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and a few simple laws dictate how particles proceed in collisions and interactions.  Interactions between particles have been scrutinized for many centuries. and so forth. . The most angelic of these are the conservation of energy and momentum which help to explain calculations between particle interactions on scales of magnitude which diverge between planets and quarks.

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Fire. Air«  «and secondary elements like: color. elementary particles: kalapas ² forming all animate and inanimate material composed phenomena  A life- life-span of a kalapa can last about 17 mind mind-- moments  Kalapas originate from: kamma. gender.  . taste. citta. sound. citta. there are minute. nutriment«  Even further. smell. temperature [fire].  There are four primary elements in Buddhism: Earth. and nutriment . Water.

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R  «the kalapa is the smallest unit of material size  «and the khana is the smallest group of time  «then recall: moments are the smallest unit of time occurring in a state of consciousness ² or the temporary simultaneous mental factors. Who uses smaller units of matter/time? . While the measure of moments are defined as time that takes place for the occurrence of a state of consciousness - the time that takes place for the occurrence of a state of consciousness is defined as the time during which the simultaneous occurrence of the mental factors occurs.

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Conditions.  Time. accurrences ² causal relations«  issues 24 causal- causal-relations .

Time of feeling/cognizing 6. Nine forms of á „  :  Time is only a concept derived from this or that phenomena: 1. Succession in organisms [germination/conception] 4. minutes  All of these are concepts/abstractions ² not existing by its own nature. drinking 7. The phenomena of occurrence ² past/future 3. [a meadow is only a battlefield during war!] . moon. night« 9. Functions ² as the time of bathing. Time of genesis/decay 5. day. States expressed in such phrases as temporal [aspect of] of mind/matter 2. Modes of posture: time of going/stopping 8. Revolutions: sun. Groupings of day and night into months.

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Poe arrived at this conclusion after approximately 90 pages of reasoning but employed no mathematics. many of our modern perceptions are still based on their errors ." This is the first known instance of suggesting space and time to be different perceptions of one thing.  The Greeks were wrong. stated in his essay on cosmology titled £  (1848) that "space and duration are one.

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as well as described in a more uniform way the workings of the universe at both the super- super-galactic and sub--atomic levels. In relativistic contexts.  The term  . with space being three- three-dimensional and time playing the role of the fourth dimension.  By combining space and time into a single manifold. however. physicists have significantly simplified a large amount of physical theory. time sub cannot be separated from the three dimensions of space as it depends on an object's velocity relative to the speed of light.

Speculative theories predict 10 or 26 dimensions. but the existence of more than four dimensions would only appear to make a difference at the sub- sub-atomic level. has taken on a generalized meaning with the advent of higher- higher-dimensional theories. .

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is one in which Newton's first and second laws of motion are valid.e.  Hence. in the absence of a net force. and (following Newton's first law of motion). within the inertial frame. . in a straight line and at constant speed. a body at rest will remain at rest and a body in motion will continue to move uniformly³ uniformly³i. an object or body accelerates only when a physical force is applied.

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this equivalence means that scientists living inside an enclosed box moving uniformly cannot detect their motion by  experiment done exclusively inside the box. that is. bodies are subject to so- so-called fictitious forces in non- non-inertial reference frames.   In practical terms. forces that result from the acceleration of the reference frame itself and not from any physical force acting on the body. .  Therefore. scientists living inside a box that is being rotated or otherwise accelerated   measure their acceleration by observing the fictitious forces on bodies inside the box.  By contrast.

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then it must have been much smaller and therefore hotter and denser in the past. The current generally accepted cosmological model. Edwin Hubble (1889- (1889-1953) announced his discovery of the expanding universe.  In 1929. and modified equations to reflect this by adding the cosmological constant. the Lambda- Lambda- CDM model. Einstein accepted only a static universe. However.  If the universe were expanding.   The equations of general relativity predict a non- non- static universe. which he later described as the biggest mistake of his life. . has a positive cosmological constant and thus not only an expanding universe but an accelerating expanding universe.

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and says nothing about the fundamental physical   origin of dark matter. it is merely a useful parameterization of ignorance. physical model of cosmology. dark energy and the nearly scale- scale- invariant spectrum of primordial curvature perturbations: in that sense. so that the universe is much larger than the observable particle horizon.  These are the simplest assumptions for a consistent. LCDM is a  . . It also assumes that it has no observable topology.  The model assumes a nearly scale- scale-invariant spectrum of primordial perturbations and a universe without spatial curvature. However.. These are predictions of cosmic inflation.

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A certain amount of "transformation energy" will be used as the molecules of the "working body" do work on each other when they change from one state to another. During this transformation.. The phenomenon of irreversibility results from the fact that if a thermodynamic system of interacting molecules is brought from one thermodynamic state to another. . the configuration or arrangement of the atoms and molecules in the system will change as a result. all natural processes are irreversible. From this thermodynamics perspective. energy that will not be recoverable if the process is reversed. there will be a certain amount of heat energy loss or dissipation due to intermolecular friction and collisions.

