There are two principal form of energy into which solar radiation can be converted for practical applications. One is HEAT and the other is ELECTRICITY. Heat is obtained when solar radiation is absorbed by a black surface. This heat may be used in two ways that is for thermal applications like water heating, drying etc and application involving second law of thermodynamics like production of mechanical power and refrigeration.

Solar tower power plant .SOLAR ENERGY TO ELECTRICITY There are following two prominent ways for conversion of solar energy to electricity 1. Photovoltaic cell 2.


Basic principle of operation Capacity and technical specifications Recent developments and future prospects Feasibility of the projects for our country Advantages Disadvantages .

The heliostats are oriented in such a way that all the incident light beams are reflected towards the same point .PRINCIPLE AND WORKING Solar radiation is focused to a central receiver (boiler) mounted on a tall tower using thousands of heliostats. . This beam radiations are incident on boiler is absorbed by black pipes in which working fluid circulates and is heated.

Advanced WF:Therminol-66.Carolina HT-43 .


SUB SYSTEMS The total system is divided into five sub system The field of oriented mirror The receiver sub system The heat transport sub system The thermal storage sub system The heat conversion sub system .

Tracking of mirrors : Flat mirrors are mounted in the centre or rigid columns. . Two actuators provided for movement of heliostats. heliostats are nothing but reflecting surfaces which can be steered relative to the position of sun with respect to earth. Helio means sun.THE FIELD OF ORIENTED MIRRORS The mirrors used are heliostats.

2. . By the help of central command computer following a fixed program.These are controlled by two methods. A signal command is given by an optical sensor which is incorporated in the mirror. 1.

External receiver type: The absorber surface in this case are on the exterior of a cylindrical structure. It is of two types 1. .THE RECEIVER SUBSYSTEM It is placed on the top which has a heat absorbing surface. 2. Cavity type: Here solar radiation enter through an aperture at the bottom of the cavity which consists of pipes.

2.THE HEAT TRANSPORT SUBSYSTEM Two basic thermodynamic cycles are used 1. Then it is piped to the ground level & drives a turbine generator.Brayton cycle is used when working fluid is gas.Rankine cycle is used when working fluid is water. Brayton cycle :. . In the receiver the working fluid receives heat energy increases its temp & pressure. Rankine cycle :.


ceramic oxides. For long term we can use thermoclines like liquid sulphur.THE HEAT STORAGE SUBSYSTEM Thermal storage subsystem is required to store excess solar heat energy absorbed by the receiver during the periods of greatest solar incidence which is to be used later. . For short term heat can be stored by fire bricks. fused salts & liquid lithium.


Output 200 Megawatts (200. 400 feet Diameter Concrete 750.000 cubic yards Collector 3. 15 (on going).25 Megawatt Land 20.000 house holds) Tower .SPECIFICATION & CAPACITY 3000 feet high.5 miles diameter (30 million square yards) glass/plastic film/polycarbonate Turbines 32 units x 6.5 x 4.25 square miles (4.5) Construction 34 months Jobs 2700+ (Construction).

The Thar desert in Rajasthan has to be utilized with such projects . makes the thermal power a lot more expensive.Feasibility in our country Indian government decision only to import coal. For the present boom in our economy the government has to solve the power with long term investments.

spain .German and Israel Govt are considering this project for its clean energy.08. called ´solar missionµ As per its 200Mwatt capacity its set up cost of 800m$ will be recovered in 23 years.2006) approved this project .Recent developments and future prospects Australian government recently(02. .

Nontraditional solar energy is used which is renewable. It requires no traditional fuel.ADVANTAGES 1. 3.5 tons of fossil fuel over 25 years lifetime . 4. In a Solar thermal power plant. 2. Running cost is low as no fuel is used. each square meter of mirror produces upto 500Kwh of electricity per year avoiding 12 tons of Carbondioide emission and saving 2.

e.000sq. about 2 to 3 times more than fossil fuel plant.DISADVANTAGES 1.m) for set up. . Large area (about 30. Initial cost for setup is very high i. 2.

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