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Development of modern industry, especially in the Western countries, can be traced back to the 18th century. Industrial development in India on Western lines however commenced from the middle of the 19th century. The first organised Trade Union in India named as the Madras Labour Union was formed in the year 1918. Since then a large number of unions sprang up in almost all the industrial centers of the country. Similarly, entrepreneurs also formed their organisations to protect their interests.
Section 2(h) of the Trade Union Act. and includes any federation of two or more trade unions.DEFINATION Trade Unions are the groups set-up with the aim setof trying to create fairness and job security in a workplace. whether temporary or permanent. or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business. former primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workman and workmen or between employers. .1926 has define a trade union as: Any combination.
The dominant interest with which a union is concerned is. It achieves its objectives through collective action and group effort. It is a permanent body and not a casual or temporary one. economic. It is formed on a continuous basis. II. It is an organization formed by employees or workers. III. IV. It is formed to protect and promote all kinds of interests economic.Features of trade unions I. It includes federations of trade unions also. V. political and social-of its socialmembers. . however.
the National Union of Journalists (NUJ).What are trade unions? Trade unions are organizations that represent people at work. All sorts of jobs and industries are covered by trade unions. Some unions represent people who do a particular job or work in a specific industry . By joining together with other workers. Trade unions exist because an individual worker has very little power to influence decisions that are made about his or her job.for example. Their purpose is to protect and improve people pay and conditions of employment. there is more chance of having a voice and influence. They also campaign for laws and policies which will benefit working people. represents journalists. as its name suggests. and the Union for Finance Staff (UNIFI) is made up of people who do different jobs in the financial sector .
Negotiation. Representation. Information and advice Member services .What do unions do? The main service a union provides for its members is negotiation and representation. There are other benefits people get from being members of trade unions.
There may be a difference of opinion between management and union members. working hours. This process is also known as collective bargaining. People who work in organisations where unions are recognised are better paid and are less likely to be made redundant than people who work in organisations where unions are not recognised. Pay.NegotiationNegotiation Negotiation is where union representatives discuss with management issues which affect people working in an organization. . holidays and changes to working practices are the sorts of issues that are negotiated. unions are said to be recognized for collective bargaining purposes. In many workplaces there is a formal agreement between the union and the company which states that the union has the right to negotiate with the employer. In these organisations. Negotiation is about finding a solution to these differences. The union finds out the members views and relays these views to management.
or discrimination at work.Representation Trade unions also represent individual members when they have a problem at work. Unions also offer their members legal representation. If an employee feels they are being unfairly treated. If the problem cannot be resolved amicably. the matter may go to an industrial tribunal. he or she can ask the union representative to help sort out the difficulty with the manager or employer. unfair dismissal. Industrial tribunals make sure that employment laws are properly adhered to by employees and employers. People can ask their union to represent them at industrial tribunals. Most cases that go to industrial tribunals are about pay. They are made up of people outside the workplace who listen to the employer and the employee point of view and then make a judgement about the case. Normally this is to help people get financial compensation for work-related injuries or to assist people workwho have to take their employer to court .
and how you can obtain training at work. Information and advice . They can advise on a range of issues like how much holiday you are entitled to each year.Contd. Unions have a wealth of information which is useful to people at work. how much pay you will get if you go on maternity leave.
Some unions also help members who have left school with little education by offering courses on basic skills and courses leading to professional qualifications.Most unions run training courses for their members on employment rights. These include: Education and training .Contd.People can get discounts on mortgages. Member services during the last ten years. some unions give help with personal matters. Some of the older unions offer financial help to their members when they are sick or unemployed . Legal assistance As well as offering legal advice on employment issues. health and safety and other issues. like housing. trade unions have increased the range of services they offer their members. Financial discounts . wills and debt. insurance and loans from unions. Welfare benefits One of the earliest functions of trade unions was to look after members who hit hard times.
