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1. To describe the concept and implementation strategies in enhancing the main factors that influence crop production 2. To highlight the importance of production systems in the management of crops
Agriculture: The science and art of producing crops and animals under supervision of humans in a specific location The traditional purpose of agriculture is the production of food and fibre for humans and feed for livestock Conventional agriculture is the term for the predominant farming practices, methods, and systems of crop production adopted by producers
in a region of production. In technologically advanced regions, these production systems are generally capital-intensive and chemical dependent. Crop productivity is significantly increased but a cost to the environment and human health. Agrochemicals build up in the environment and pollute groundwater and the air. Chemical residues in food are health hazards to humans and animals
The way forward now is for Sustainable Agriculture. Sustainable Agriculture seeks to increase crop productivity without the adverse effects to environment and society as a whole. Since this is a concept that emphasizes a goal rather than a set of practices, producers adopt various farm-based innovations to accomplish the general goal
Use of environmentally prudent farming systems in crop production The innovative aspect of sustainable agriculture comes about because there is no one correct way to arrive at the general goal That is because each producer¶s farming . Natural resource conservation in crop production 3. Increased profitability of crop production 2.The general goals of sustainable agriculture: 1.
cropping system. costeffective. Crop producers as managers combine scientific know-how with on-farm resources for highest possible productivity without adverse consequence or erosion of natural . regarding soils. environmentally responsible manner. method of production. climate. situation is different. and market needs Sustainable agriculture calls for the use of the best production technology in a productive.
The sustainable farmer must be knowledgeable to be able to develop a site-specific. genetic resistance in crops. resources. Natural resources and production technologies are integrated to develop a particular production system. nitrogen fixation. . and several others. and sustainable system of production On-farm cycles that are managed in sustainable agriculture include crop rotations. integrated.
Millets 4. Peanut 24. Barley 15. Onion 27.Oats 20.Beans 28. C¶seed oil 21. Melon 25. Cabbage 26.Sunflower 30. Sugarbeet 7. Cassava 17. Tomato 6. Rye 8. Banana 5. Apples 22. Wheat 11. Sw.Mango .Peas 29. Soybeans 19. Sorghum 2. Oranges 9. Potato 14. Yam 23.30 Major Food Crops of the World 1. Grapes 18. potato 16. Coconut 10. Corn 13. Rice 12. Sugarcane 3.
9 4.9 3.3 .9 4.1 7.6 3. Korea USA Proportion(%) 33.1 21.3 2.0 1.3 5.Rice Country China India Indonesia Bangladesh Japan Sri Lanka Thailand Italy Brazil S.9 1.
Rice is mostly concentrated in Asia .
Corn Country USA China Brazil Former Soviet Mexico S.8 4.6 .5 3.0 8.9 3. Africa France Argentina Yugoslavia Proportion(%) 46.2 3.0 4.4 3.2 2.
Map of corn producing countries .
The top 3 cereal grains crops are wheat. corn. barley and grain sorghum are used extensively as feed grain in USA. Of these.) is used for this purpose. Corn and wheat are widely distributed. oats. Others are sorghum. they are grown in high concentration in certain regions in North America. Central and South America . about 75% of world¶s sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. rice and corn. In term of human consumption. barley and oats.
thiamine. and niacin) . This proportion is even greater in certain parts of Asia. Cereal and potato together supply over 75% of world¶s food calories. reaching 90% in some regions The greater dependence on cereals for food has led to an improvement in the fortification of cereal products with minerals and vitamins (eg iron. Rice is mostly concentrated in Asia Cereal crops are relatively cheaper and easier to produce and are suitable for combating hunger and population explosion. riboflavin.
5 ± 14. The average protein content is between 7.0 and 7. On average.4% Monocots store food primarily in their endosperm. Plant breeders have genetically improved the lysine and trytophan content of corn with the development of opaque-2 high-lysine mutant corn.2%. while the average fat content is between 1. cereal grains have high caloric value of above 300 cal/100g. This tissue contains starch and small quantities of protein and other nutrients .