á  !  Scientists investigate phenomena and name observations ² to ultimately explain the previously unknown or to correct wrong interpretations of previous analysis.  The universe is limited to material possibilities while the mind performs creative ¶physically· impossible deeds. .  The mind operates similarly to scientific findings ² or perhaps this is due to the limitations of the human mind.

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capacities and level of intelligence ± and at times would commentate on his own discourses ± but this does not necessarily mean there are errors and contradictions.(  ‡ Lopez seems to be operating under the Mahayana umbrella ± and therefore. He is right to state that the teaching is to be the teacher ± and asks just µhow¶ should the teachings be the teacher.*!. ‡ I would argue against a dearth of Theravada Hermeneutics ± the methods might not yet be drawn out currently. . many of his citations are unavailable to the strict student of the Theravada tradition. The Netti [The Guide] is the teacher¶s starting point. ‡ The Buddha did teach different things to different people based on their interests. Lopez seems to be falling into the trap of determining which teachings are those of a Buddha. dispositions. rather than seeking the method for students to acquire wisdom from the teacher¶s teaching.

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º     ‡ Many instructions in discourse suggest that a person of ¶whatever· characteristics. becoming certain character types of noble- noble-disciples ² illustrating the further need to investigate the Puggalapaññatti ‡ The scholar should investigate whether the Tipitaka provides the material presented in the Disclosure/Guide ² or offers a different set of guidelines ² implying that perhaps the Peta Peta//Netti offer only an interpretation [due to their ¶non- ¶non-inclusion· into the Tipitaka. in some nations]. through Jhana Jhana--meditation. . strive to eliminate their defilements. but often retain their character--personality temperaments.

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the former Queen Maya). when it finally joined the ranks of the Vinaya and Sutta. It was then passed down orally through the Sangha until the __________ Buddhist Council (250 (250 BCE). . becoming the ___________ and final Pitaka of the Pali canon. __________ years later he is said to have spent __________ consecutive months preaching it in its entirety in one of the heavenly- heavenly-deva realms to an audience of _______________ of devas (including his late mother. the essence of the Abhidhamma was formulated by the Buddha during the __________ week after his Enlightenment. each day briefly commuting back to the human realm to convey to the Venerable Sariputta the essence of what he had just taught. The Venerable Sariputta mastered the Abhidhamma and codified it into roughly its present form ² from his ______________ disciples. 7   According to tradition.

How was the Abhidhamma formed?  Apart from the Buddha and Sariputta·s story ² the Abhidhamma was formed in three stages:  The first stage was developed over technical discussions of dhamma ² ¶debates· between disciples and sectarians«  The second stage was the necessary elaboration of doctrine: the Patisambhidamagga is a development from this second stage«  The third stage involves the formation of the Abhidhamma--pitaka as is known to us today« Abhidhamma .

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the potency bends mind by the power of body. because the material body is the object. then the object jhana of mind is obtained by exercise ² thus from being the object of the sublime consciousness it has a sublime object. hen one makes mind dependent on the body. places it in the sublime consciousness. being desirous of going by means of an invisible body. inserts. being desirous of going by means of a visible body. then there is an object of the mind obtained by exercise ² this there is a limited object.      hen one makes the body dependent on the mind. the potency bends the body by the power of the mind. . inserts. places the basic jhana--consciousness in the material body.

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etc« the Arahant knows the thoughts of all beings. a stream stream stream--winner cannot know the thoughts of a once returner. and an immeasurable object at the time of knowing the Path and Fruitation..     «has the limited. sublime. How? It has a limited object at the time of one·s knowing the sense- sense-realm thoughts of others. . Fruitation  An average person cannot know the thoughts of a stream--winner. immeasurable for object. The distinctions should be understood. a sublime object at the time of knowing thoughts of the Rupa and Arupa realms.

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. The discourse moves immediately into a very detailed explanation of the Four Jhāna·s ² the details are perhaps better written than many modern academic texts attempting to introduce the reader to Jhāna levels. in his Abhidhamma Studies ² Researches in Buddhist Psychology explores    . 6 6 66    There definitely is a   There systematic representation of the effort exerted above and in the explanation of the details pertaining to Sariputta·s accomplishments. Nyanaponika Thera Thera.

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Sariputta determined: .in the First Jhāna. Concerning the Abhidhamma . Jhāna.

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 Although the Sangīti Sutta is not arranged as an Abhidhamma treatise. the Sangīti Sutta can be used as an Abhidhamma text: . The effort to comprehend the dhamma- dhamma-sets solely rests with the student ² no explanations are found in the text of the discourse. any effort to categorize the dhammas can lead one to justify the Sangīti Sutta as perhaps. the most important or significant discourse found in the Tipitaka in terms of content alone. Certainly.

