCP header PLCP preamble . energy detection. gain setting.
PCF (optional) access point polls terminals according to a list .11 .MAC layer I .DFWMAC Traffic services Asynchronous Data Service (mandatory) exchange of data packets based on “best-effort” support of broadcast and multicast Time-Bounded Service (optional) implemented using PCF (Point Coordination Function) Access methods DFWMAC-DCF CSMA/CA (mandatory) collision avoidance via randomized „back-off“ mechanism minimum distance between consecutive packets ACK packet for acknowledgements (not for broadcasts) DFWMAC-DCF w/ RTS/CTS (optional) Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC avoids hidden terminal problem DFWMAC.802.
hard priorities SIFS (Short Inter Frame Spacing) highest priority. for time-bounded service using PCF lowest priority. CTS. for asynchronous data service PIFS (PCF IFS) DIFS (DCF. polling response medium priority.11 .MAC layer II Priorities defined through different inter frame spaces no guaranteed. Distributed Coordination Function IFS) DIFS medium busy DIFS PIFS SIFS contention next frame t direct access if medium is free ≥ DIFS . for ACK.802.
multiple of slot-time) if another station occupies the medium during the back-off time of the station. the station can start sending (IFS depends on service type) if the medium is busy.11 .CSMA/CA access method I DIFS medium busy direct access if medium is free ≥ DIFS DIFS contention window (randomized back-off mechanism) next frame t slot time station ready to send starts sensing the medium (Carrier Sense based on CCA. the back-off timer stops (fairness) . then the station must additionally wait a random back-off time (collision avoidance. Clear Channel Assessment) if the medium is free for the duration of an Inter-Frame Space (IFS). the station has to wait for a free IFS.802.
competing stations .802. ack etc.11 .simple version DIFS station1 station2 station3 station4 station5 busy boe bor busy boe busy boe busy boe bor boe bor t medium not idle (frame.) packet arrival at MAC boe elapsed backoff time bor residual backoff time DIFS boe boe bor busy DIFS boe bor DIFS boe busy .
CSMA/CA access method II Sending unicast packets station has to wait for DIFS before sending data receivers acknowledge at once (after waiting for SIFS) if the packet was received correctly (CRC) automatic retransmission of data packets in case of transmission errors DIFS sender receiver other stations data SIFS ACK DIFS waiting time data t contention .802.11 .
11 . acknowledgement via ACK other stations store medium reservations distributed via RTS and CTS DIFS sender receiver RTS SIFS CTS SIFS data SIFS ACK other stations NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) defer access DIFS data t contention .802.DFWMAC Sending unicast packets station can send RTS with reservation parameter after waiting for DIFS (reservation determines amount of time the data packet needs the medium) acknowledgement via CTS after SIFS by receiver (if ready to receive) sender can now send data at once.
Fragmentation DIFS sender receiver RTS SIFS CTS SIFS frag1 SIFS ACK1 SIFS frag2 SIFS ACK2 NAV (RTS) NAV (CTS) other stations NAV (frag1) NAV (ACK1) DIFS contention data t .
DFWMAC-PCF I t0 t1 medium busy PIFS D1 point SIFS coordinator wireless stations stations‘ NAV SuperFrame SIFS SIFS SIFS U1 NAV U2 D2 .
DFWMAC-PCF II t2 D3 PIFS D4 SIFS U4 NAV contention free period SIFS CFend t3 t4 point coordinator wireless stations stations‘ NAV contention period t .
sender (logical) sending time. frame control. data 0-2312 Data 1 4 CRC Sequence numbers Addresses Miscellaneous bytes 2 2 6 6 6 2 6 Frame Duration/ Address Address Address Sequence Address Control ID 1 2 3 Control 4 2 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 bits Protocol To From More Power More Type Subtype Retry WEP Order version DS DS Frag Mgmt Data . transmitter (physical).Frame format Types control frames. management frames.802. BSS identifier.11 . checksum. data frames important against duplicated frames due to lost ACKs receiver.
MAC address format scenario ad-hoc network infrastructure network. within DS to DS from DS 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 address 1 address 2 address 3 address 4 DA DA BSSID RA SA BSSID SA TA BSSID SA DA DA SA DS: Distribution System AP: Access Point DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address BSSID: Basic Service Set Identifier RA: Receiver Address TA: Transmitter Address . from AP infrastructure network. to AP infrastructure network.
