Batch: Jan - May 2011

1
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
Instructor
Dr. Karuna Kalita
Assistant ProIessor
Department oI Mechanical Engineering
IIT Guwahati
Karuna.kalita(iitg.ernet.in
K. Kalita 2
Most oI the content oI these presentation slides are
taken Irom the power point presentation prepared by J.
Walt Oler and made available to us by McGraw-Hill
Education India.
atch: Jan - May 2011 3
-These lecture slides were prepared and used by me to conduct lectures Ior 1
st
year B. Tech.
students as part oI ME 101 Engineering Mechanics course at IITG.
- Theories, Figures, Problems, Concepts used in the slides to IulIill the course requirements
are taken Irom the Iollowing textbooks
- Kindly assume that the reIerencing oI the Iollowing books have been done in this slide
- I thank the Iollowing authors Ior making their books available Ior reIerence
K. Kalita
1. Vector Mechanics Ior Engineers Statics & Dynamics, Beer & Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam &
Kraige; 5
th
edition
4. Schaum`s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics, Joseph F. Shelley
5. Lecture notes oI Dr. R. Ganesh Narayanan, Assistant ProIessor, Mechanical Engineering
K. Kalita 4
What is Mechanics?
· Mechanics is the science which describes and predicts the conditions
of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces.
· Categories of Mechanics:
- Rigid bodies
- $9,9.8
- ynamics
- eformable bodies
- Fluids
· Mechanics is an applied science - it is not an abstract or pure science
but does not have the empiricism found in other engineering sciences.
· Mechanics is the foundation of most engineering sciences and is an
indispensable prerequisite to their study.
K. Kalita 5
undamental Concepts
· $pace - associated with the notion oI the position oI a point P given in terms oI three
coordinates measured Irom a reIerence point or origin.
· %ime - deIinition oI an event requires speciIication oI the time and position at which it
occurred.
· Mass - used to characterize and compare bodies, e.g., response to earth`s
gravitational attraction and resistance to changes in translational motion.
· orce - represents the action oI one body on another. A Iorce is characterized by its
point oI application, magnitude, and direction, i.e., a Iorce is a vector quantity.
In Newtonian Mechanics, space, time, and mass are absolute concepts, independent oI
each other. Force, however, is not independent oI the other three. The Iorce acting on
a body is related to the mass oI the body and the variation oI its velocity with time.
K. Kalita 6
· Parallelogram Law
· Principle of Transmissibility
· Newton's First Law: Ìf the resultant force on a
particle is zero, the particle will remain at rest or
continue to move in a straight line.
· Newton's Third Law: The forces of action and
reaction between two particles have the same
magnitude and line of action with opposite
sense.
· Newton's Second Law: A particle will have
an acceleration proportional to a nonzero
resultant applied force.
a m F
6
6
=
· Newton's Law of Gravitation: Two particles
are attracted with equal and opposite forces,
2 2
,
#
GM
g mg W
r
Mm
G F = = =
Fundamental Principles
K. Kalita 7
· inetic Units: length, time,
mass, and Iorce.
· Three oI the kinetic units,
reIerred to as basic units, may be
deIined arbitrarily. The Iourth
unit, reIerred to as a derived unit,
must have a deIinition compatible
with Newton`s 2nd Law,
a m F
6
:
=
· International $stem of Units ($I):
The basic units are length, time, and
mass which are arbitrarily deIined as
the meter (m), second (s), and
kilogram (kg). Force is the derived
unit,
´ ) ¦
'
+

'

=
=
2
s
m
1 kg 1 N 1
ma F
· U.$. Customar Units:
The basic units are length, time, and
Iorce which are arbitrarily deIined as
the Ioot (It), second (s), and pound
(lb). Mass is the derived unit,
s It 1
lb 1
slug 1 =
=
a
F
m
$ystems of Units
K. Kalita 8
· !roblem $tatement:
Includes given data, speciIication
oI what is to be determined, and a
Iigure showing all quantities
involved.
· ree-Bod Diagrams:
Create separate diagrams Ior each
oI the bodies involved with a
clear indication oI all Iorces
acting on each body.
· undamental !rinciples:
The six Iundamental principles
are applied to express the
conditions oI rest or motion oI
each body. The rules oI algebra
are applied to solve the equations
Ior the unknown quantities.
· $olution Check:
- Test Ior errors in reasoning by
veriIying that the units oI the
computed results are correct,
- test Ior errors in computation by
substituting given data and computed
results into previously unused
equations based on the six principles,
- alwas apply experience and physical
intuition to assess whether results seem
'reasonable¨
Method of Problem $olution
K. Kalita 9
· The accuracy oI a solution depends on 1) accuracy oI the given data, and
2) accuracy oI the computations perIormed. The solution cannot be more
accurate than the less accurate oI these two.
· As a general rule Ior engineering problems, the data are seldom known
with an accuracy greater than 0.2°. ThereIore, it is usually appropriate to
record parameters beginning with '1¨ with Iour digits and with three digits
in all other cases, i.e., 40.2 lb and 15.58 lb.
· The use oI hand calculators and computers generally makes the accuracy
oI the computations much greater than the accuracy oI the data. Hence,
the solution accuracy is usually limited by the data accuracy.
Numerical Accuracy
Syllabus
#igid body static: Equivalent force system. Equations of equilibrium, Free body diagram, Reaction, $tatic
indeterminacy and partial constraints, Two and three force systems.
Structures: 2 truss, Method of joints, Method of section. Frame, eam, types of loading and supports,
$hear Force and ending Moment diagram, relation among load-shear force-bending moment.
Friction: ry friction (static and kinematics), wedge friction, disk friction (thrust bearing), belt friction,
square threaded screw, journal bearings (Axle friction), Wheel friction, Rolling resistance.
Center of Gravity and Moment of Inertia: First and second moment of area and mass, radius of gyration,
parallel axis theorem, product of inertia, rotation of axes and principal M. Ì., Thin plates, M.Ì. by direct
method (integration), composite bodies.
VirtuaI work and Energy method: Virtual isplacement, principle of virtual work, mechanical efficiency,
work of a force/couple (springs etc.), Potential Energy and equilibrium, stability.
Kinematics of ParticIes: Rectilinear motion, curvilinear motion rectangular, normal tangential, polar,
cylindrical, spherical (coordinates), relative and constrained motion, space curvilinear motion.
Kinetics of ParticIes: Force, mass and acceleration, work and energy, impulse and momentum, impact.
Kinetics of #igid Bodies: Translation, fixed axis rotation, general planner motion, work-energy, power,
potential energy, impulse-momentum and associated conservation principles, euler equations of motion
and its application.
10
Mark distribution:
%utorial 12º
Quiz 1 12º
Quiz 2 12º
Mid-$emester Examination 24º
End $emester Examination 40º
11
ecture timing:
Monda 10:00 10:55 2
%uesda 11:00 11:55 2
rida 09:00 09:55 2
%utorial timing:
%hursda 08:00 08:55
12
REMINDER
student with less than 75º
attendance will not allowed to take
examination
13
ND
No phone calls in the lecture hall
14
15
$calar quantit: Only magnitude
Examples: Time, Volume, Speed, Density, Mass etc.
'ector quantit: Both direction and magnitude
Examples: Force, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Moment etc.
, where ÷ magnitude, 3 ÷ unit vector and
3 dimensionless and in direction oI vector '`
In our course:
i, i, k unit vectors
v
x
z
i
i
k
' ; 3 =
;
'
3
;
=
16
Dot product oI vectors: A.B ÷ AB cos 0; A.B ÷ B.A (commutative)
A.(B¹C) ÷ A.B¹A.C (distributive operation)
A.B ÷ (A
x
i¹A
y
i¹A
z
k).(B
x
i¹B
y
i¹B
z
k) ÷ A
x
B
x
¹A
y
B
y
¹A
z
B
z
Cross product oI vectors: A x B ÷ C; ICI ÷ IAI IBI Sin 0; AxB ÷ -(BxA)
C x (A¹B) ÷ C x A ¹ C x B