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#  (¶Discourses on Gathering Together·)  #  -"recitation together") is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. arranged in groups of dhammas by number. The background to the first recital of the Sangiti- Sangiti- sutta. and the Buddhist Sangha gathered together to recite the core teachings of the Dhamma to prevent such a split in their own religion. some several hundred years later. It was composed by Mahakausthila (according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Sariputra (according to the Chinese sources). though earlier. . It is basically a matika on the early teachings. the Samgiti- Samgiti-paryaya is similar to the Dharma Dharma--skandha.  This text is basically a commentary on the Sangiti- Sangiti-sutta (D # #33 33)) ² an assemblage of the Buddha's Dhamma rather than an actual discourse/discussion. Mahavira. The Sangiti- Sangiti-sutta is also the basis of a commentarial work. perhaps indicates the fear of present or impending schism arising in the Sangha on the part of those who compiled this work. skandha. sastra. as the latter is mentioned in the former. as the Jains fell into disarray after the death of Mahavira. Ekottarikagama. in the later Yogacara- Yogacara-bhumi bhumi--sastra.  Structurally. similar to the Ekottarikagama.

the first 15 of which concern the practice of the spiritual path. ayatanas. dhatus and skandhas as encompassing "all dhammas".  The Dhatuskandha is from a period before then split between the Sanskrit and Pāli Abhidhamma traditions. It was composed by Sariputra (according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan sources) or Maudgalyayana (according to Chinese sources).  It begins with a matika as a summary of the topics. The 21st is regards dependent origination. It presents 21 subjects. Subjects 17 to 20 deal with the enumeration of the ayatanas. based on its correlation with the Pāli -  E . Dharmaskandha ('Aggregation of Dharmas Dharmas¶) ¶)     is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. Dharmaskandha means "collection of dharmas". showing its antiquity. and the realization of its fruits. The 16th deals with "various issues". dharmas". as these were supposedly only assigned by the Buddha himself. traditions.

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It   . Prajnaptisastra (¶Treatise on Designations·)   /    is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma Buddhist scriptures. The word means "designation" (of dhammas).

contrasted with what they are in reality. .  means was composed by Maudgalyayana (according to the Sanskrit and Tibetan) or Mahakatyayana . matika with references to the suttas for orthodoxy. followed by question and answer explanations.  This text is very important based on commentary commentary-- references in Sarvastivadin sources..  Deals with conventional designations of things. The format is of matika.

the Dhatu Dhatu--katha. katha. it does provide. with its conjoined and non- non-conjoined aspects. in particular citta and cetasika. .  This comparatively short text bears similarities with the Theravada text.  à   means "group of elements". As it is not mentioned in the Mahavibhasa. or originally a fragment removed from an earlier text. through several items common to both. this also suggests it is either a later text. In its sevenfold division of dhammas in particular. a closer look at the various divisions of dhammas. in style and format. Dhatukaya ('Body of Elements¶)   is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidharma  is Buddhist scriptures. It was written by Purna (according to Sanskrit and Tibetan sources). It also bears a close connection with the Prakaranapada. matika. or Vasumitra (according to Chinese sources). though it uses a different matika.

Pudgalavadas . Vibhajyavada.the existence of all dhammas through past. The Vijnana- Vijnana-kaya has four main theses to refute this:  The impossibility of two simultaneous cittas  The impossibility of karma and vipaka being simultaneous  That vijnana only arises with an object  Attainments are not necessarily present. is first presented. which holds a different position inside the Sarvastivada doctrine. Vibhajyavada. -/is "Vijnanakaya" means "group of consciousness". It was composed 100 years after the Buddha's death. "past and future (dhammas) do not exist. It is here that the theory of Sarvastivada . present and future. and is also similar to the Prakaranapada.  The text refutes views of several schools: the Vibhajyavada. Interestingly. Vijnanakaya ('Body of Consciousness¶)  -/is one of the seven Sarvastivada Abhidhamma Buddhist scriptures. the issue is only brought up when Moggaliputta- Moggaliputta-tissa makes the standard claim of the Vibhajyavada. and was influenced by the Jnanaprasthana. and the Vatsiputriya Pudgalavadas..  This text was highly esteemed because it upheld Sarvastivadin doctrine against Vibhajyavada objections. (only) present and unconditioned (dhammas) do exist".

