Effective Writing Effective Writing

Prof. Rachana Mukherjee

WRITE TO ME & HELP
• TO USE AN ATM MACHINE TO WITHDRAW RS. 5000 • TO DISPENSE BEVERAGE FROM A COFFEE VENDING MACHINE (DIY MACHINE) 
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: I am your second cousin who has attended high school from a remote village and has come to Bangalore to strike it big.

LEARNING
“Put it before them briefly, so they will read it; Clearly, so they will appreciate it; Picturesquely, so they will remember it; Accurately, so they will be guided by its light” Joseph Pulitzer

Give examples of written communication? When do we need to communicate through written medium? What are the pitfalls and difficulties of communicating through this medium?

What are the advantages & disadvantages of this medium?

PLAN • Analyze the situation • Gather Information • Select the right writing tools • Organize the information Write •Adapt to audience •Compose the Messages – strong words •Effective sentences •Coherent paragraphs Complete •Revise the message •Produce the message •Proofread the message •Distribute the message .

reaction ADAPTATION: Fitting the message to the specific reader . preference.AUDIENCE PURPOSE: •Inform •Persuade •Collaborate Understanding. expectations.

feels or thinks – The same vocabulary or knowledge of the subject – The same mentality or the same ability to understand .ADAPTATION • All readers do not have: • Form the message to fit the person’s mind • Adaptation begins with visualizing the reader. imagining what the reader knows.

ADAPTATION • ADAPTING TO MULTIPLE READERS • If you write for one person in the group. write to the lowest member of the group • ADAPTATION UNDERLIES ALL THAT WILL BE SAID ABOUT WRITING . you may miss the others • To communicate with all of them.

GATHERING INFORMATION • Be sure the information is accurate • Be sure the information is ethical • Be sure the information is pertinent .

7C’s of Effective Written Communication • • • • • • • CLARITY COMPLETENESS CORRECTNESS CONSIDERATION CONCISENESS CONVINCING/ CONCRETENESS COURTESIES .

This is the first time we’ve returned anything to your store. Of course. our controller. I still remember the day. and Suzanne is very careful with the machine and hasn’t abused it. Your building was smaller then. has been a problem. and she’s tired of hauling it back and forth.com Cc: Subject: Defective DVD recorder General Nutrition Corporation has been doing business with ComputerTime since I was hired six years ago. Suzanne. and it was located on the corner of Federal Avenue and 2nd N. it still doesn’t work right. and none of us has a lot of spare time. and I hope you’ll agree that we deserve a better deal. . over the years.To: customerservice@computertime. The DVD recorder we bought for my assistant. was one of your first customers. Jarod Mallory. As accountants. we need to have our computers working so that we can do our jobs. We’re all putting in longer hours because it is our busy season. I’ve gotten used to larger purchases.W. Our department now has 15 employees. After all those repairs. We’ve taken it in for repairs three times in three months to the authorized service center. It was the biggest check I’d ever written.

Model PRS-2) that GNC purchased on November 15. the DVD drive stopped working again. the service representative blamed a loose connection and made the repair. and we look forward to purchasing from you in the future after this matter is resolved successfully. The drive began malfunctioning soon after my assistant installed it on her computer and we’ve had trouble with it ever since. The service representative fixed the drive. but it occasionally makes odd noises and takes an inordinate amount of time to record a disc. 2007. although the recording time was occasionally slow.Dear Customer Service Representative: Can you please exchange the faulty DVD record/play drive (Olympic Systems. For the next three months. we are not satisfied with the drive. the drive worked reasonably well. Sincerely. Once more. but in April we had to have it fixed again – another loose connection. Although all the repairs have been relatively minor and have been covered by the one year warranty. Please let us know your answer by September 20. Jill Saunders Accounting supervisor. Two months ago. . We took the drive to the authorized service center and were assured that the problem was merely a loose connection. We would like to exchange it for a similar model from another manufacturer. GNC has done business with your store for six years. The drive is again operational.