B
Û
i = 1
i j = 0
k x j = -i;
i x i = 0
Ax = (A
x
i+A
y
j+A
z
k)x(
x
i+
y
j+
z
k) = (A
y

z
- A
z

y
)i+( )j+( )k
i j k
A
x
A
Y
A
Z

Y

Z
i
i
k
17
orce:
- action oI one body on another
- required Iorce can move a body in the direction oI action,
otherwise no eIIect
- some times plastic deIormation, Iailure is possible
- Magnitude, direction, point oI application; VECTOR
Force ·
P kN
Force,
P kN
Direction of motion
Bod moves
Bod does not
move
P, kN
bulging
18
orce sstem:
0
!
WIRE
Bracket
Magnitude, direction and point oI application is important
External eIIect:
Forces applied (applied Iorce); Forces exerted by bracket, bolts, Ioundation...
(reactive Iorce)
Internal eIIect:
DeIormation, strain pattern permanent strain; depends on material properties
oI bracket, bolts.
19
Concurrent Iorce:
Forces are said to be concurrent at a point iI their lines oI
action intersect at that point
A
F
1
F
2
R
F
1
, F
2
are concurrent Iorces
R will be on same plane
R ÷ F
1
¹F
2
PIane
Parallelogram law of forces
Polygon law of forces
A
F
1
F
2
R
F
2
F
1

F
1
F
2
R
Use triangle law

F
1
R
F
2
R does not pass through `
R ÷ F
1
¹F
2
R ÷ F
1
¹F
2
· A set oI concurrent Iorces applied to a
particle may be replaced by a single
resultant Iorce which is the vector sum
oI the applied Iorces.
· '0ctor forc0 compo303ts: two or more
Iorce vectors which, together, have the
same eIIect as a single Iorce vector.
20
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
ecture 2
$tatics of !articles
%odas ke students
10010130 kL1PAvA1P CCÞAL
10010131 AAS1PA vL8MA
10010218 uP8u8A CPA8An MuuuLl
10010219 CCn1LA vLnkA1A S8l CPA8An
10010611 uP8lSPnl CPAk8A8C81l
10010612 CAnA8 kL1An ASPCk
10010719 uLLÞAk kuMA8 kLWA1
10010720 uLvA8AkCnuA kA81Plk
10020313 PA8SPl1 AC8AWAL
10020316 PlMAnSPu 8AnSAL
$ample !roblem 1
The two Iorces act on a bolt at
. Determine their resultant.
SOLUTION:
· Graphical solution - construct a
parallelogram with sides in the same
direction as ! and Q and lengths in
proportion. Graphically evaluate the
resultant which is equivalent in direction
and proportional in magnitude to the the
diagonal.
· Trigonometric solution - use the triangle
rule Ior vector addition in coniunction
with the law oI cosines and law oI sines
to Iind the resultant.
23
· Graphical solution - A parallelogram with sides
equal to ! and Q is drawn to scale. The
magnitude and direction oI the resultant or oI
the diagonal to the parallelogram are
measured,
H = = 35 N 98 ¬ R
· Graphical solution - A triangle is drawn with !
and Q head-to-tail and to scale. The
magnitude and direction oI the resultant or oI
the third side oI the triangle are measured,
H = = 35 N 98 ¬ R
$ample !roblem 1
24
· Trigonometric solution - Apply the triangle rule.
From the Law oI Cosines,
´ ) ´ ) ´ )´ ) H =
=
155 cos N 60 N 40 2 N 60 N 40
cos 2
2 2
2 2 2
!" " ! #

#
"

#

"

H =
H =
H =
=
=
20
04 . 15
N 73 . 97
N 60
155 sin
sin sin
sin sin
¬
N 73 . 97 = #
From the Law oI Sines,
H = 04 . 35 ¬
$ample !roblem 1
25
K. Kalita 26
a) the tension in each oI the ropes
Ior a ÷ 45
o
,
b) the value oI a Ior which the
tension in rope 2 is minimum.
A barge is pulled by two tugboats.
II the resultant oI the Iorces
exerted by the tugboats is a 25 kN
directed along the axis oI the
barge, determine
SOLUTION:
· Find a graphical solution by applying the
Parallelogram Rule Ior vector addition. The
parallelogram has sides in the directions oI
the two ropes and a diagonal in the direction
oI the barge axis and length proportional to
25 kN Iorce.
· The angle Ior minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule
and observing the eIIect oI variations in a.
· Find a trigonometric solution by applying
the Triangle Rule Ior vector addition. With
the magnitude and direction oI the resultant
known and the directions oI the other two
sides parallel to the ropes given, apply the
Law oI Sines to Iind the rope tensions.
$ample !roblem 2
K. Kalita 27
· Graphical solution - Parallelogram Rule
with known resultant direction and
magnitude, known directions for sides.
lbI 2600 kN 18.5
2 1
= = % %
· Trigonometric solution - Triangle Rule
with Law of $ines
H
=
H
=
H 105 sin
kN 25
30 sin 45 sin
2 1
% %
kN 12.94 kN 18.3
2 1
= = % %
$ample !roblem 2
K. Kalita 28
· The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is
determined by applying the Triangle Rule and
observing the effect of variations in ¬.
· The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when
T
1
and T
2
are perpendicular.
´ ) H = 30 sin kN 25
2
%
kN 12.5
2
= %
´ ) H = 30 cos kN 25
1
%
kN 21.7
1
= %
H H = 30 90 ¬ H = 60 ¬
$ample !roblem 2
Rectangular Components of a orce: Unit 'ectors
· Vector components may be expressed as products oI the unit
vectors with the scalar magnitudes oI the vector
components.
F
x
and F
v
are reIerred to as the scalar compo303ts oI
i F i F F
v x
6 6 6
=
F
6
· May resolve a Iorce vector into perpendicular components so
that the resulting parallelogram is a rectangle.
are reIerred to as r0cta3gular ;0ctor compo303ts and
v x
F F F
6 6 6
=
v x
F F
6 6
and
· DeIine perpendicular u3it ;0ctors which are
parallel to the x and v axes.
i i
6 6
and
29
K. Kalita 30
$ " ! #
6 6 6 6
=
· Wish to Iind the resultant oI 3 or more concurrent
Iorces,

=
=
x
x x x x
F
$ " ! #
· The scalar components oI the resultant are equal to the
sum oI the corresponding scalar components oI the
given Iorces.