. . six-fold classification. nature and functions of the various dhammas. It influenced   is other non- non-Sarvastivada schools. describes ten mental factors present in all states of wholesome consciousness. and dharmas seems to be made of categories of dhammas that are all sutta basedbased. seven and was important for the establishment of the respective characteristics. Its format for dhammadhamma--analysis is used in a few other texts. though not in the polarizing manner that the later Jnanaprasthana and Vibhasa texts did. in paired dhammas. the Vijnana--kaya and Prakaranapada were perhaps representative of several differing lines Vijnana of thought. this may have opened the door for later innovation.. one thousand questions concerning doctrinal categories.  Prakaranapada contains two systems of dhamma classification. Prakaranapada (¶Exposition·)    is the major text of the central Abhidhamma period.. especially the cetasika and citta- citta-viprayukta viprayukta-- dharmas. one five.  It also expands on the traditional fourfold theory of conditionality. It was the former fivefold system that later became the standard format.. by introducing some 20 types of condition. the other seven--fold. The sevenfold system bears some similarities to Pāli Abhidhamma. discusses ninety- ninety-eight evil propensities. five-fold.  This seems to indicate that before the later formalization of Sarvastivada doctrines.  Classifies all existence into five categories. Although these are not the later six. ten kinds of knowledge. though were only later over- over-shadowed by the Vibhasa and its orthodoxy.

as well as detailed discussions of related dhammas. with the six remaining texts of the early period known as the ¶legs· or ¶supports·. or characteristics. Encyclopedic in content. though references are sometimes made to the Prakara apāda in the same terms. and Abhidhamma unsystematic in form ² it has eight sections dealing with: miscellaneous topics. citta. citta. indriya. and so forth. . prajna. intentional acts. Specifics as to each type are given. visible or non- non-visible. as to realm. dhyana and drsti as main divisions. the tendency here is to group by type.  Analysis of the suttas themselves ² in order to find the actual underlying principle. rūpa. samyojanas. the controlling faculties. present or future. mahabhuta. cetasika or citta- citta-viprayukta ² the conditioned dhammas. rather than acceptance of the content at face value . past.rather than the use of sūtta categories pertaining to spiritual praxis. and views. Jnanaprasthana ('Foundation of Knowledge¶)  O   means "establishment of knowledge´. knowledge.could lead to apparent contradictions. Thus.  The orthodox Vibhā a takes this as the ¶root· Abhidhamma.. meditation. indriya. mahabhuta. There is the analysis of the nature.  The outline of the text more closely approximates the earliest of models. the four material elements. The tradition of the Mahavibhasa states that it was taught by the Buddha himself. the fetters. and also the unconditioned dhammas. than those specifically Sarvastivada treatises. dhammas are assigned as either rūpa. of individual dhammas . and that a 100 years after the Buddha's demise. This is evident in its use of the samyojanas. the Sariputta- Sariputta- Abhidhamma. prajna. A Chinese source states that it was written some three centuries after the Buddha. karma. These are then again categorized according to their being with or without outflows. there would be doctrinal disputes among the great masters to give rise to distinctly named schools. It became known as the ¶body· of the Abhidhamma.

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individuality. five . soul or spirit ² but are only temporary arrangements of aggregates undergoing changes through a process of continuity. in whatever plane of existence that they reside in are not possessed of any permanent identity. No quality or feature is outside of the five--fold classification of aggregates. : - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of the Aggregates: Aggregates: According to the teachings from the Buddha ² beings. self.

a foundation. a requisite condition for the unique quality or element [dhatu [dhatu]] characteristic of that particular grouping ² and are of two kinds: those that are imposed upon by a stimulus [six- [six- senses]. : - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of the Bases: Bases: . .A base is that which is derived from the four great essentials. but possesses the special attribute of acting as a support. a basis. and the sense- sense-bases [not the sense- sense-organ] ² just the pure activity of where stimulation ends and the consciousness of the stimulation begins.

and the essential nature«  The six- six-elements are the elements of:  . what arises as a result. : - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of the Elements: Elements: in connection to the senses ² an element is the support for something.

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: - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of the Controlling Faculties: the possess the nature of ruling or control. #.

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: - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of Dependent arigination: arigination: the complete twelve--fold system is given with a definition for twelve each term as to the way in which it manifests itself and as to how it is to be applied to the course of existence of beings as a whole. The twelve--fold system is divided into  .

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properties and analysis ² concerning the most technical aspects of the Buddha·s teachings: the aggregates. : - : The Book of Analysis/Treatises  Analysis of the Heart of the Teaching: Teaching: concerns itself with a statement. controlling faculties.. details of occurrence. truths. exposition. nutrients. roots. contact. perception. feeling.starting from the moment of conception  5m& !$A á m á! R$& $A ?m á$B ? #BB "&$?&C . bases aggregates bases.  Deals with cosmological levels as well .. elements. volition and consciousness.

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. M . The Yamaka is for advanced students who already comprehend the Abhidhamma system ² and endeavor to become completely competnent in order to defeat or not fail in debates against opponents. It is also called the ¶Clarification of Expressions·.The Book of Pairs  This book is a logical analysis of many concepts presented in the earlier books.

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F  Points of Controversy:  Shwe Zan Aung and Mrs.  I decided to lecture on this book first because it sets the Theravada doctrine down against the beliefs of the other schools« and the Theravada tradition can continue from here to utilize all the texts ¶we· have in our tradition. . alone. and after looking at several words used in certain contexts. Rhys Davids suggest that this is the third text in the Abhidhamma- Abhidhamma-pitaka ² a conclusion they make after checking the sources referenced inside the text.  It is not relevant to this ¶scholar· which book came first or last ² but the content. signifies the importance of the texts.