RTS. CTS Acknowledgement ACK bytes 2 2 6 Frame Receiver Duration Control Address 4 CRC Request To Send bytes RTS 2 2 6 6 Frame Receiver Transmitter Duration Control Address Address 4 CRC Clear To Send bytes CTS 2 2 6 Frame Receiver Duration Control Address 4 CRC .Special Frames: ACK.
802.Management Information Base managing.e. change networks by changing access points scanning. read. active search for a network MIB . i. traffic measurements Association/Reassociation integration into a LAN roaming. write . Power management sleep-mode without missing a message periodic sleep.11 .MAC management Synchronization try to find a LAN. frame buffering. i. try to stay within a LAN timer etc.e.
no central AP collision of ATIMs possible (scalability?) .Power management Idea: switch the transceiver off if not needed States of a station: sleep and awake Timing Synchronization Function (TSF) stations wake up at the same time Traffic Indication Map (TIM) Infrastructure list of unicast receivers transmitted by AP list of broadcast/multicast receivers transmitted by AP Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) Ad-hoc Ad-hoc Traffic Indication Map (ATIM) announcement of receivers by stations buffering frames more complicated .
Power saving with wake-up patterns (infrastructure) TIM interval DTIM interval access point medium station D B busy busy T busy T d busy p d D B t T B TIM D DTIM awake p PS poll d data transmission to/from the station broadcast/multicast .
Power saving with wake-up patterns (ad-hoc) ATIM window beacon interval station1 station2 B1 B2 B2 A D B1 a d t B beacon frame awake random delay A transmit ATIM D transmit data a acknowledge ATIM d acknowledge data .
station can now participate failure: continue scanning AP accepts Reassociation Request signal the new station to the distribution system the distribution system updates its data base (i. the distribution system now informs the old AP so it can release resources . i.11 .e.802..e.Roaming No or bad connection? Then perform: Scanning scan the environment.. listen into the medium for beacon signals or send probes into the medium and wait for an answer station sends a request to one or several AP(s) Reassociation Request Reassociation Response success: AP has answered. location information) typically.
11 Mbit/s. depending on SNR User data rate max. Encryption) Quality of Service Transmission range 300m outdoor. 30m indoor Max. WEP insecure. 2. many vendors Security Availability . data rate ~10m indoor Manageability Frequency Special Advantages/Disadvantages Advantage: many installed systems.WLAN: IEEE 802. lot of experience. Best effort. available worldwide.11b Data rate 1. no guarantees (unless polling is used. sym. slow relative speed only Free 2.5. free ISM-band. no service guarantees.4 GHz ISM-band Limited. many vendors. limited support in products) Limited (no automated key distribution. integrated in laptops. 5. approx. simple system Disadvantage: heavy interference on ISM-band. SSID Many products. 6 Mbit/s Connection set-up time Connectionless/always on Typ.
5 or 11 Mbit/s .11b – PHY frame formats Long PLCP PPDU format 128 synchronization 16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits signal service length HEC PLCP header 1. 5. 16 SFD 8 8 16 16 variable payload bits signal service length HEC PLCP header (2 Mbit/s. 2.IEEE 802.5 or 11 Mbit/s PLCP preamble 192 µs at 1 Mbit/s DBPSK Short PLCP PPDU format (optional) 56 short synch. DBPSK) 2. DQPSK) 96 µs PLCP preamble (1 Mbit/s. 5.
12.35. 24 up to 30m. SSID Some products. 36 up to 25 m.3 (6). 48.15-5. no QoS Quality of Service Transmission range Manageability E. 24 (36). 5.25-5. no guarantees (same as all 802. sym.725-5. 54 Mbit/s. 9.825 GHz ISM-band Security Limited.x standards. 54 Mbit/s up to 5 m. available.25. 12 up to 60 m Special Advantages/Disadvantages Frequency Free 5. depending on SNR User throughput (1500 byte packets): 5. 48 up to 12 m. free ISM-band. 32 (54) 6. 10m indoor Connectionless/always on Typ.11a Data rate Connection set-up time 6. WEP insecure. 12. 36. uses less crowded 5 GHz band Disadvantage: stronger shading due to higher frequency. 24. simple system.g. some vendors Availability . 18 up to 40 m.11 products) Limited (no automated key distribution..WLAN: IEEE 802. 18 (24). Encryption) Advantage: fits into 802. 24 Mbit/s mandatory 100m outdoor. 18. best effort. 5.