=
=
v
v v v v
F
$ " ! #
x
v
v x
#
#
# # #
1 2 2
tan

= = o
· To Iind the resultant magnitude and direction,
´ ) ´ )i $ " ! i $ " !
i $ i $ i " i " i ! i ! i # i #
v v v x x x
v x v x v x v x
6 6
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
=
=
· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular components
ddition of orces b $umming Components
Knowing that the tension in cable is 725-N, determine the resultant oI the
three Iorces exerted at point oI beam .
SOLUTION:
· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular
components.
· Calculate the magnitude and direction
oI the resultant.
· Determine the components oI the
resultant by adding the corresponding
Iorce components.
$ample !roblem 3
31
SOLUTION:
· Resolve each Iorce into rectangular components.
· Calculate the magnitude and direction.
$ample !roblem 3
32
Equilibrium of a !article
· When the resultant oI all Iorces acting on a particle is zero, the particle is
in 06uilibrium.
· N0wto3s First Law: II the resultant Iorce on a particle is zero, the particle will
remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.
· Particle acted upon by
two Iorces:
- equal magnitude
- same line oI action
- opposite sense
· Particle acted upon by three or more Iorces:
- graphical solution yields a closed polygon
- algebraic solution
0 0
0
= =
= =

v x
F F
F #
6 6
33
ree-Bod Diagrams
$pac0 Diagram: A sketch showing
the physical conditions oI the
problem.
Fr00odv Diagram: A sketch showing
only the Iorces on the selected particle.
34
K. Kalita 35
In a ship-unloading operation, a
8000-N automobile is supported by
a cable. A rope is tied to the cable
and pulled to center the automobile
over its intended position. What is
the tension in the rope?
SOLUTION:
· Construct a Iree-body diagram Ior the
particle at the iunction oI the rope and
cable.
· Apply the conditions Ior equilibrium by
creating a closed polygon Irom the
Iorces applied to the particle.
· Apply trigonometric relations to
determine the unknown Iorce
magnitudes.
$ample !roblem 4
K. Kalita 36
SOLUTION:
· Construct a Iree-body diagram Ior the
particle at .
· Apply the conditions Ior equilibrium.
· Solve Ior the unknown Iorce magnitudes.
H
=
H
=
H 58 sin
N 8000
2 sin 120 sin

% %
N 8170 =

%
N 329 =

%
$ample !roblem 4
Rectangular Components in $pace
· The vector is
contained in the
plane .
F
6
· Resolve into
horizontal and vertical
components.
v h
F F o sin =
F
6
v v
F F o cos =
· Resolve into
rectangular components
h
F
o

o

sin sin
sin
cos sin
cos
v
h v
v
h x
F
F F
F
F F
=
=
=
=
37
Rectangular Components in $pace
· With the angles between and the axes,
F
6
´ )
k i i
F
k i i F
k F i F i F F
F F F F F F
z v x
z v x
z v x
z z v v x x
6
6 6 6
6
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
o o o ì
ì
o o o
o o o
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
cos cos cos
=
=
=
=
= = =
· is a unit vector along the line oI action oI
and are the direction
cosines Ior
F
6
F
6
ì
6
z v x
o o o cos and , cos , cos
38
Rectangular Components in $pace
Direction oI the Iorce is deIined by
the location oI two points,
´ ) ´ )
2 2 2 1 1 1
, , and , , z v x N z v x M
´ )
d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
d
Fd
F
k d i d i d
d
F F
z z d v v d x x d
k d i d i d
N M d
z
z
v
v
x
x
z v x
z v x
z v x
= = =
=
=
= = =
=
=
6
6 6 6
6 6
6
6 6
6
1
and ioining vector
1 2 1 2 1 2
ì
ì
39
$ample !roblem 4
The tension in the guy wire is 2500 N.
Determine:
a) components F
x
. F
v
. F
z
oI the Iorce
acting on the bolt at ,
b) the angles 6
x
. 6
v
. 6
z
deIining the
direction oI the Iorce
SOLUTION:
· Based on the relative locations oI the
points and , determine the unit
vector pointing Irom towards .
· Apply the unit vector to determine the
components oI the Iorce acting on .
· Noting that the components oI the unit
vector are the direction cosines Ior the
vector, calculate the corresponding
angles.
40
$ample !roblem 4
SOLUTION:
· Determine the unit vector pointing Irom
towards .
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
m 3 . 94
m 30 m 80 m 40
m 30 m 80 m 40
2 2 2
=
=
=

k i i
6
6 6
· Determine the components oI the Iorce.
´ )´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ )k i i
k i i
F F
6
6 6
6
6 6
6 6
N 795 N 2120 N 1060
318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0 N 2500
=
=
= ì
k i i
k i i
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0
3 . 94
30
3 . 94
80
3 . 94
40
=
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