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I could have included answers to the following questions:  A past object is without an object [past and future mental objects are not actually existing. concerning the past [or future]?  «and after a series of admissions: but you admit that a ¶past object· does not exist [at the present mind moment]? Surely then.F  Points of Controversy: [time]  For instance: last semester I read a special lecture that I prepared concerning Time ² and had I looked into this text for deeper answers. aim. ideation. anticipation. co- co-ordinated application. attention. therefore mind recalling a past object is mind without object  Is there not adverting of mind. volition. a mind occupied with past object is occupied with a non- non-existent object .

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 [Commentary answer]: The argument seeks to show that no interval whatever is predetermined.F  Points of Controversy: [time] Point: Duration [addhā] [addhā] is predetermined. But matter... when meaning the five aggregates (bodily and mental) is predetermined. etc.. except as mere time- time-notion.  «Because the Buddha stated in the Anguttara- Anguttara-nikaya: a    .

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 «and momentary conscious units are impermanent and do not endure for a single mind moment .  ' So: duration is predetermined.

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F  Points of Controversy: [time]  From the special section of notes. the translators state:  Time is a concept by which terms of life are counted or reckoned  Time is that ¶passing by· reckoned as ¶so much has passed· [impermanence]  Time is eventuation or happening ² there being no such thing as being exempt from events [perpetual becoming] .

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without objective reality. which constitutes a sufficing condition for the movement of bodies. It is void. is a permanent concept or mental construction. when it gives up its presence. When it gives up its reality. The past reality has already perished. like time. unperceivable. it gives up its presence. .  Humans are obscured because we have a notion of continuity  What time is to life. it ceases to be real. the future reality has not yet become ² Buddhist doctrine states that reality is present. and that reality is confined to the present.F  Points of Controversy: [time]  Time distinctions have no objective existence of their own. space is to matter. Space.

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Themes for Mind Development 4. Introduction 2. Recollection on Repulsiveness of the Body 7. Book Contents: 1. Preliminaries for the Practice of Meditation 5. Psychic Experience . Cultivation of Divine Abodes of Mind 8. Development of Mindfulness of Breathing 6. Living a Noble Life 3.

The brain is an brain ² the mind. become recognizable. À . organ of the body and without a proper an instrument of the instrument. 5    Brain: Cannot be  Mind: With a workable equated with each body but a defective other. will not mind.

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Citta--Bhāvanā Citta  Citta:  Bhāvanā:  Mind  Cultivate  Has the nature of  Prosper thinking or responding to  Train stimuli  Practice  Has the nature of cetasikas ² to be aware of what comes from the sense--doors sense  Has the nature of diversification and refinement .

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Touched by that painful feeling. . That pleasant feeling of his ceases.  How is one undeveloped in body and undeveloped in mind? Pleasant feelings arise in an untaught ordinary person. he lusts after pleasure and continues to lust after pleasure. grieves and laments« . painful feeling arises. Touched by that pleasant feeling. he sorrows.because body and mind are not developed. With the cessation of the pleasant feeling.

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[with withdrawn body and mind ² withdraw from sensual pleasures. pleasant feeling arises« touched by that pleasant feeling.  How is one developed? Here. with sensual desires.it does not invade the mind. he does not lust after pleasure or continue to lust after pleasure ² the pleasant feeling ceases ² touched by this this painful feeling. secluded from unwholesome states ² one can enter into the first jhā jhāna ² etc«] . he does not sorrow or grieve« .

Advantage gained in the present life:  Enables people to be free from worldly. Advantage gained in the future life:  Implies a progressive state in the next life ² and prevents a retrogression in ¶spiritual· evolution - the mind gains higher qualities 3. supramundane levels:  Four Stages of the Path and Fruitations ² and Nibbana . Advantages of Mind Development: 1. economic problems ² conducive to social peace 2. Advantage gained towards the highest.

touch  Vacillating  Unable to remain in any condition for a long time  Difficult to Control  Difficult for a person to make the mind obedient to the will  Difficult to Desist  Difficult for a person to prevent the mind from falling into a useless or unwanted thought . sounds. Cittavagga . smells.Dhammapada  Restless  Always running wild in search of the anchor on which it may rest ² pleasant sights. tastes.

no material instrument can take hold or measure the mind [only behavior/reactions can be measured]  Communication can be done through mind- mind-to- to- mind communication  The mind can record and store kamma and kilesa ² and become trained to be a great benefit of the one undertaking training . not material. colorless. shapeless. imperceptible through the senses. abstract. Asarīra  The mind is formless.

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Concentration and Wisdom  Attainable goal  Blistful achievement  Sediment defilements . 2.Kilesa  Knowable existence of defilements "  . Living a Noble Life  The life of chastity  Leads to social peace and prosperity  The best way to testify  Morality.

police force. development plan .   &  Simile of a country·s development  Self Self--defence.