48. 54 Mbit/s symbols . 24. 36.IEEE 802.11a – PHY frame format 4 1 12 1 6 16 variable payload 6 tail variable pad bits rate reserved length parity tail service PLCP header PLCP preamble 12 signal 1 6 Mbit/s data variable 6. 18. 9. 12.
11g: Data Rates > 20 Mbit/s at 2.1D Support of additional regulations related to channel selection.11b.11c: Bridge Support Definition of MAC procedures to support bridges as extension to 802.4 GHz. period… Additional energy saving mechanisms and more efficient retransmission 802.11e: MAC Enhancements – QoS Enhance the current 802.11a in Europe by mechanisms like channel measurement for dynamic channel selection (DFS.11a .11f: Inter-Access Point Protocol Establish an Inter-Access Point Protocol for data exchange via the distribution system Currently unclear to which extend manufacturers will follow this suggestion 802.WLAN: IEEE 802. hopping sequences 802.11 – future developments (03/2005) 802. Transmit Power Control) 802. burst.11 MAC to expand support for applications with Quality of Service requirements. and in the capabilities and efficiency of the protocol Definition of a data flow (“connection”) with parameters like rate.11d: Regulatory Domain Update 802. OFDM Successful successor of 802. performance loss during mixed operation with 11b Extension for operation of 802. 54 Mbit/s. Dynamic Frequency Selection) and power control (TPC.11h: Spectrum Managed 802.
11k: Methods for channel measurements 802.11 standards 802.11m: Updates of the 802.11n: Higher data rates above 100Mbit/s Changes of PHY and MAC with the goal of 100Mbit/s at MAC SAP MIMO antennas (Multiple Input Multiple Output).11i: Enhanced Security Mechanisms Enhance the current 802.11– future developments (03/2005) 802.11a for operation at 5GHz in Japan using only half the channel width at larger range Devices and access points should be able to estimate channel quality in order to be able to choose a better access point of channel 802.11 MAC to provide improvements in security.11p: Inter car communications Communication between cars/road side and cars/cars Planned for relative speeds of min.925GHz band in North America . up to 600Mbit/s are currently feasible However. TKIP enhances the insecure WEP. still a large overhead due to protocol headers and inefficient mechanisms 802.WLAN: IEEE 802.850-5.11j: Extensions for operations in Japan Changes of 802. but remains compatible to older WEP systems AES provides a secure encryption method and is based on new hardware 802. 200km/h and ranges over 1000m Usage of 5.
11– future developments (03/2005) 802.11s: Mesh Networking 802.11 networks 802. this standard should extend 802.g. VoIP in WLANs Handover should be feasible within 50ms in order to support multimedia applications efficiently Design of a self-configuring Wireless Distribution System (WDS) based on 802.. 802wirelessworld.11v: Network management Extensions of current management functions. but also 802. channel measurements Definition of a unified interface Classical standards like 802.11.g.com. many ideas get stuck at working group level Info: www.11t: Performance evaluation of 802.ieee802. standards. not the control frames.11 Support of point-to-point and broadcast communication across several hops Standardization of performance measurement schemes 802. e.11w: Securing of network control Note: Not all “standards” will end in products.org/11/. Thus.11i in a way that.WLAN: IEEE 802.org/getieee802/ .11u: Interworking with additional external networks 802.11i protect only data frames. fast handover of a station from one AP to another within an ESS Current mechanisms (even newer standards like 802.11i) plus incompatible devices from different vendors are massive problems for the use of. no control frames can be forged.ieee. e. 802..11r: Faster Handover between BSS Secure.
bandwidth..x layers medium access control layer channel access control layer physical layer HIPERLAN layers network layer data link layer physical layer OSI layers . GSM.. cf. . QoS support commercial constraints HIPERLAN 1 standardized since 1996 – no products! higher layers logical link control layer medium access control layer physical layer IEEE 802. DECT. Enhancement of local Networks and interworking with fixed networks integration of time-sensitive services from the early beginning HIPERLAN family one standard cannot satisfy all requirements range.ETSI – HIPERLAN (historical) ETSI standard European standard.