= ì
41
· Noting that the components oI the unit vector
are the direction cosines Ior the vector, calculate
the corresponding angles.
k i i
k i i
z v x
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
318 . 0 848 . 0 424 . 0
cos cos cos
=
= o o o ì
3
3
3
5 . 71
0 . 32
1 . 115
=
=
=
z
v
x
o
o
o
$ample !roblem 3
42
K. Kalita 43
Rigid Bodies: Equivalent $stems of orces
K. Kalita 44
· Treatment oI a body as a single particle is not always possible. In general,
the size oI the body and the speciIic points oI application oI the Iorces
must be considered.
· Most bodies in elementary mechanics are assumed to be rigid, i.e., the
actual deIormations are small and do not aIIect the conditions oI
equilibriumor motion oI the body.
· Current chapter describes the eIIect oI Iorces exerted on a rigid body and
how to replace a given system oI Iorces with a simpler equivalent system.
· moment oI a Iorce about a point
· moment oI a Iorce about an axis
· moment due to a couple
· Any system oI Iorces acting on a rigid body can be replaced by an
equivalent system consisting oI one Iorce acting at a given point and one
couple.
Introduction
· Forces acting on rigid bodies
are divided into two groups:
- External Iorces
- Internal Iorces
· External Iorces are shown in a
Iree-body diagram.
· II unopposed, each external Iorce can impart a motion oI translation or
rotation, or both.
External and Internal orces
· !ri3cipl0 of %ra3smissibilitv -
Conditions oI equilibrium or motion are
not aIIected by tra3smitti3g a Iorce
along its line oI action.
NOTE: and ` are equivalent Iorces.
· Moving the point oI application oI
the Iorce to the rear bumper
does not aIIect the motion or the
other Iorces acting on the truck.
· Principle oI transmissibility may
not always apply in determining
internal Iorces and deIormations.
!rinciple of %ransmissibilit: Equivalent orces
· Concept oI the moment oI a Iorce about a point is
more easily understood through applications oI
the ;0ctor product or cross product.
· Vector product oI two vectors ! and " is deIined
as the vector ' which satisIies the Iollowing
conditions:
1. Line oI action oI ' is perpendicular to plane
containing ! and ".
2. Magnitude oI ' is
3. Direction oI ' is obtained Irom the right-hand
rule.
o sin " ! ' =
· Vector products:
- are not commutative,
- are distributive,
- are not associative,
´ ) " ! ! " L = L
´ )
2 1 2 1
" ! " ! " " ! L L = L
´ ) ´ ) S " ! S " ! L L L L
'ector !roduct of %wo 'ectors
· Vector products of Cartesian unit vectors,
0
0
0
= L = L = L
= L = L = L
= L = L = L
k k i k i i k i
i i k i i k i i
i i k k i i i i
6 6
6
6
: 6
6
6
6 6
6
6 6
6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6 6 6 6
· Vector products in terms of rectangular
coordinates
´ ) ´ ) k " i " i " k ! i ! i ! '
z v x z v x
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
L =
´ ) ´ )
´ )k " ! " !
i " ! " ! i " ! " !
x v v x
z x x z v z z v
6
6 6

=
z v x
z v x
" " "
! ! !
k i i
6
6 6
=
'ector !roducts: Rectangular Components
· A Iorce vector is deIined by its magnitude and direction.
Its eIIect on the rigid body also depends on it point oI
application.
· The mom03t oI F about is deIined as
F r M
O
L =
· The moment vector M
O
is perpendicular to the
plane containing and the Iorce F.
· Any Iorce F' that has the same magnitude and direction as F,
is 06ui;al03t iI it also has the same line oI action and
thereIore, produces the same moment.
· Magnitude oI M
O
measures the tendency oI the Iorce
to cause rotation oI the body about an axis along M
O
.
The sense oI the moment may be determined by the
right-hand rule.
Fd rF M

= = o sin
Moment of a orce bout a !oint
· %wodim03sio3al structur0s have length and breadth
but negligible depth and are subiected to Iorces
contained in the plane oI the structure.
· The plane oI the structure contains the point and
the Iorce F. M
O
, the moment oI the Iorce about is
perpendicular to the plane.
· II the Iorce tends to rotate the structure counter
clockwise, the sense oI the moment vector is out oI
the plane oI the structure and the magnitude oI the
moment is positive.
· II the Iorce tends to rotate the structure clockwise,
the sense oI the moment vector is into the plane oI
the structure and the magnitude oI the moment is
negative.
Moment of a orce bout a !oint
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
ecture 3
03
th
1anuar 2011
Rigid Bodies: Equivalent $stems of orces
· The moment about a give point oI the resultant oI
several concurrent Iorces is equal to the sum oI the
moments oI the various moments about the same
point .
· Varigon`s Theorem makes it possible to replace the
direct determination oI the moment oI a Iorce F by
the moments oI two or more component Iorces oI
F.
´ )
6
6
6
6

6 6
6
L L = L
2 1 2 1
F r F r F F r
'arignons %heorem
´ ) ´ ) ´ )k vF xF i xF zF i zF vF
F F F
z v x
k i i
k M i M i M M
x v z x v z
z v x
z v x
6
6 6
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
=
=
=
The moment oI F about ,
k F i F i F F
k z i v i x r F r M
z v x

6
6 6 6
6
6 6
6
6
6
6
=
= L = ,
Rectangular Components of the Moment of a orce
The moment oI F about ,
F r M

6
6
6
L =

´ ) ´ ) ´ )
z v x

F F F
z z v v x x
k i i
M =
6
6 6
6
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
k F i F i F F
k z z i v v i x x
r r r
z v x


6
6 6 6
6
6 6
6 6 6
=
=
=

Rectangular Components of the Moment of a orce
For two-dimensional structures,
´ )
z v
Z
z v
vF xF
M M
k vF xF M
=
=
=
6 6
´ ) ´ ) . J
´ ) ´ )
z v
Z
z v
F v v F x x
M M
k F v v F x x M
=
=
=
6 6
Rectangular Components of the Moment of a orce
A 500-N vertical Iorce is applied to the end oI a
lever which is attached to a shaIt at .
Determine:
a) moment about .
b) horizontal Iorce at which creates the same
moment,
c) smallest Iorce at A which produces the same
moment,
d) location Ior a 1200-N vertical Iorce to produce
the same moment,
e) whether any oI the Iorces Irom b, c, and d is
equivalent to the original Iorce.
$ample !roblem 3.1
a) Moment about is equal to the product oI the Iorce
and the perpendicular distance between the line oI
action oI the Iorce and Since the Iorce tends to
rotate the lever clockwise, the moment vector is into
the plane oI the paper.
´ )
´ )´ ) m 0.3 500
3 . 0 300 60 cos 600
N M
m mm mm d
Fd M

=
= = H =
=
SOLUTION:
$ample !roblem 3.1
b) Horizontal Iorce at that produces the same
moment,
´ )
´ )
m 0.5196
m . N 150
5196 . 0 m . N 150
m 0.5196 mm 519.6 60 sin mm 600
=
=
=
= = H =
F
m F
Fd M
d

$ample !roblem 3.1
c) The smallest Iorce to produce the same
moment occurs when the perpendicular
distance is a maximum or when F is
perpendicular to .
´ )
m 0.6
m . N 150
m 0.6 m . N 150
=
=
=
F
F
Fd M

N 250 = F
$ample !roblem 3.1
d) To determine the point oI application oI a
1200 N Iorce to produce the same moment,
´ )
mm 125 cos60
mm 125
N 1200
m . N 150
N 1200 m . N 150
= H
= =
=
=

d
d
Fd M

mm 250 =
$ample !roblem 3.1
e) Although each oI the Iorces in parts b), c), and
d) produces the same moment as the 500-N
Iorce, none are oI the same magnitude and
sense, or on the same line oI action. None oI
the Iorces is equivalent to the 500-N Iorce.
$ample !roblem 3.1
3 - 62
e) Although each oI the Iorces in parts b), c), and
d) produces the same moment as the 500-N
Iorce, none are oI the same magnitude and
sense, or on the same line oI action. None oI
the Iorces is equivalent to the 500-N Iorce.
$ample !roblem 3.1
The rectangular plate is supported by the brackets at and and by a wire
D. Knowing that the tension in the wire is 200 N, determine the moment
about oI the Iorce exerted by the wire at .
SOLUTION:
The moment M

oI the Iorce F
exerted by the wire is obtained by
evaluating the vector product,
F r M