Conciliation and Arbitration Service (ACAS) is often used to help find a solution to a dispute which is acceptable to both sides. Employers lose income because of interruptions to production or services. Both sides have a lot to lose. The Advisory. . Employees lose their salaries and may find that their jobs are at risk. Industrial action takes different forms. a work-to-rule or a strike. Strikes are often in the news but are rare. Usually employers and employees will go to some lengths to avoid the costs of strike action to both groups. A strike is only called as a last resort.What is the role of trade unions in industrial disputes? Most collective bargaining takes place quietly and agreements are quickly reached by the union and the employer. In these cases the union may decide to take industrial action. Occasionally disagreements do occur and the two sides cannot agree. It could mean an over time ban. There are strict laws which work-tounions have to follow when they take industrial action.
OBJECTIVES Better Wages Better Working conditions Bonus Resist unsuitable schemes Secure welfare Project Interest of workers Social welfare Organizational growth and stability .
FUNCTIONS Militant Fraternal Intra-mural Intra- activities Extra-mural activities Extra Political activities. .
Why do workers join unions Greater Bargaining Power Makes their voice heard Minimize discrimination Sense of security Sense of Participation Sense of Belongingness Protection Social pressure Compulsion Political beliefs Solidarity Tradition Pay and conditions Communication Health and safety .
CRITICISM OF TRADE UNION BY EMPLOYERS Lack of education May not welcome change Strike on Illogical basis Undue demands relating to wages .
STRUCTURE OF TRADE UNIONS Plant level Federations Local level Federations Regional Level Federations National Level Federations .
1926 provides for the registration of the Trade Unions with the Registrars of Trade Unions of their territory. . The Act gives protection to registered trade unions in certain cases against civil and criminal action.TRADE UNIONS ACT 1926 Trade Unions Act. Any seven or more members of a trade union by submitting their names to the registrar of trade unions and otherwise complying with the provisions of the Act with respect to registration may apply for the registration of the Trade Union under the Trade Unions Act.
They are: Bhartiya Mazdoor Sangh (BMS) National Labour Organisation (NLO) National Front of Indian Trade Unions (NFITU) Trade Union Congress Committee . The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC). The Marxists separated from the AITUC in May 1970 and formed the CITU. This union serves as the labour forum of Communist Party of India at present. The Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS). The Congress Party and the top congress leaders formed the INTUC like Nehru and Patel were associated with it. The HMS was organized with a view to keeping its members free from any political or other outside interference.Four important central organisations of workers in India are The Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC). there are four other central trade union organisations. It is considered as the second largest union in India. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC). Those persons who were dissident socialist formed it. Every union affiliated to INTUC has to submit its dispute to arbitration after exhausting other means of settlement of disputes. It was formed in Calcutta by the socialists who neither approved INTUC nor AITUC. Centre for Indian Trade Unions (CITU). In addition to the above. It functions mainly in Kerala and West Bengal.
PROBLEMS AND WEAKNESS OF TRADE UNIONS Uneven growth Limited membership Multiplicity of unions Outside leadership Financial problems Indifferent attitude of workers .
deducted directly from wages or paid in cash or by cheque to a union representative or full time official. negotiation. Some unions reduce the fees for unemployed members. members receive the benefits of representation. People pay their subscription fees in different ways. . In exchange.How are trade unions financed? Each trade union member pays a subscription. protection and other services from their union. It may be collected by direct debit from a bank account.
People are able to join the most appropriate union for their job or sector. television commercials and leaflets as part of high profile recruitment campaigns.How do trade unions recruit their members? Different unions cover different jobs and industries. Unions are stepping up their efforts to attract new members. Some employers and personnel officers tell employees about the union when they start working for the organization. Some are using adverts in newspapers and magazines. . Most people find out about the union by talking to colleagues at the workplace and then make direct contact with the union. People are recruited to unions in different ways. Others are contacted by the union representative who gives them information about the union and tells them how to join.
including: a dramatic fall in the number of jobs in manufacturing industries where union membership was traditionally high larger numbers of unemployed people a fall in traditional full time employment and an increase in part time and temporary workers who are less likely to join unions an increase in the proportion of the workforce employed by small companies where it is often difficult for unions to organise hostile legislation .How has trade union membership changed in recent years? There are several reasons for this fall in membership.
SUGGESTIONS FOR HEALTHY GROWTH OF UNIONS One Union Per Industry Paid Union Officials Development of Internal Leadership Recognition of Trade Unions Improved Financial condition .
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