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The Communication Process

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

© 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.

Definition of Communication 
 

The passing of information The exchange of ideas The process of establishing a commonness or oneness of thought between and a receiver.

The Communications Process Fields of Experience Source / Sender Channel Encoding MESSAGE Decoding Receiver / Audience Noise Response Feedback Loop .

Nonpersonal (mass media): print and broadcast. . Receiver/Audience: the person(s) with whom the sender shares thoughts or information. Channel: the method by which the communication travels from the source or sender to the receiver.Definition     Sender/Source: the person or organization that has information to share with another person or group of people. Message: the information or meaning the source hopes to convey. word-of-mouth.   Personal: Salespeople.

. symbols. perceptions. or pictures). attitudes. ideas. and value. Decoding: the process that the receiver transforms the sender¶s message back into thought.Definition    Encoding: the process that the source puts thoughts. Field of Experience (Frame of Reference): experiences. or information into a symbolic form (words.

Nokia: Heineken .Word         ASUS: LEXUS: : We are family.

Symbol   Esso  .

Picture .

Picture .

Dia: You¶re not as clean as you think.Video   BRIDGESTONE: Designed to save life.   .

Response: the receiver¶s set of reactions after seeing. hearing.Definition    Noise: unplanned distortion or interference. . Feedback: the part of the receiver¶s response that is communicated back to the sender. or reading the message.

The Response Process  Traditional Response Hierarchy Models     AIDA model Innovation adoption model Hierarchy of effects model Information processing model The standard learning hierarchy The dissonance/attribution hierarchy The low-involvement hierarchy  Alternative Response Hierarchies    .

. 1925)   Attention Interest Desire Action The stages a salesperson must take a customer through in the personalselling process.AIDA Model (Strong.

1962)   Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption The stages a consumer passes through in adopting a new product or service .Innovation Adoption Model (Rogers.

1961)    Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Purchase A paradigm for setting and measuring advertising objectives Premise: advertising effects occur over a period of time.Hierarchy of Effects Model (Lavidge and Steiner. .

Information Processing Model of Advertising Effects (William McGuire. . 1978)   Presentation Attention Comprehension Yielding Retention Behavior Assume that the receiver in a persuasive communication situation like advertising is an information processor or problem solver.

reader.Models of Obtaining Feedback Effectiveness Test Circulation reach Listener. Viewer recognition Recall. POP Consumer panel Steps in Persuasion Process Exposure. checklists Brand attitudes. presentation Attention Comprehension Message acceptance/ yielding Retention Purchase behavior . Purchase intent Recall over time Inventory.

Three Basic Stages    Cognitive stage: what the receiver knows or perceives about the particular product or brand. . (Subjective) Behavioral (or Conative) stage: the receiver¶s action toward the particular product or brand. (Objective) Affective stage: the receiver¶s feelings or affect level for the particular product or brand.

Models of the Response Process Models Stages AIDA model Attention Cognitive Knowledge Interest Affective Desire Linking Preference Conviction Interest Evaluation Trial Behavioral Action Purchase Adoption Behavior Hierarchy of effects model Awareness Innovation adoption Awareness Information Processing Presentation Attention Comprehension Yielding Retention .

. Heineken. Savrin . .    Cognitive: DHC.Implications of the Traditional Hierarchy Models  Potential buyers may be at different stages in the hierarchy. so the advertiser will face different sets of communication problems. Behavioral: Nike. Pinky Affective: .

Involvement Concept Antecedents of involvement derived from the literature Person factors .Source of communication ± Content of communication Situational factors -Purchase/use -Occasion Possible results of involvement Elicitation of counterarguments to ads Involvement Effectiveness of ad to induce purchase Relative importance of the product class Perceived differences in product attributes With advertisements With products Preference of a particular kind Influence of price on brand choice Amount of information on search Time spend deliberating alternatives Type of decision rule used in choice With purchase decisions .Needs .Importance .Values Object or stimulus factors .Differentiation of alternatives .Interest .

Alternative Response Hierarchies (Michael Ray. 1973) High Involvement High Perceived Product Differentiation Standard Learning Model (C A B) Low Involvement Low-Involvement Model (C B A) Low Perceived Product Differentiation Dissonance/Attribute Model (B A C) .

Decision Rules  Noncompensatory    The Lexicographic Rule The Elimination-by-Aspects Rule The Conjunctive Rule Simple Additive Rule Weighted Additive Rule  Compensatory   .

A Consumer¶s Brand Beliefs about Computers Computer Memory Capacity A B C D 10 8 6 4 Graphics Capability 8 9 8 3 Attribute Size and Weight 6 8 10 7 Price 4 3 5 8 .

Four Types of Buying Behavior (Henry Assael. 1987) High Involvement Significant Differences Between Brands Complex buying behavior (C A B) Low Involvement Variety-seeking buying behavior (C B A) Habitual buying behavior (C B A) (B A C) Few Differences Between Brands Dissonancereducing buying behavior .

Ads for Complex Buying Behavior .

Ads for Dissonance-Reducing Buying Behavior .

Ads for Low-Involvement Behavior .

B A C and C B A.Think  In spite of C A B. is there another type of response process? .

Cognitive Processing of Communications   The Cognitive Response Approach The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) .

1968) Cognitive Responses Product/message thoughts Attitudes Brand attitudes Exposure to advertisement Source-oriented thoughts Purchase intention Ad execution thoughts Attitude towards the advertisement .The Cognitive Response Approach (Greenwald.

Cognitive Response Categories    Product/Message Thoughts  Counter arguments  Support arguments Source-Oriented Thoughts  Source derogation  Source bolstering Ad-Execution Thoughts  Thoughts about the ad itself  Affect attitude toward the ad  Important determinant of advertising effectiveness .

Advertising Attitude-Mediator Model Cad Cb Aad Ab PI Cad Cb Aad Ab PI .

1983)   Focuses on the way consumers respond to persuasive messages based on the amount and nature of elaboration or processing of information Routes to attitude change .The Elaboration Likelihood Model (Patty and Cacioppo.

.Routes to attitude change   Central route to persuasion: ability and motivation to process a message is high and close attention is paid to message content. Peripheral route to persuasion: ability and motivation to process a message is low and receiver focuses more on peripheral cues rather than message content.

Central processing usually occurs for high involvement products .

An ad using peripheral cues .

Think  Does a spokesman always represent a peripheral cue? .

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