the other standards have been renamed/modfied ! .3GHz decentralized adcellular. point-tohoc/infrastructure centralized multipoint omni-directional directional 50 m 50-100 m 5000 m 150 m statistical ATM traffic classes (VBR. ABR.3GHz point-to-point Application Frequency Topology Antenna Range QoS Mobility Interface Data rate Power conservation 5.5 Mbit/s yes >20 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s not necessary HIPERLAN 1 never reached product status.2-17.1-5. CBR.Overview: original HIPERLAN protocol family HIPERLAN 1 wireless LAN HIPERLAN 2 access to ATM fixed networks HIPERLAN 3 wireless local loop HIPERLAN 4 point-to-point wireless ATM connections 17. UBR) <10m/s stationary conventional LAN ATM networks 23.
checksums . packet size Services asynchronous and time-bounded services with hierarchical priorities compatible with ISO MAC Topology infrastructure or ad-hoc networks transmission range can be larger then coverage of a single node („forwarding“ integrated in mobile terminals) Further mechanisms power saving. connectionless 23.HIPERLAN 1 . encryption. 2383 byte max. 1 W power. point-to-multipoint.5 Mbit/s.Characteristics Data transmission point-to-point.
demodulation.2705856 GHz . bit and frame synchronization forward error correction mechanisms measurements of signal strength channel sensing Channels 3 mandatory and 2 optional channels (with their carrier frequencies) mandatory channel 0: 5.1999974 GHz channel 2: 5.2235268 GHz optional channel 3: 5.Physical layer Scope modulation.HIPERLAN 1 .2470562 GHz channel 4: 5.1764680 GHz channel 1: 5.
. FSK for LBR header HBR LBR synchronization data0 data1 . datam -1 .5 Mbit/s) is power consuming . maximum 47 frames with 496 bit each for higher velocities of the mobile terminal (> 1.Physical layer frames Maintaining a high data-rate (23.4 m/s) the maximum number of frames has to be reduced Frame structure Modulation GMSK for high bit-rate..HIPERLAN 1 .problematic for mobile terminals packet header with low bit-rate comprising receiver information only receiver(s) address by a packet continue receiving LBR (Low Bit-Rate) header with 1.4 Mbit/s 450 bit synchronization minimum 1.
waiting time in a sender and number of hops to the receiver.CAC sublayer Channel Access Control (CAC) assure that terminal does not access forbidden channels priority scheme.HIPERLAN 1 . rises automatically . waiting time is permanently subtracted from lifetime based on packet lifetime. therefore. the packet is assigned to one out of five priorities the priority of waiting packets. access with EY-NPMA 5 priority levels for QoS support QoS is mapped onto a priority level with the help of the packet lifetime (set by an application) Priorities if packet lifetime = 0 it makes no sense to forward the packet to the receiver any longer standard start value 500ms. maximum 16000ms if a terminal cannot send the packet due to its current priority.
HIPERLAN 1 .EY-NPMA I EY-NPMA (Elimination Yield Non-preemptive Priority Multiple Access) 3 phases: priority resolution. transmission finding the highest priority elimination survival verification every priority corresponds to a time-slot to send in the first phase. stations with the next lower priority might send after this first phase the highest current priority has been determined IPS IPA IES IESV IYS priority detection priority assertion elimination burst yield listening transmission not az no hc nys i i r prioritization contention transmission user data t . the higher the priority the earlier the time-slot to send higher priorities can not be preempted if an earlier time-slot for a higher priority remains empty. contention resolution.
HIPERLAN 1 . high bit. if the terminal senses its slot idle it is free to transmit at the end of the contention phase the important part is now to set the parameters for burst duration and channel sensing (slot-based. for a duration of 1700 bit) a terminal can send at once without using EY-NPMA synchronization using the last data transmission .rate) Elimination Survival Verification: contenders now sense the channel.EY-NPMA II Several terminals can now have the same priority and wish to send contention phase Elimination Burst: all remaining terminals send a burst to eliminate contenders (11111010100010011100000110010110. a small chance of collision remains) if the channel was idle for a longer time (min. if the channel is free they can continue. exponentially distributed) data transmission the winner can now send its data (however. otherwise they have been eliminated Yield Listening: contenders again listen in slots with a nonzero probability.