please don’t hesitate to contact me directly. We’re sorry to hear that the product didn’t perform correctly. which will feature great prices on a wide range of computers and accessories. I’d like to invite you to visit during our upcoming November sale. They’re agreed to send you their latest DVD model. While your drive is outside of that 30 day window. which they assure me will give you optimum performance every time. I contacted Olympic on your behalf. If this is not a satisfactory solution or you have any other questions. Sincerely. In the meantime.com. merchandise returned to ComputerTime within 30 days is covered by the unconditional refund policy that has been our tradition for 22 years.To: jsanders@gnc. To save you additional correspondence. it is still covered by the manufacturer’s warranty.com Cc: Subject: Defective DVD recorder: request for replacement Dear Ms Saunders: Thank you for letting us know about your experience with the Olympic DVD drive you bought last November. Linda Davis Customer Service . As you may know.

Defining Topics and Main Ideas Topic Communication Specific Purpose Skill Convince top mgnt to increase spending on R&D Main Idea Competitors spend more than we do on R&D Funding for To Persuade R&D .

Internal R&D work going on Investments Improvements & Innovation rate EFFECTIVE WRITING TOOLS : MIND MAPPING Problems and Threats Loosing market share Lesser Job attractiveness Present Position External Changing trends Market survey results MIND MAPPING: Funding for R&D Market climb and position New products and market readiness Company image Proposed investment Gains & Advantages Proposal Data on R&D of competitors R&D @ competitors and advantage Proposed plan .

the Start with a neutral Start with a statement request. or a statement about the specific action desired . State or imply the bad Build the audience’s news and make a desire to comply.Direct Approach (Deductive) Audience Reaction Message Opening Indirect Approach (Inductive) Uninterested/ Unwilling Eager/ Interested/ Pleased/ Displeased Neutral Start with the main idea. interest in the subject. positive suggestion Close cordially Request action Message Body Message Close Close with a cordial comment. a reference to the good news. or the good news statement that acts as or question that a transition to the captures attention reasons for the bad news Provide necessary details Give reasons to justify Arouse the audience’s a negative answer.

Writing Themes PERSUASIVE ROUTINE & NEGATIVE MESSAGES POSITIVE MESSAGES MESSAGES Daily matters of operating REFUSE a business REJECT Good news/ GIVING –VE REVIEW announcement TERMINATION Invitation 5 goals to achieve: Congratulating msg •Give the bad news Routine requests •Ensure its acceptance Asking for •Maintain reader’s goodwill •Maintain organization’s recommendation Make a claim (formal good image •Reduce future complaint) Request an adjustment correspondence on the (claim settlement) matter Organize persuasive messages using the AIDA model: •Attention •Interest •Desire •Action Balance Emotional & Logical appeal Reinforce your proposal .

WRITING NEGATIVE MESSAGES DIRECT APPROACH Firmness is required Bad news won’t come as a shock Situation is routine or minor Audience prefers bad news first BAD NEWS REASONS POSITIVE CLOSE Audience is emotionally involved BUFFER REASONS BAD NEWS POSITIVE CLOSE Audience will be displeased INDIRECT APPROACH .

WRITING NEGATIVE MESSAGES BUFFER TYPES AGREEMENT COOPERATION FAIRNESS GOOD NEWS .

Dos and Don’ts of Persuasion letters • Dos • • • • Concentrate on facts Use captions Say what is ‘new’ Highlight key points through repetition • Link paragraphs • Add credibility • ‘helping people to buy’ • Don’ts • • • • • Be too clever Be too complicated Be pompous Over claim Lead into points with negatives • Use up benefits early .