6
6
6
L =
$ample !roblem 3.2
$ample !roblem 3.2
SOLUTION:
128 96 120
08 . 0 0 3 . 0

=
k i i
M

6
6 6
6
´ ) ´ ) ´ )k i i M

6
6 6 :
m N 8.8 2 m N 8.8 2 m N 68 . 7 c c c =
´ ) ´ )i i r r r

6 6
6 6 6
m 08 . 0 m 3 . 0 = =
F r M

6
6
6
L =
´ )
´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
200 N
0.3 m 0.24 m 0.32 m
200 N
0.5 m
120 N 96 N 128 N
D
D
r
F F
r
i i k
i i k
ì = =

=
=

$ample !roblem 3.2
· The scalar product or dot product
between two vectors ! and " is deIined
as
´ ) result scalar coso !" " ! = -
6 6
· Scalar products:
- are commutative,
- are distributive,
- are not
associative,
! " " !
6 6 6 6
- = -
´ )
2 1 2 1
" ! " ! " " !
6 6 6 6 6 6 6
- - = -
´ ) undeIined = - - $ " !
6 6 6
· Scalar products with Cartesian unit
components,
0 0 0 1 1 1 = - = - = - = - = - = - i k k i i i k k i i i i
6
6 6
: 6 6
6 6
6 6 6 6
´ ) ´ ) k " i " i " k ! i ! i ! " !
z v x z v x
6
6 6
6
6 6 6 6
- = -
2 2 2 2
! ! ! ! ! !
" ! " ! " ! " !
z v x
z z v v x x
= = -
= -
6 6
6 6
$calar !roduct of %wo 'ectors
· Angle between two
vectors:
!"
" ! " ! " !
" ! " ! " ! !" " !
z z v v x x
z z v v x x

=
= = -
o
o
cos
cos
6 6
· Proiection oI a vector on a given
axis:
L
L
! !
"
" !
!" " !
L ! ! !
= =
-
= -
= =
o
o
o
cos
cos
along oI proiection cos
6 6
6 6
z z v v x x
L
! ! !
! !
o o o
ì
cos cos cos =
- =
6 6
· For an axis deIined by a unit vector:
$calar !roduct of %wo 'ectors: pplications
· Mixed triple product oI three vectors,
´ ) result scalar = L - " ! $
6 6 6
· The six mixed triple products Iormed Irom S, !,
and " have equal magnitudes but not the same
sign,
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ ) $ ! " " $ ! ! " $
! $ " $ " ! " ! $
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
L - = L - = L - =
L - = L - = L -
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ )
z v x
z v x
z v x
x v v x z
z x x z v v z z v x
" " "
! ! !
$ $ $
" ! " ! $
" ! " ! $ " ! " ! $ " ! $
=

= L -
6 6 6
· Evaluating the mixed triple product,
Mixed %riple !roduct of %hree 'ectors
· Moment M
O
oI a Iorce F applied at the
point A about a point O,
F r M

6
6
6
L =
· Scalar moment M
L
about an axis OL is the
proiection oI the moment vector M
O
onto
the axis,
´ ) F r M M
L
6
6
6 6 6
L - = - = ì ì
· Moments oI F about the coordinate
axes,
x v z
z x v
v z x
vF xF M
xF zF M
zF vF M
=
=
=
Moment of a orce bout a Given xis
· Moment oI a Iorce about an arbitrary
axis,
´ )


L
r r r
F r
M M
6 6 6
6
6
6
6 6
=
L - =
- =
ì
ì
Moment of a orce bout a Given xis
BeIore the trunk oI a large tree is Ielled,
cables and are attached as shown.
Tensions in cables and are 555-N
and 660-N, respectively.
Determine the moment about oI the
resultant Iorce exerted on the tree by the
cables at .
$ample !roblem 3.3
SOLUTION:
$ample !roblem 3.3
· Two Iorces F and -F having the same
magnitude, parallel lines oI action, and
opposite sense are said to Iorm a coupl0.
· Moment oI the couple,
´ )
´ )
Fd rF M
F r
F r r
F r F r M


= =
L =
L =
L L =
o sin
6
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
6
6
· The moment vector oI the couple is
independent oI the choice oI the origin oI
the coordinate axes, i.e., it is a fr00 ;0ctor
that can be applied at any point with the
same eIIect.
Moment of a Couple
Two couples will have equal moments iI
·
2 2 1 1
d F d F =
· the two couples lie in parallel planes,
and
· the two couples have the same sense
or the tendency to cause rotation in
the same direction.
Moment of a Couple
· Consider two intersecting planes !
1
and !
2
with each containing a couple
2 2 2
1 1 1
plane in
plane in
! F r M
! F r M
6
6
6
6
6
6
L =
L =
· Resultants oI the vectors also Iorm
a couple
´ )
2 1
F F r # r M
6 6
6
6
6
6
L = L =
· By Varigon`s theorem
2 1
2 1
M M
F r F r M
6 6
6
6
6
6
6
=
L L =
· Sum oI two couples is also a couple that is
equal to the vector sum oI the two couples
ddition of Couples
· A couple can be represented by a vector with magnitude and
direction equal to the moment oI the couple.
· oupl0 ;0ctors obey the law oI addition oI vectors.
· Couple vectors are Iree vectors, i.e., the point oI application is not
signiIicant.
· Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors.
Couples Can Be Represented b 'ectors
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
ecture 4
04
th
1anuar 2011
· Force vector F can not be simply moved to without modiIying its action on
the body.
· Attaching equal and opposite Iorce vectors at produces no net eIIect on the
body.
· The three Iorces may be replaced by an equivalent Iorce vector and couple
vector, i.e, a forc0coupl0 svst0m.
Resolution of a orce Into a orce at O and a Couple
· Moving F Irom to a diIIerent point requires the addition oI a
diIIerent couple vector M
O'
F r M