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  Crude [Vītikkama]: the most obvious kind manifested through words and deeds  Subtle [PariyutthÜ $% .

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  Mild [Anusaya]: the tendencies for lust/greed. aversion. . delusion/ignorance ² the most difficult to root out.

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  Upacāra: to approach the attainment level Upacāra:  Appanā: Attainment meditation ² beyond the distractive power of the five hindrances  An ¶aspirant· is free to choose any of the 40 types of meditation agreeable to one·s disposition ² but in Thailand. ¶mindfulness on breathing· is the most popular meditation theme .

Buddhicarita ² being highly intellectual ² endowed with discretion and self- self-importance 6. Saddhācarita ² bent on faith ² being highly receptive 5. Mohacarita ² bent on delusion ² being gullible 4. Vitakkacarita ² is discursive or worries . Rāgacarita ² bent on lust for sights. Dosacarita ² bent on anger ² flying into rage at the least provocation 3.       1. sounds« 2.

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Development of Mindfulness of Breathing  The most widely practiced theme in Thailand  The mind must have an anchor ² one of the forty--themes for the mind to hold onto in the forty present moment during actual practice  Jhana Jhana--levels ² factors of Jhana:  Initiated Thought "  . 5.

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Recollection on Repulsiveness of the Body  Group of breaths  Group of postures  Group of self- self-possession in four postures  Group of repulsiveness  Group of the four elements  Groups of corpses .6.

7. Cultivation of Divine Abodes of Mind   ""    : :"".

² the wish to see others happy [meditatively extend to all]    ² the wish to help others out of misery [characteristic of great people]  # ² the capacity for understanding and appreciating or sharing the happiness of others [ an act of merit]  £*  ² the feeling of an understanding calmness of mind ² when the previous three are inappropriate [a virtue of perfection] .

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 9 EE      9   Inner Vision: created by one·s own mind  auter Vision: by those who have cultivated clairvoyant powers or minds that are profoundly tranquil ² bringing celestial realms into view  M L N ' Tranquility of the body and mind ' Lightness of the body and mind ' Suppleness of the body and mind ' Maneuverability of the body and mind ' Agility of the body and mind ' Straightness of the body and mind .

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Majjhima.  Believed to be attributed to the Venerable Sariputta ²    . Majjhima. !   «because the text was originally ¶Abhidhamma ¶Abhidhamma·· [[ ] ² I examine it!  ]  The introduction states that the term ¶patisambhida ¶patisambhida·· does not appear in the Digha. Digha. Samyutta nikayas« nikayas « but appears several times in the Anguttara Nikaya ² and appears in the Abhidhamma and other later texts.

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  The discriminations are:  Attha ² meanings  Vyanjana ² expressions  Dhamma ² principles/ideas [[ :: causes]  Nirutti ² language  Pubbāpara ² context  Mah%niddesa states: possessing intuition: three kinds ² in learning [simply]. definitions. etc.] . causes. in inquiry [into meanings. etc]. and in acquisition [the 37 Enlightenment Factors.

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à     . Theravada doctrine states that there is really only two categorially laws: reality [dhammas and nibbana nibbana]] and concepts [words].

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we do not at that time speak of a mind- mind-made acquired self.  Whenever the gross acquired self is present. the future and present ones were false. and some pass away through [moral] training.  Citta states: ´My past acquired self was at the time. My present acquired self is not the only true one. the past and future ones are false. We speak only of a gross acquired self [this very one that you can see!]. we do not speak of a formless acquired self. my only true one.     . My future acquired self will then be the only true one. Some perceptions arise through training.Key statements from the Potthapada Sutta:: Sutta  ane·s perceptions arise and cease owing to a cause and conditions. the past and present ones were false.

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and is a positive counterpart to the Kathavātthu. xxiii- xxiii-xxiv] .  [p.The Patisambhidāmagga as the Sastra [textbook] of Theravāda:  Composed during the period of the great schisms. . Whereas the Points of Controversy refute the doctrines of others. the Path of Discrimination illustrates the accepted Theravada Doctrine.  A student of Theravada doctrine and the Visuddhimagga may not notice anything controversial ² being practical and straightforwardly outlining the truths of Buddhism.

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stressing impermanence and emptiness. or the momentariness. momentariness.  Impermanence. of all dhammas is one of the main themes of the text ² again. .

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 Everyone needs a field of action or a workplace to perform or attain  For a Buddhist ¶yogi· there are two recognized systems of meditation: calm and insight .

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Mohacarita and Vitakkacarita are paired [deluded/discursive] . Dosacarita and Buddhicarita are paired [hateful/intellectual] 3. 1. Rāgacarita and Saddhācarita are paired [lustful/faithful] 2.