GRAMMER IN A NUTSHELL TENSE PRESENT PAST FUTURE simple Continu Perfect Perfect simple Continu Perfect Perfect simple Continu Perfect Perfect ous Continu ous Continu ous Continu ous ous ous [verb [am/ [has/ [has/ [verb+ or is/ are] have] have] ed] verb+s + + [past + ] [verb+i partici [been] ng] ple] + [verb+i ng] [was/ [had] +[had [will] + [will [will [will were] [past been] [verb] be] + have] have + partici + [verb+i + [past been] [verb+i ple] [verb+i ng] partici + ng] ng] ple] [verb+i ng] .

Strong verbs Camouflaged Verb make a classification conduct an exploration provide information engage in negotiation Strong Verb classify explore inform negotiate .

Suarez of the Nevada agency. .Break up long sentences. asking him for information we need in order to discuss the statistics for the entire year. Then I plan to send this preliminary draft through appropriate channels to Mr. Suarez of the Nevada agency. subsequent to which I plan to send this preliminary draft through appropriate channels to Mr. (Limiting Content) DON’T I should appreciate first obtaining clearance from your bureau. I plan also to invite someone in the agency to participate as joint author of the final article. asking him for information we need in order to discuss the statistics for the entire year. DO I should appreciate first obtaining clearance from your bureau. and also inviting someone in the agency to participate as joint author of the final article.

.Rephrase roundabout constructions. • The books are ready for the annual audit. • All the books are in readiness for the annual audit. • The charge of negligence has been denied by all four of the officers. • The four officers denied the negligence charge.

• We have verified the charges to your account and find that our records agree with yours. • This change will enable us to get started sooner than if we wait for a later date. • This change will enable us to get started sooner. • We have verified the charges to your account and find that the account balances on our books agree with the account balances on your books.Remove unnecessary repetition. .

In Openings • we beg to advise • your esteemed favor • this is to inform you In Contents • • deem it • • advisable • attached hereto • please be advised In Closings Thanking you in advance We beg to remain Anticipating your favorable response .Create the right effect by avoiding the old language of business.

You: As a loyal customer. We: We are offering a special discount to all our loyal customers. You: You can earn the discount by paying by the 10th of the month. you will receive a special discount. .Create the right effect by emphasizing the ‘you’ viewpoint We: Our policy requires that you pay by the 10th of the month in order to earn the discount.

Common Negative Words • • • • • • • • • • • Afraid Allege Beware Careless Decline Disappoint Fail Inconvenience Unfortunate Waste Worry • • • • • • • • • • • Alibi Apology Blame Complaint Difficult Fault Impossible Misunderstanding Ruin Unfair Wrong .

nationality. age or disability • Discriminatory words – Words that do not treat all people equally with respect • Words that are contrary to acceptable views of fair play and decency • We often use them without much thought or any bad intent • USE GENDER NEUTRAL WORDS Non discriminatory Writing .• Avoid words that discriminate against sex. race.

” --Unknown .“ To speak kindly does not hurt the tongue.

Exercise Time Identify the problems in the following sentences and then rewrite them correctly: • When the frog transforms. • Our landlord owns this building and the one across the street. • Individuals who make their abodes in vitreous edifices would be advised to refrain from catapulting perilous projectiles. but he wants to sell it by the end of the year. its called metamorphosis • Eight hours of sleep a night are enough for most people. • She warned her lover for the impossible dilemma and the dreadful peril he would face. .

• I am sorry but Ms. kumar took his dog for a walk the dogs lease gave way as it was trying to run fast thud mr kumar slipped and fell there was dew on the ground oh he groaned as he felt a sharp pain in his right leg the doctor given him the following medication pain killers balm ice pack and tetanus injection . the clock struck two. • Lack of sleep effects the quality of your work • Prompt payment of unpaid balances on outstanding bills will be greatly appreciated by those who continue to process your accounts. • It was a fine winter morning mr.Exercise Time Identify the problems in the following sentences and then rewrite them correctly: • After eating dinner. Singh cannot attend to your call as she is late again.

DOCUMENT DESIGN .

Proper emphasis to contents Emphasis by Position beginning and ending of the paragraph beginning and ending of the message beginning and ending of the sentence .