6
6
6
L @ =

· The moments oI F about O and are related,
´ )
F s M
F s F r F s r F r M

6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
L =
L L = L = L =

· Moving the Iorce-couple system Irom to requires the addition oI the
moment oI the Iorce at about .
Resolution of a orce Into a orce at O and a Couple
Determine the components oI
the single couple equivalent to
the couples shown.
SOLUTION:
· Attach equal and opposite 100-N Iorces
in the ¹x direction at , thereby
producing 3 couples Ior which the
moment components are easily
computed.
· Alternatively, compute the sum oI the
moments oI the Iour Iorces about an
arbitrary single point. The point D is
a good choice as only two oI the
Iorces will produce non-zero moment
contributions..
$ample !roblem 3.4
$ample !roblem 3.4
· The three couples may be represented
by three couple vectors,
´ )´ )
´ )´ )
´ )´ ) m . N 22.5 m 0.23 N 100
m . N 30 m 0.30 N 100
m . N 67.5 m 0.45 N 150
= =
= =
= =
z
v
x
M
M
M
´ ) ´ )
´ )k
i i M
6
6 6 6
m . N 22.5
m . N 30 m . N 67.5

=
$ample !roblem 3.4
· Alternatively, compute the sum oI the
moments oI the Iour Iorces about D.
· Only the Iorces at and contribute to the
moment about D.
´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ ) . J ´ )i k i
k i M M
D
6
6
6
6 6 6 6
N 100 m 0.30 m 0.23
N 150 m 0.45
L
L = =
´ ) ´ )
´ )k
i i M
6
6 6 6
m . N 22.5
m . N 30 m . 67.5

=
$ample !roblem 3.4
· A system oI Iorces may be replaced by a
collection oI Iorce-couple systems acting a given
point
· The Iorce and couple vectors may be combined
into a resultant Iorce vector and a resultant
couple vector, ´ )

L = = F r M F #
#

6
6
6 6 6
· The Iorce-couple system at may be moved to
with the addition oI the moment oI # about
,
# s M M
#

#

6
6
6 6
L =

· Two systems oI Iorces are equivalent iI they
can be reduced to the same Iorce-couple
system.
$stem of orces: Reduction to a orce and Couple
· II the resultant Iorce and couple at are mutually
perpendicular, they can be replaced by a single Iorce
acting along a new line oI action.
· The resultant Iorce-couple system Ior a system oI
Iorces will be mutually perpendicular iI:
1) the Iorces are concurrent,
2) the Iorces are coplanar, or
3) the Iorces are parallel.
urther Reduction of a $stem of orces
· System oI coplanar Iorces is reduced
to a Iorce-couple system
that is mutually perpendicular.
#

M #
6 6
and
· System can be reduced to a single
Iorce by moving the line oI action
oI until its moment about
becomes
#

M
6
#
6
· In terms oI rectangular
coordinates,
#
x v
M v# x# =
urther Reduction of a $stem of orces
For the beam, reduce the system
oI Iorces shown to (a) an
equivalent Iorce-couple system at
, (b) an equivalent Iorce couple
system at , and (c) a single Iorce
or resultant.
Note: Since the support reactions
are not included, the given system
will not maintain the beam in
equilibrium.
SOLUTION:
a) Compute the resultant Iorce Ior the
Iorces shown and the resultant couple
Ior the moments oI the Iorces about
.
b) Find an equivalent Iorce-couple
system at based on the Iorce-couple
system at .
c) Determine the point oI application Ior
the resultant Iorce such that its
moment about is equal to the
resultant couple at .
$ample !roblem 3.5
SOLUTION:
a) Compute the resultant Iorce and the
resultant couple at .
´ ) ´ ) ´ ) ´ )i i i i
F #
6 6 6 6
6 6
N 250 N 100 N 600 N 150 =
=

´ )i #
6 6
N 600 =
´ )
´ ) ´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ ) i i
i i i i
F r M
#

6 6
6 6 6 6
6
6
6
250 8 . 4
100 8 . 2 600 6 . 1
L
L L =
L =

´ )k M
#

6 6
m N 1880 c =
$ample !roblem 3.5
b) Find an equivalent Iorce-couple system at
based on the Iorce-couple system at .
The Iorce is unchanged by the movement oI
the Iorce-couple system Irom to .
´ )i #
6 6
N 600 =
The couple at is equal to the moment about
oI the Iorce-couple system Iound at
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ )k k
i i k
# r M M

#

#

6 6
6 6
6
6
6
6 6
m N 2880 m N 1880
N 600 m 8 . 4 m N 1880
c c =
L c =
L =
´ )k M
#

6 6
m N 1000 c =
$ample !roblem 3.5
· Angle between two
vectors:
!"
" ! " ! " !
" ! " ! " ! !" " !
z z v v x x
z z v v x x

=
= = -
o
o
cos
cos
6 6
· Proiection oI a vector on a given
axis:
L
L
! !
"
" !
!" " !
L ! ! !
= =
-
= -
= =
o
o
o
cos
cos
along oI proiection cos
6 6
6 6
z z v v x x
L
! ! !
! !
o o o
ì
cos cos cos =
- =
6 6
· For an axis deIined by a unit vector:
$calar !roduct of %wo 'ectors: pplications
3
0 =
Two Iorces oI the same magnitude ! act on a cube oI side a as shown. Replace the two
Iorces by an equivalent wrench, and determine (a) the magnitude and direction oI the
resultant Iorce R, (b) the pitch oI the wrench, (c) the point where the axis oI the wrench
intersects the vz plane.
x
v
z
a
a
a
1
`
!i =
2
`
!i =
A
A
B
C
D
E
Three cables are attached to the
bracket as shown. Replace the
Iorces with an equivalent Iorce-
couple system at .
SOLUTION:
· Determine the relative position vectors Ior
the points oI application oI the cable Iorces
with respect to .
· Resolve the Iorces into rectangular
components.
· Compute the equivalent Iorce,

= F #
6 6
· Compute the equivalent couple,
´ )

L = F r M
#

6
6
:
$ample !roblem 3.6
SOLUTION:
· Determine the relative position
vectors with respect to .
´ )
´ )
´ ) m 100 . 0 100 . 0
m 050 . 0 075 . 0
m 050 . 0 075 . 0
i i r
k i r
k i r
D


6 6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
=
=
=
· Resolve the Iorces into rectangular
components.
´ )
´ ) N 200 600 300
289 . 0 857 . 0 429 . 0
175
50 150 75
N 700
k i i F
k i i
k i i
r
r
F

6
6 6 6
6
6 6
6
6 6 6
6
6 6
=
=

= =
=
ì
ì
´ )´ )
´ ) N 1039 600
30 cos 60 cos N 1200
i i
i i F
D
6 6
6 6 6
=
=
´ )´ )
´ ) N 707 707
45 cos 45 cos N 1000
i i
i i F

6 6
6 6 6
=
=
$ample !roblem 3.6
· Compute the equivalent force,
´ )
´ )
´ )k
i
i
F #
6
6
6
6 6
707 200
1039 600
600 707 300


=
=

´ ) N 507 439 1607 k i i #
6
6 6 6
=
· Compute the equivalent couple,
´ )
k
k i i
F r
i
k i i
F r
k i
k i i
F r
F r M
D D
c