(52n-4) CS (52n-3) .52n Data HCPDU .12 SA 13 .(52n-m-4) PAD (52n-m-3) .HIPERLAN 1 .18 UD 19 .DT-HCPDU/AK-HCPDU LBR LBR 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 HI HDA HDA HDACS BLIR = n BLIRCS 1 bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 HI AID AID AIDCS bit Acknowledgement HCPDU HI: HBR-part Indicator HDA: Hashed Destination HCSAP Address HDACS: HDA CheckSum BLIR: Block Length Indicator BLIRCS: BLIR CheckSum TI: Type Indicator BLI: Block Length Indicator HID: HIPERLAN IDentifier DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address UD: User Data (1-2422 byte) PAD: PADding CS: CheckSum AID: Acknowledgement IDentifier AIDS: AID CheckSum HBR bit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 byte TI BLI = n 1 PLI = m 2 HID 3-6 DA 7 .
g. but without key management Power conservation mechanisms mobile terminals can agree upon awake patterns (e.HIPERLAN 1 . some nodes in the networks must be able to buffer data for sleeping terminals and to forward them at the right time (so called stores) . periodic wake-ups to receive data) additionally.MAC layer Compatible to ISO MAC Supports time-bounded services via a priority scheme Packet forwarding support of directed (point-to-point) forwarding and broadcast forwarding (if no path information is available) support of QoS while forwarding Encryption mechanisms mechanisms integrated..
19 ADA 20 .37 UD 38 .HIPERLAN 1 . 1–2383 byte SC: Sanity Check (for the unencrypted PDU) .DT-HMPDU 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 byte LI = n 1-2 TI = 1 3 RL 4-5 PSN 6-7 DA 8 .(n-2) SC (n-1) .31 UP ML 32 ML 33 KID IV 34 IV 35 .n bit Data HMPDU n= 40–2422 LI: Length Indicator TI: Type Indicator RL: Residual Lifetime PSN: Sequence Number DA: Destination Address SA: Source Address ADA: Alias Destination Address ASA: Alias Source Address UP: User Priority ML: MSDU Lifetime KID: Key Identifier IV: Initialization Vector UD: User Data.13 SA 14 .25 ASA 26 .
status] [destination.address of nodes outside the net Source Multipoint Relay Information Base (SMRIB) . sequence] Neighbor Information Base (NIB) . sequence] [source. alias MSAP address] [local multipoint forwarder.how to reach a destination [destination.Information bases Route Information Base (RIB) .remove duplicates . next hop. forwarder.current HIPERLAN topology Duplicate Detection Information Base (DDIB) . next hop] [original MSAP address.status of destination (via next hop) Alias Information Base (AIB) . multipoint relay set] [destination. distance] [neighbor.status of direct neighbors Hello Information Base (HIB) .current MP status Topology Information Base (TIB) . status.
Ad-hoc networks using HIPERLAN 1 1 Forwarder 2 RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB Information Bases (IB): RIB: Route NIB: Neighbor HIB: Hello AIB: Alias SMRIB: Source Multipoint Relay TIB: Topology DDIB: Duplicate Detection RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB 4 5 Forwarder 3 RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB RIB NIB HIB AIB DDIB neighborhood (i. within radio range) RIB NIB HIB AIB SMRIB TIB DDIB 6 Forwarder ..e.
. 1 Mbit/s gross data rate One of the first modules (Ericsson). handheld devices.45 GHz ISM Voice and data transmission. low power consumption. PDAs. license-free 2. approx. goal: 5€/device (2005: 40€/USB bluetooth) Short range (10 m).Bluetooth Idea Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity Interconnecting computer and peripherals. cell phones – replacement of IrDA Embedded in other devices.
spec. “MC-link” project Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald “Blåtand” Gormsen [son of Gorm].Bluetooth History 1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen). King of Denmark in the 10th century (was: ) 1998: foundation of Bluetooth SIG. Toshiba Added promoters: 3Com. IBM. www.-) 2001: first consumer products for mass market. Nokia.bluetooth.org 1999: erection of a rune stone at Ercisson/Lund . Microsoft. Intel.1 released 2005: 5 million chips/week Special Interest Group Original founding members: Ericsson. Motorola > 2500 members Common specification and certification of products . version 1. Agere (was: Lucent).