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and four elements 5. space. Dosacarita ² the brahma brahma--viharas and color color--kasinas 4. immaterial immaterial--spheres . peace. etc« 3. Rāgacarita: ten kinds of foulness and mindfulness of the body ² the 32 parts 2. small space  ALL TYPES: element element--kasinas. Buddhicarita ² death. Vitakkacarita ² mindfulness of breath. light. Saddhācarita ² six recollections of the Buddha. 1. large space 6. Mohacarita ² mindfulness of breath. loathsomeness of food.

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 Nimittas ² Signs:  Preliminary Sign ² the original object of concentration ² found in relation to every subject  Learning Sign ² mental replica of the object perceived in the mind as it appears to the physical eye ² found in relation to every subject  Counterpart Sign ² purified from defects and is hundreds of times more brilliant ² as the moon emerges from the nighttime clouds [as a concept] ² found only in the kasinas. parts of the body. and mindfulness of breathing . foulness.

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resolution. attainment. etc ² in accordance to one·s ability and desire/wish . emergence and reviewing ² and then from striving to abandon the successive gross jhana factors [initial application] then sustained application.  Attainment of Jhana:  After access development is accomplished ² from concentration on the sense- sense-sphere in which obstacles are abandoned and the counterpart sign is cultivated then one can enter into the first jhana  ane may master the first jhana through five kinds of mastery:  Adverting.

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! !  af virtue [sila] [ [ ] ]  af mind [samadhi] [ [ ] ]  af view [panna] [ [ ] ]  By overcoming doubt [panna] [ [ ] ]  By knowledge and vision of path and not path [panna] [ ] ]  By knowledge and vision of the way [panna] [ [ ] ] .

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  Discerning mind and matter in respect to the three characteristics. manifestations. functions. and sixteen kinds of knowledge   ! !   Through applying  . and proximate causes ² need to eradicate sakk sakkÜÜyaditthi: 20 personality forms.

a soul. through the three time periods to understand the current mind--and mind and--matter compound ² that it has not arisen from chance. . clinging and kamma. craving. etc. ² but has arisen from previous ignorance. a creator god.

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 Purification by knowledge and vision of the way:  Knowledge of contemplation of arising and passing away  Knowledge of contemplation of dissolution  Knowledge of appearance of terror  Knowledge of contemplation of danger  Knowledge of contemplation of disenchantment  Knowledge of desire for deliverance  Knowledge of contemplation of reflection  Knowledge of equanimity about formations  * and knowledge in conformity with truth or conformity knowledge .

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The contemplation of . The contemplation of  . which discards the clinging to a self. 66 becomes the door to emancipation termed contemplation of the void ² by one with wisdom faculties [sees formations as void] 2.. 1.

by one with faith faculties [abandons deceptive appearances] 3. becomes the door to emancipation termed contemplation of the signless . . The contemplation of  .  . which discards the sign of perversion.

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Dependent on mind- mind-and- and-matter arise the six six--senses 5. Dependent on existence arises birth 11. sorrow. Dependent on ignorance arise kammic formations 2. Ü  Dependent Arising/arigination: 1. Dependent on craving arises clinging 9. Dependent on contact arises feeling 7. Dependent on birth arise decay- decay-and- and-death. Dependent on kammic formations arises consciousness 3. etc«  Thus arises this whole mass of suffering . pain. Dependent on clinging arises existence 10. Dependent on feeling arises craving 8. Dependent on the six- six-senses arise contact 6. Dependent on consciousness arises mind- mind-and- and-matter 4.

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verbal.  No single cause can produce an effect. or mental ² either wholesome or unwholesome. nor does only one effect arise from a given cause  Ignorance is the cetasika: delusion ² obscuring perceptions of the true nature of things   . which may be bodily.)) ² defined as non- non- knowledge of the Four Noble Truths ² a person engages in volitional actions or kamma.

and dependent arising. . pre--natal past. the past and future together. post pre post--mortem future. is non- non-knowledge of the Four Noble Truths.

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These kammic actions are the formations (. or mental ² either wholesome or unwholesome. which may be bodily. verbal.  a person engages in volitional actions or kamma.

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and they ripen in states of consciousness (. ).).

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)) ² first as the rebirth consciousness at the moment of conception and thereafter as the passive states of consciousness resulting from kamma that matures in the course of one·s lifetime.  F!  are the twenty- twenty-nine volitions associated with mundane wholesome and unwholesome cittas ² and these are the conditions for the arising of thirty- thirty-two kinds of resultant   .

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 of thirty- thirty-two kinds of resultant   .

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 Along with consciousness there arises mentality- mentality- materiality (. which stimulate the five aggregates of mind and matter. and mental formations and consciousness. feeling. . perception..

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the psycho- psycho-physical organism.). which is equipped with the six- six-fold base (.

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))  Here. matter denoting material phenomena produced by kamma ² both are found in realms where the five aggregates collect together . often associations are made to previous lives: name denoting cetasikas associated with resultant consciousness.