#

6
6
6 6
6
6
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
6
6
6 6
6
6
6
6
:
9 . 163
0 1039 600
0 100 . 0 100 . 0
68 . 17
707 0 707
050 . 0 0 075 . 0
45 30
200 600 300
050 . 0 0 075 . 0
= = L
=

= L
=

= L
L =

k i i M
#

6
6 6 6
9 . 118 68 . 17 30 =
$ample !roblem 3.6
Instructions for TUTO#IL
· ring pen, pencil, tagged A4 sheets, calculator, text books
· $ubmitted in same tutorial class
· $olve more problems as home work
· Tutorial: 12 % contribution in grading
· o not miss any tutorial class
QUIZ 1 - FEB, 03
rd
, 2011
ME101: Engineering Mechanics
ecture 5
07
th
1anuar 2011
Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
· The necessary and suIIicient condition Ior the static equilibrium oI a
body are that the resultant Iorce and couple Irom all external Iorces Iorm
a system equivalent to zero,
´ )

=

L = = 0 0 F r M F

6
6
6 6

=

=

=

=

=

=
0 0 0
0 0 0
z v x
z v x
M M M
F F F
· Resolving each Iorce and moment into its rectangular components leads
to 6 scalar equations which also express the conditions Ior static
equilibrium,
· For a rigid body in static equilibrium, the external Iorces and moments
are balanced and will impart no translational or rotational motion to the
body.
Introduction
First step in the static equilibrium analysis oI
a rigid body is identiIication oI all Iorces
acting on the body with a Iree-body diagram.
· Select the extent oI the Iree-body and detach
it Irom the ground and all other bodies.
· Indicate point oI application and assumed
direction oI unknown applied Iorces. These
usually consist oI reactions through which the
ground and other bodies oppose the possible
motion oI the rigid body.
ree-Bod Diagram
· Reactions equivalent to a Iorce
with known line oI action.
Reactions at $upports and Connections for a %wo-Dimensional $tructure
· Reactions equivalent to a
Iorce oI unknown direction
and magnitude.
· Reactions equivalent to a
Iorce oI unknown direction
and magnitude and a
couple.oI unknown
magnitude
Reactions at $upports and Connections for a %wo-Dimensional $tructure
FBD - Examples
Equilibrium equns. Can be solved.
· $ome forces can be zero
· ssumed sign can be different
· For all Iorces and moments acting on a two-
dimensional structure,
z v x z
M M M M F = = = = 0 0
· Equations oI equilibrium become

= = = 0 0 0
v x
M F F
where A is any point in the plane oI the structure.
· The 3 equations can be solved Ior no more than 3
unknowns.
· The 3 equations can not be augmented with
additional equations, but they can be replaced

= = = 0 0 0
x
M M F
Equilibrium of a Rigid Bod in %wo Dimensions
· More unknowns than
equations
· Fewer unknowns than
equations, partially
constrained
· Equal number unknowns
and equations but
improperly constrained
$taticall Indeterminate Reactions
A Iixed crane has a mass oI 1000 kg
and is used to liIt a 2400 kg crate. It
is held in place by a pin at A and a
rocker at B. The center oI gravity oI
the crane is located at G.
Determine the components oI the
reactions at A and B.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the crane.
· Determine B by solving the equation Ior the
sum oI the moments oI all Iorces about A.
Note there will be no contribution Irom the
unknown reactions at A.
· Determine the reactions at A by solving the
equations Ior the sum oI all horizontal Iorce
components and all vertical Iorce components.
· Check the values obtained Ior the reactions by
veriIying that the sum oI the moments about B
oI all Iorces is zero.
$ample !roblem 4.1
· Create the Iree-body diagram.
$ample !roblem 4.1
· Create the Iree-body diagram.
· Check the values obtained.
· Determine B by solving the equation Ior the sum oI
the moments oI all Iorces about A.
´ ) ´ )
´ ) 0 m 6 kN 5 . 23
m 2 kN 81 . 9 m 5 . 1 : 0
=

= M

kN 1 . 107 =
· Determine the reactions at A by solving the
equations Ior the sum oI all horizontal Iorces and
all vertical Iorces.
0 : 0 = = F
x x
kN 1 . 107 =
x

0 kN 5 . 23 kN 81 . 9 : 0 = =
v v
F
kN 3 . 33 =
v

$ample !roblem 4.1
A loading car is at rest on an inclined
track. The gross weight oI the car and
its load is 25 kN, and it is applied at at
G. The cart is held in position by the
cable.
Determine the tension in the cable and
the reaction at each pair oI wheels.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the car with
the coordinate system aligned with the track.
· Determine the reactions at the wheels by
solving equations Ior the sum oI moments
about points above each axle.
· Determine the cable tension by solving the
equation Ior the sum oI Iorce components
parallel to the track.
· Check the values obtained by veriIying that
the sum oI Iorce components perpendicular to
the track are zero.
$ample !roblem 4.2
· Create a Iree-body diagram
´ )
´ )
kN 10.5
25 sin kN 25
kN 22.65
25 cos kN 25
=
=
=
=
3
3
v
x
W
W
· Determine the reactions at the wheels.
´ ) ´ )
´ ) 0 mm 1250
mm 150 kN 22.65 mm 625 kN 10.5 : 0
2
=
=

#
M

kN 8
2
= #
´ ) ´ )
´ ) 0 mm 1250
mm 150 kN 22.65 mm 625 kN 10.5 : 0
1
=
=

#
M

kN 2.5
1
= #
· Determine the cable tension.
0 T kN 22.65 : 0 = =
x
F
kN 22.7 = %
$ample !roblem 4.2
$ample !roblem 4.3
A 6-m telephone pole oI 1600-N used to support the wires. Wires T
1
÷ 600 N
and T
2
÷ 375 N.
Determine the reaction at the Iixed end A.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the telephone
cable.
· Solve 3 equilibrium equations Ior the
reaction Iorce components and couple at A.
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior
the Irame and cable.
· Solve 3 equilibrium equations Ior the reaction
Iorce components and couple.
0 10 cos ) N 600 ( 20 cos ) N 375 ( : 0 = H H =
x x
F
N 238.50 =
x

