Objective: ‡ What is Radio Propagation??? ‡ Layers of the atmosphere ‡ How transmission of radio waves occur between two Stations!!!! .

has a relatively constant temperature (isothermal). The troposphere. contains all of the moisture in the atmosphere. mid-layer extending to 40 Km. is composed of 600Km ionized particles. The stratosphere. the top layer extending to space (~ 600 Km). 40Km 10Km .Layers Of Atmosphere The ionosphere. Beyond this is free sapce. the lower layer from surface to 10 Km.

. or separate into charged particles. ‡ The highest degree of ionization occurs at the outer extremities of the ionosphere. positive and negative ions. ‡ Ultraviolet radiation causes the molecules to ionize.Ionosphere: ‡ The air molecules of the ionosphere are subject to ‡ severe radiation from the sun.

Layers of Ionosphere .

D Layer ‡ The D layer ranges from 50-90 Km and has the ability to refract low frequency signals. E Layer ‡ The E layer ranges from 90-120 Km and has the ability to refract higher frequency signals (up to ~20 MHz). . ‡ The E layer disappears by midnight as its ions recombine. ‡ The D layer disappears after sunset as its ions recombine rapidly.

‡ The F layers are responsible for most skywave propagation of radio waves.F Layer ‡ The F layer ranges from 120-400 Km and reaches its maximum height a noon. ‡ The F layer combines into one layer at night. and in the presence of sunlight (during daytime). it divides into two layers. . ‡ It refracts higher frequency signals (~30 MHz). the F1 and F2. and are thickest and most reflective of radio on the side of the Earth facing the sun. ‡ Ions are very far apart and thus recombine slowly leaving a fairly constant ionized layer.

Modes of Propagation: Propagation Modes Ground Wave Space Wave Sky Wave Direct Wave Reflected Wave .

‡ A ground wave must be vertically polarized.Ground Wave Propagation: ‡ A ground wave is a radio wave that travels along the earth¶s surface (also referred to as a surface wave). .

1. 30-300 kHz) 3. ‡ Lower frequencies travel efficiently as ground waves because they are diffracted (or bent) by the surface of the earth. Extreme low frequency signals (ELF. . 300-3000 kHz) 2. Medium frequency (MF. Low frequency (LF.Ground Wave Contd. 30-300 Hz) used to communicate with submarines.

Space Wave Propagation: ‡ Space wave or direct wave transmission is by far the most widely used mode of antenna communication. . ‡ Line-of-sight communication is preferred above 30 MHz particularly VHF.UHF and microwave.


‡ Direct wave signals travel horizontally from the antenna until the are blocked by the horizon.Radio horizon: ‡ Radio horizon is the locus of points at which direct rays from an antenna are tangential to the surface of the Earth. .

. ‡ Upon striking the ground (C) they can be reflected back to the ionosphere.Sky Wave Propagation: ‡ Sky waves are EM waves transmitted with a large angle (A) with reference to the earth. ‡ These waves strike the ionosphere (B) and are refracted back towards the earth.

. ‡ This process of refracting a reflecting is called skipping.Sky wave Contd: ‡ They can be refracted again (D) before arriving at the receiver (E).

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