1 MHz carrier spacing Channel 0: 2402 MHz … channel 78: 2480 MHz G-FSK modulation.2/57. point-to-multipoint. fast acknowledge.9 kbit/s symmetric or 723. 79 (23) RF channels. up to 433. 64 kbit/s duplex. packet switched Overlapping piconets (stars) forming a scatternet Data link – ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) Topology . pointto-point. circuit switched Asynchronous.4 GHz ISM band. determined by a master Time division duplex for send/receive separation Voice link – SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) FEC (forward error correction). 1-100 mW transmit power FHSS and TDD Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/s Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion.Characteristics 2. no retransmission.6 kbit/s asymmetric.
Piconet Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion P One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet Master determines hopping pattern. slaves have to synchronize Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves (> 200 could be parked) S S M SB P SB S P M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby .
Forming a piconet All devices in a piconet hop together Master gives slaves its clock and device ID Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit. 3 bit) Parked Member Address (PMA. 8 bit) SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB SB S SB P S M P SB P S . unique worldwide) Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock Addressing Active Member Address (AMA.
Scatternet Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master or slave devices Devices can be slave in one piconet and master of another Devices jumping back and forth between the piconets P S M SB S P SB S SB P M Communication between piconets S S P Piconets (each with a capacity of 720 kbit/s) M=Master S=Slave P=Parked SB=Standby .
Bluetooth protocol stack audio apps. NW apps. apps. mgmnt. vCal/vCard OBEX telephony apps. AT modem commands TCS BIN SDP Control Host Controller Interface . TCP/UDP IP BNEP PPP RFCOMM (serial line interface) Audio Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP) Link Manager Baseband Radio AT: attention sequence OBEX: object exchange TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol SDP: service discovery protocol RFCOMM: radio frequency comm.
Piconet/channel definition Low-level packet definition
Channel, device access, e.g., derived from master 1/3-FEC, active member address (broadcast + 7 slaves), link type, alternating bit ARQ/SEQ, checksum
access code packet header
sync. (trailer) AM address
Baseband link types
Polling-based TDD packet transmission
625µs slots, master polls slaves Periodic single slot packet assignment, 64 kbit/s full-duplex, point-to-point Variable packet size (1,3,5 slots), asymmetric bandwidth, point-to-multipoint
SCO f0 ACL f4 SCO f6 ACL f8 SCO f12 ACL f14 SCO f18 ACL f20
SCO (Synchronous Connection Oriented) – Voice
ACL (Asynchronous ConnectionLess) – Data
SCO payload types
payload (30) HV1 HV2 HV3 audio (10) audio (20) audio (30) FEC (20) FEC (10)
CRC (2) (bytes)
ACL Payload types payload (0-343) header (1/2) DM1 header (1) DH1 header (1) DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 header (2) header (2) header (2) header (2) payload (0-17) payload (0-27) payload (0-121) payload (0-339) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) 2/3 FEC CRC (2) CRC (2) (bytes) CRC (2) payload (0-183) payload (0-224) payload (0-339) payload (0-29) AUX1 header (1) .
0 64. Rate max.8 172.8 258.8 172.0+57. High-quality Voice.8 723.6 477.4 86.4 36.6 64.8 54.6 D 108.8 387.1 390.6 Type DM1 DH1 FEC 2/3 no 2/3 no 2/3 no no 1/3 2/3 no CRC yes yes yes yes yes yes no no no no 3 slot DM3 DH3 DM5 DH5 AUX1 HV1 5 slot SCO HV2 HV3 DV 10+(0-9) D 2/3 D yes D Data Medium/High rate.6 108.8 172.9 185.2 185.0 64.2 585.4 286.6 185.0 64.Baseband data rates ACL 1 slot Payload User Header Payload [byte] [byte] 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 na na na 1D 0-17 0-27 0-121 0-183 0-224 0-339 0-29 10 20 30 Symmetric Asymmetric max. Data and Voice . Rate [kbit/s] [kbit/s] Forward Reverse 108.7 433.3 57.