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which contributes to the ' '""  . is dependent on consciousness.

body. : eye. ear. nose. tongue. and .

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: mind«  Along with consciousness there arises mentality- mentality- materiality (.

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).six-fold base (. the psycho- psycho-physical organism. which is equipped with the six.

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). . the five physical sense faculties and the mind as the faculty of the higher cognitive functions.).

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Contact is determined to the coming together of consciousness and mental factors with an object at one or another of the six- six-senses.  Via the sense faculties. contact (. '"    is the reception from the six- six-senses.

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and contact conditions feelings (.)) takes place between consciousness and its object.

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of the causal phase represented by ignorance and formations. painful. These feelings may be: pleasurable. Conditioned by feeling. the kammically active phase of the present life begins. productive of a new existence in the future. or neutral. arise from the contact with the stimulus.  The links from consciousness through feeling are the products of past kamma. craving (. With the next link.

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.)) arises. this being the  Noble Truth.

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one wishes to be freed from the pain. one wishes to hold onto that experience. but if the feeling is painful. craving (. If the feeling is pleasurable.      arise from feelings. Neutral feelings can be peaceful and become an object of craving as well.  Conditioned by feeling.

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and clinging to a doctrine of self. The arising of . clinging to rites and ceremonies. attachment to wrong views.    is four- four-fold: clinging to sense- sense-pleasures is an intensive form of greed.

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is dependent on clinging.  When craving intensifies. it gives rise to clinging (.

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through which one again engages in volitional actions ¶pregnant· with a renewal of existence ( .). ).

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There are two types of existence: kammically active process of existence (   ) and the passive or resultant process of existence ( (  . is dependent on clinging.

in a state determined by one·s kamma. one engages in action that is accumulated as kamma. The new existence thirty- thirty- two kinds of consciousness and mental factors as well as other material phenomenon from kamma. There are. ). Clinging is a condition for active existence.  «through which one again engages in volitional actions ¶pregnant· with a renewal of existence ( . Clinging is a condition for resultant existence because the same clinging leads one back into the round of rebirth. because under the influence of clinging. in an active existence. twenty--nine types of wholesome or unwholesome types of twenty kamma leading to a new existence.

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The new existence begins with birth (.).).

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there is the resultant effect of . mental factors and kamma. from consciousness.       arises from existence. ance there is birth.

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ignorance is eradicated. etc«  This teaching of dependent origination also shows how the round of existence can be broken: with the arising of true knowledge. pain. Dependent on birth arise decay- decay-and- and-death. full penetration of the Four Noble Truths. the mind no longer indulges in craving and clinging. sorrow. Consequently. This is the . and deprived of its fuel. action loses its potential to generate rebirth. the round comes to an end.

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 All phenomena of empirical existence are made up of a number of elementary constituents.  Several Buddhist Schools developed their own unique Abhidhamma--pitaka Abhidhamma pitaka. A commentarial tradition.. but few survived. the ultimate realities behind the manifest phenomena ² called dhammas.   Systemized from the death to two centuries after the Parinibbānana. .  The theory arose to make sense of meditative insights ² with the goal to see bare phenomena "    % %& & and then to relate this experience to the common understanding..

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which are the momentary mental and material phenomena that constitute the process of experience«. dhammas. The dhammas fall into two broad classes: the unconditioned dhamma. The dhammas are not noumena dhammas hidden behind phenomena. dhamma.   ´«maintains that ultimate reality consists of a multiplicity of elementary constituents called dhammas. Nibbana. not ¶things in themselves· as opposed to ¶mere appearances·. . and the conditioned dhammas. but the fundamental components of actuality.. which is solely Nibbana.

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It is the dhammas alone that possess ultimate reality: determinate existence ¶from their own side· (sarūpato (sarūpato)) independent of the mind·s conceptual processing of the data.µ ? ( má( * <I ?( má( * <I .  «The familiar world of substantial objects and enduring persons is. dhammas. The entities of our everyday frame of reference possess merely a consensual reality derivative upon the foundational stratum of the dhammas. according to the dhamma theory. a conceptual construct fashioned by the mind out of raw data provided by the dhammas dhammas..

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  Analysis into nā nāma and rūrūpa  Analysis into the five aggregates  Analysis into the six dhātus dhātus [elements]  Analysis into the twelve āyatanas [avenues of sense- sense- perception and mental cognition  Analysis into the eighteen dh dhātus «allowing for further analysis of the experienced world .

 The Abhidhamma resorts to two complementary methods of bringing out the nature of dhammas:  That of analysis [bheda [bheda]: ]: this method is found in the Dhammasangani  That of synthesis [sangaha [sangaha]: ]: this method is found in the Patthana  Combining these two methods into the whole methodological processes of the Abhidhamma demonstrate the need to describe something and the relationship with other things«  «Plurality is an important factor to demonstrate interconnectedness that no concept dwells in isolation ² it is only necessary to isolate terms for clearly defining descriptions. .

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