´ ) ´ ) 0 20 sin N 375 10 sin 600N N 1600 : 0 = H H =
v v
F
N 1832.45 =
v

= : 0

M ´ ) ´ )
0 (6m)
20 cos 375N ) 6 ( 10 cos 600N
=
H H m M

1431.00N.m

M =
$ample !roblem 4.3
· Consider a plate subiected to two Iorces F
1
and F
2
· For static equilibrium, the sum oI moments about A
must be zero. The moment oI F
2
must be zero. It
Iollows that the line oI action oI F
2
must pass
through A.
· Similarly, the line oI action oI F
1
must pass through
B Ior the sum oI moments about B to be zero.
· Requiring that the sum oI Iorces in any direction be
zero leads to the conclusion that F
1
and F
2
must
have equal magnitude but opposite sense.
Equilibrium of a %wo-orce Bod
· Consider a rigid body subiected to Iorces acting at only 3
points.
· Since the rigid body is in equilibrium, the sum oI the
moments oI F
1
, F
2
, and F
3
about any axis must be zero. It
Iollows that the moment oI F
3
about D must be zero as well
and that the line oI action oI F
3
must pass through D.
· Assuming that their lines oI action intersect, the moment oI
F
1
and F
2
about the point oI intersection represented by D
is zero.
· The lines oI action oI the three Iorces must be concurrent or
parallel.
Equilibrium of a %hree-orce Bod
A man raises a 10 kg ioist, oI
length 4 m, by pulling on a rope.
Find the tension in the rope and
the reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram oI the ioist. Note that
the ioist is a 3 Iorce body acted upon by the rope,
its weight, and the reaction at A.
· The three Iorces must be concurrent Ior static
equilibrium. ThereIore, the reaction # must pass
through the intersection oI the lines oI action oI
the weight and rope Iorces. Determine the
direction oI the reaction Iorce #.
· Utilize a Iorce triangle to determine the
magnitude oI the reaction Iorce #.
$ample !roblem 4.6
· Create a Iree-body diagram oI the ioist.
· Determine the direction oI the reaction Iorce R.
´ )
´ )
´ )
636 . 1
414 . 1
313 . 2
tan
m 2.313 m 515 . 0 828 . 2
m 515 . 0 20 tan m 414 . 1 ) 20 45 cot(
m 414 . 1
m 828 . 2 45 cos m 4 45 cos
2
1
= = =
= = =
= = =
= = =
= = =

D F
D D
F D
F
¬
3
6 . 58 = ¬
$ample !roblem 4.6
· Determine the magnitude oI the reaction
Iorce R.
3 3 3
38.6 sin
N 1 . 98
110 sin 4 . 31 sin
= =
# %
N 8 . 147
N 9 . 81
=
=
#
%
$ample !roblem 4.6
119
Meriem/ raige; 3/4
2D equilibrium
Determine the magnitude % oI the tension in the supporting cable and the magnitude oI
the Iorce on the pin at A Ior the iib crane as shown. The beam AB is a standard 0.5-m I-
beam with a mass oI 95 kg per meter oI length.
120
Meriem/ raige; 3/4
2D equilibrium
Find % and Iorce at ; I-beam with mass oI 95
kgmeter oI length
95 kgmeter ÷ 95×(10
-3
) ×(5) ×(9.81) ÷ 4.66kN
T
25
0
y
A
x
A
y
10 kN
0.5 m
4.66 kN
5m
1.5m
0.12 m
´ ) ´ ) ´ )
´ ) ´ )
cos 25 0.25 sin 25 5 0.12
10 5 1.5 0.12 4.66 2.5 0.12 0
19.6kN

M % %
%
= L L
L L =
=

0 19.61 cos 25 0 17.7kN
x x x
F = ÷ L = ÷ =

0 19.61 sin 25 4.66 10 0
6.37kN
v v
v
F

= ÷ L =
÷ =

2 2
18.88kN
x v
= =
· Six scalar equations are required to express the conditions Ior the equilibrium
oI a rigid body in the general three dimensional case.

=

=

=

=

=

=
0 0 0
0 0 0
z v x
z v x
M M M
F F F
· These equations can be solved Ior no more than 6 unknowns which generally
represent reactions at supports or connections.
· The scalar equations are conveniently obtained by applying the vector Iorms oI
the conditions Ior equilibrium,
´ )
= L = = 0 0 F r M F

6
6
6 6
Equilibrium of a Rigid Bod in %hree Dimensions
Equilibrium of a Rigid Bod in %hree Dimensions
Reactions at $upports and Connections for a %hree-Dimensional
$tructure
124
Types of 3 equilibrium
A sign oI uniIorm density weighs 1200-N and is supported by a ball-and-socket
ioint at A and by two cables.
Determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at A.
SOLUTION:
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the sign.
· Apply the conditions Ior static equilibrium to
develop equations Ior the unknown reactions.
$ample !roblem 4.8
· Create a Iree-body diagram Ior the sign.
Since there are only 5 unknowns, the sign is
partially constrain. It is Iree to rotate about the x
axis. It is, however, in equilibrium Ior the given
loading.
´ )
´ ) k i i %
k i i
%
r r
r r
% %
k i i %
k i i
%
r r
r r
% %

D
D
D
D
D D
6
6 6
6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6
6
6 6
6
6 6
6 6
6 6
6
7
2
7
3
7
6
3
2
3
1
3
2
7
2 3 6
6 . 3
4 . 2 2 . 1 4 . 2
=

=

=
=

=

=
$ample !roblem 4.8
· Apply the conditions Ior static
equilibrium to develop
equations Ior the unknown
reactions.
´ )
´ ) ´ )
0 m . N 1440 771 . 0 8 . 0 :
0 514 . 0 6 . 1 :
0 N 1200 m 1.2
0 :
0 N 1200 :
0 :
0 N 1200
7
2
3
2
7
3
3
1
7
6
3
2
=
=
= L L L =
=
=
=
= =

D
D
D
D z
D v
D x
D
% % k
% % i
i i % r % r M
% % k
% % i
% % i
i % % F
6
6
6 6 6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6 6 6 6 6
´ ) ´ ) ´ )k i i
% %
D
6
6 :
6
N 100.1 N 419 N 1502
N 1402 N 451
=
= =
Solve the 5 equations Ior the 5 unknowns,
$ample !roblem 4.8
128
2D, 3D Iorce system
· Rectangular components
· Moment
· Varignon`s theorem
· Couple
· Force-couple system
· Resultant
· Principle oI moment
Equilibrium equations
LFx ÷ 0; LFy ÷ 0; LM
A
÷ 0
LFx ÷ 0; LM
A
÷ 0; LM
B
÷ 0
LM
A
÷ 0; LM
B
÷ 0; LMc ÷ 0
2D
LF ÷ 0 (or) LF
X
÷ 0; LF
Y
÷ 0; LF
Z
÷ 0
LM ÷ 0 (or) LM
X
÷ 0; LM
Y
÷ 0; LM
Z
÷ 0
3D
$ummar
136
$%%IC$ - MID $EME$%ER - DYNMIC$
%utorial: %hursda 8 am to 8.55 am
1. Vector Mechanics Ior Engineers Statics & Dynamics, Beer &
Johnston; 7
th
edition
2. Engineering Mechanics Statics & Dynamics, Shames; 4
th
edition
3. Engineering Mechanics Statics Vol. 1, Engineering Mechanics
Dynamics Vol. 2, Meriam & Kraige; 5
th
edition
4. Schaum`s solved problems series Vol. 1: Statics; Vol. 2: Dynamics,
Joseph F. Shelley
Reference books

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