SCO still possible. not each slot Hold: stop ACL.Baseband states of a Bluetooth device standby unconnected detach inquiry page connecting transmit AMA connected AMA active park PMA hold AMA sniff AMA low power Standby: do nothing Inquire: search for other devices Page: connect to a specific device Connected: participate in a piconet Park: release AMA. get PMA Sniff: listen periodically. possibly participate in another piconet .
4kbps UART Parked Slave. no RF activity) Deep Sleep Mode(2) Notes: (1) Current consumption is the sum of both BC212015A and the flash. 38.4kbps UART Standby Mode (Connected to host.4kbps UART ACL connection. 38.0 mA 53. Sniff Mode 40ms interval.5 mA 53.csr.8V Temperature = 20°C Mode SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Slave) SCO connection HV3 (1s interval Sniff Mode) (Master) SCO connection HV1 (Slave) SCO connection HV1 (Master) ACL data transfer 115.0 mA 53.28s interval. (More: www.0 mA 4. 38.0 mA 0.5 mA 0.2kbps UART (Master) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Slave) ACL data transfer 720kbps USB (Master) ACL connection.0 mA 15. (2) Current consumption is for the BC212015A device only.Example: Power consumption/CSR BlueCore2 Typical Average Current Consumption (1) VDD=1.com ) 26. Sniff Mode 1.0 µA 20.0 µA .28s beacon interval. 1.0 mA 26.0 mA 53.6 mA 47.
SDP – Service Discovery Protocol Inquiry/response protocol for discovering services Searching for and browsing services in radio proximity Adapted to the highly dynamic environment Can be complemented by others like SLP. Salutation. not the usage of services Caching of discovered services Gradual discovery Service record format Information about services provided by attributes Attributes are composed of an 16 bit ID (name) and a value values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID) . Jini. … Defines discovery only.
RFCOMM Emulation of a serial port (supports a large base of legacy applications) Allows multiple ports over a single physical channel Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS) Call control (setup. IrDA replacement WAP Interacting with applications on cellular phones . release) Group management OBEX Exchange of objects.Additional protocols to support legacy protocols/apps.
ZigBee Relation to 802.15.4 for layers 1 and 2 ZigBee protocol stack up to the applications . Adopter (3500$/Jahr) No free access to the specifications (only promoters and participants) ZigBee platforms comprise IEEE 802. Philips. Participant (9500$/Jahr). Mitsubishi. freescale (Motorola). Samsung More than 150 members Promoter (40000$/Jahr). ember.4 similar to Bluetooth / 802.15. Motorola. Honeywell.15.1 Pushed by Chipcon.
more flexible security mechanisms 802. and clarifications regarding 802.5: Mesh Networking Partial meshes.4 Properties: precise localization (< 1m precision).WPAN: IEEE 802.15.15 – future developments 4 Several working groups extend the 802. not all standards will be found in products later … .15.4a: Alternative PHY with lower data rate as extension to 802. more robustness.15.15. longer range Two PHY alternatives UWB (Ultra Wideband): ultra short pulses. corrections.4b: Extensions.4 standard 802. communication and localization CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum): communication only 802. extremely low power consumption.15.15. full meshes Range extension.4 Usage of new bands. longer battery live Not all these working groups really create a standard.
allows for roaming at 150 km/h Unclear relation to 802. alternative to DSL 75 Mbit/s up to 50 km LOS.22: Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) .x and/or non 802 networks Radio-based PHY/MAC for use by license-exempt devices on a noninterfering basis in spectrum that is allocated to the TV Broadcast Service IEEE 802.20. e. for the last mile.5 GHz..20: Mobile Broadband Wireless Access (MBWA) Licensed bands < 3.Some more IEEE standards for mobile communications IEEE 802.21: Media Independent Handover Interoperability Standardize handover between different 802. up to 10 km NLOS.16: Broadband Wireless Access / WirelessMAN / WiMax Wireless distribution system.16e adds mobility support. 802. 2-66 GHz band Initial standards without roaming or mobility support 802. optimized for IP traffic Peak rate > 1 Mbit/s per user Different mobility classes up to 250 km/h and ranges up to 15 km IEEE 802.g.16 started as fixed system… IEEE 802.
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