Topic A Topic B .Proper emphasis to contents Emphasis by Volume Topic A receives more space than Topic B -thus more emphasis.

PYRAMIDICAL STRUCTURING IN PARAGRAPHS Topic Sentence Core Assertion (over all idea) Supporting sentences Details General Paragraph Concluding Sentences Topic sentence Statement of evidence Contextual data Journalist’s Paragraph .

text boxes and objects DOCUMENT DESIGN .• • • • • • • • • • • White space Margins and justification Typefaces Type Styles Templates/ Stylesheets Page setup Column formatting Paragraph formatting Numbered and bulleted lists Tables Pictures.

SUB: TO: L A N G U A G E E M A I L Cc: BCc: Attachment TEXT BOX Salutation Introduction/ Context Setting Body/ Main Message Sequencing Paragraph Highlighting Bullets Title/ Subtitle Numbering/ Sub numbering Closure Sign Off Signature & G R A M M A R & 7Cs W R I T I N G .

Appropriate Subject lines • Replying to a customer complaint • Mail informing your client & manager of your leave • Sending a report on the work ‘Tough’ to the client • Meeting called on a short notice • Report on a theft incident happened at office last Saturday .

E-mail Etiquettes • Write useful subject lines • Keep one screen writing only. otherwise use attachments • Always clarify context • Classify stakeholders & mark importance of mail • Appropriate greetings and salutation to be used .

Always have shorter paragraphs Avoid clichés.E-mail • • • • • contd.. acronyms and jargons Have appropriate signing off & signature Able disclaimer where required Review the mail for grammar and punctuation rectification .

E-mail contd… • Use no capitals in the mail text • Avoid chat language • Use region neutral date format like dd-mon-yyyy • Specify IST or US time .

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ With regards OR Sincerely. or Dear Ms. Signature Name of the sender Designation Annexure: Cc: .B U S I N E S S LETTER HEAD Date: RECEIPIENT’S NAME DESIGNATION ADDRESS LINE 1 ADDRESS LINE 2 ADDRESS LINE 3 SUBJECT LINE: REFERENCE: L E T T E R T SALUTATION – Dear Mr.

M E M O R A N D U M CARNIVAL TRAVELS INTERNAL MEMORANDUM DATE: TO: FROM: SUBJECT: RE: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________ (Does not include a complimentary close or a signature block) .

C I R C U L A R Date: From: Re: CIRCULAR __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ AUTHORIZED SIGNATORY RECEIPIENT LIST: .

Date: N O T I C E Re: NOTICE __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ AUTHORIZED SIGNATORY .

Your engagement has been fixed and you are planning to go on leave next fortnight. Your new Team Leader meets you and tells you that he cannot give you leave. Exercise Time . as the work schedules are very tight at present. Write an e-mail to the Team Leader explaining your situation. It is already 23rd and it seems like you will not be able to complete the processing as per the timeline. How would you write to them stating what you feel? Draft an e-mail   Case 3 • You are a Support Executive.Case 1 • The customer has asked for a file to be processed by the 25th of May. How do you explain this to the customer and obtain conviction. Draft a business letter   Case 2 • Your colleague has been pushing you for a timeline for a particular task that you know is unrealistic.

  How do you write an e-mail to the team leader and ensure that the session does not get cancelled Case 5 • You are a stores manager. You need a minimum of 12 people to run the session. . You have received 14 nominations for the program. which means you may have to cancel the training.  Today. How can you handle the situation? Draft a business letter to the supplier. have scheduled a program to be conducted 2 days later. This will lead to a contingency situation. One of the spares consignment received by you from a new supplier has inadequate number of parts packed.Exercise Time Case 4 • You as a training specialist. This leaves you with only 7 people. The time is too short for you to obtain other nominations. owing to a high volume of work. you receive a mail from one of the team leaders saying that he is withdrawing 7 nominations from his team.

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