Sesame seed protein is high in methionine . Dicot protein. esp methionine. oil. The most important food and feed legume or oil seed grains are soybean. peanut. beans and peas. and some carbohydrates. Dicots (legumes and oil seeds) that are utilized as grain crops store food in their cotyledons. The cotyledons lack starch and stead have amounts of protein. however is low in certain amino acids.
while in developing countries. Cereal grain in developed nations is used for feed. Cereal grains are widely used to feed livestock and poultry as an energy source. most of it is used for food. sorghum. Corn. they are fed to animals as mixtures with protein supplements . barley and oats are usually fed to livestock as whole grain or after a litthe processing To improve the nutritional quality of cereal grains.
Apart from whole grain. Sometimes roughage such as hay or silage is added to slow the otherwise rapid passage of cereal meal through the digestive system of animals. the byproducts of grain processing (eg bran) and spent grain (from breweries) are used as feed .
and linolenic acids) and vitamins A.K.).) Plant-derived oils are used for food as well as industrial purposes Oils supply 3 essential fatty acids (arachidonic. coconut (Cocos nucifera L. linoleic. corn (Zea mays L. soybean (Glycine max L. Major oil crops include olive (Olea europaea).) sunflower (Helianthus annus L. palm (Elaeis guineensis).). linseed (Linum usitatissimum).). . Merr. sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).D and E. and peanut (Arachis hypogeae L.
Linum usitatissimum .
Helianthus annus L .
Merr .Glycine max L.
C O C O S N U C I F E R A .
Elaeis guineensis .
Zea mays L .
Arachis hypogeae L .
115-140 120-135 115-130 100-116 96-106 .Crop Oil content(%) Semidrying oil Soybean 17-18 Sunflower 29-35 Corn 50-57 Cottonseed 15-25 Rapeseed 33-45 Iodine No.
104-118 92-100 82-90 8-12 86-90 49-59 204-207 .Crop Oil content(%) Nondrying oil Sesame 52-57 Peanut 47-50 Castorbean 35-55 Coconut 67-70 Olive Palm Palm kernel - Iodine No.
The fatty acid is the describe as unsaturated. A triglyceride consists of glycerine and three fatty acids. A fatty acid also consists of a long chain of carbon. not enough hydrogen atoms are incorporated. and oxygen atoms. Oil and fats are chemically made up of units called triglycerides. . In some cases. hydrogen. resulting in double bonds. A fatty acid is describe as saturated if the carbon atoms are bonded to hydrogen or other carbon atoms.
the more saturated the fatty acid Saturated fats and oils are known to increase blood cholestrol Oils are extracted from seeds by method of extrusion (uses mechanical press to squeeze oil out) or solvent extraction. The byproduct of these processes is called the oil seed meal. The degree of saturation is measured by the iodine value: the lower the value. It is high in protein and widely used as protein supplement in feeds for poultry and other livestock .
timothy (Phleum pratense).). napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). Cereal grain crops may be grown and used for livestock feed during its early vegetative stages. sudangrass (Sorghum sudanese). clovers. Forage crops are grown for their vegetative parts that are used for feeding livestock . Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). guinea grass (Panicum spp. Important forage crops include alfalfa (lucerne).
Sorghum sudanese .
Sorghum halepense .
PANICUM SPP .
Pennisetu m purpureum .
Brachiaria decumbens .
calcium. sulfur. phosphorus. magnesium. The quality of forage is determined by the voluntary intake of digestible energy. Forages are very important in ruminant production.and iron. copper.zinc. accounting for about 75% digestible energy . potassium. Feeds are classified by their crude protein and crude fibre content Forage crops are sources of vitamins A and E. and numerous essential nutrients including sodium.
5 Napier grass 10 Leucaena leaves 24 Crude fibre 20 30 30 26 31 33 32 13 Digestible Energy 2.2 2. grass hay 9 Corn fodder 9 Signal grass 8.6 2.5 Guinea grass 14.6 2.Crop Crude Protein Alfalfa hay 26 Red clover hay 15 Berm.8 - .
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