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**CHAPTER 1: TOOTHED GEARING
**

Introduction of Spur Gears Classification of Gears Application of Gear Drives Spur Gear Terminology Definitions Some Important formulae

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**CHAPTER 1: TOOTHED GEARING
**

Law of gearing Constant velocity ratio Conjugate action Tooth profiles Advantages of involute and cycloidal tooth profile Properties of involute profile Systems of gear tooth Involumetry

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Path of contact

Consider a pinion driving wheel as shown in figure. When the pinion rotates in clockwise, the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K (on the near the base circle of pinion or the outer end of the tooth face on the wheel) and ends at L (outer end of the tooth face on the pinion or on the flank near the base circle of wheel).

O2 RA R N L K M J O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle P J

Wheel

Base Circle

J

Pitch Circle Addendum Circles

Pinion

4

The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common tangent. O2 RA R N L K M J O1 r ra Pitch Circle Base Circle P J Wheel Base Circle J Pitch Circle Addendum Circles Pinion 5 . The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common tangent.Path of contact MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles.

LPC: Length of common normal cut off by the addendum circles http://en.gif 6 .org/wiki/Image:Involute_wheel.Path of contact MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles.wikipedia.

Path of contact 7 .

RA R O2 J Wheel N L J Pitch Circle Addendum Circles K M J P r ra O1 Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 8 .Path of contact The length of path of contact is the length of common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and the pinion. Contact length KP is called as path of approach and contact length PL is called as path of recess. Thus the length of part of contact is KL which is the sum of the parts of path of contacts KP and PL.

and R A = O2K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel r = O1P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion. 2 RA R J Wheel N L J itch ircle Addendum ircles K M J 1 r ra itch ircle ase ircle inion 9 . and R = O2P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel.Path of contact ra = O1L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion.

Path of contact Radius of the base circle of pinion = O1M = O1P cosJ = r cosJ and radius of the base circle of wheel = O2N = O2P cos J = R cosJ M J RA R O2 J Wheel N L J Pitch Circle Addendum Circles K P r ra O1 Pitch Circle Base Circle Pinion 10 .

Path of contact From right angle triangle O2KN RA R O2 J Wheel N L KN ! .

O2 K .

O2 N .

RA 2 2 2 2 2 J ! R cos J P K M J Pitch Circle Addendum Circles PN ! O2 P sin J ! R sin J Path of approach: KP r ra O1 KP ! KN PN Pitch Circle Base Circle ! .

RA 2 R 2 cos2 R sin Pinion 11 .

Path of contact Similarly from right angle triangle O1ML RA R O2 J Wheel N L ML ! .

O1L .

O1M .

ra 2 r 2 cos2 2 2 J ! Pitch Circle Addendum Circles P K M J r ra O1 MP ! O1 P sin J ! r sin J Path of recess: PL PL ! ML MP Pitch Circle Base Circle ! .

ra 2 r 2 cos 2 r sin Pinion 12 .

Path of contact Length of path of contact = KL KL ! KP PL ! .

RA 2 R cos J 2 2 .

ra 2 r 2 cos 2 J .

R r sin J 13 .

In Figure. the arc of contact is EPF or GPH.Arc of contact Arc of contact is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. RA R J 2 Wheel N L J F Gear rofile E G M J 1 itch ircle Addendum ircles itch ircle K r ra H inion ase ircle 14 .

The arc GP is known as arc of approach and the arc PH is called arc of recess. The angles subtended by these arcs at O1 are called angle of approach and angle of recess respectively. RA R Wheel J N L E G M J 1 J F itch ircle Addendum ircles itch ircle K r ra H inion ase ircle 15 .Arc of contact 2 Considering the arc of contact GPH.

Arc of contact Length of arc of approach = arc GP Lenght of path of approach KP ! ! cos J cos J Length of arc of recess = arc PH Lenght of path of recess PL ! ! cos J cos J Length of arc contact = arc GPH = arc GP + arc PH KP PL KL Length of path of contact ! ! ! cos J cos J cos J cos J 16 .

Mathematically. 17 .Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch. Length of the arc of contact Contat ratio ! PC Where: PC ! Circular pitch ! T v m and m = Module.

though there is only one pair in contact in the middle of the path. as in Figure. R r 18 .Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact Continuous motion transfer requires two pairs of teeth in contact at the ends of the path of contact.

Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact 19 .

vibration and noise.if it is too low due to the use of inappropriate profile shifts or to an excessive centre distance. R r 20 .The manufacturing inaccuracies may lead to loss of kinematic continuity that is to impact.Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact The average number of teeth in contact is an important parameter .

Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact The average number of teeth in contact is also a guide to load sharing between teeth. it is termed the contact ratio R r 21 .

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion The rack is part of toothed wheel of infinite diameter. PITC LIN Pc h a b T RACK c 22 . The base circle diameter and profile of the involute teeth are straight lines.

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion Base Circle PINION J J PITC LIN Jr c RACK 23 .

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion Let r = Pitch circle radius of the pinion=O1P *= Pressure angle ra.= Addendum radius of the pinion Pitch line o a = Addendum of rack EF=Length of path of contact Addendun circle o pinion Pitch circle o pinion Base circle o pinion ra r O1 J rack A P J N Jr a b Addendum line o rack RACK c 24 .

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion EF = Path of approach EP + Path of recess PF AP a sin J ! ! EP EP a Path of approach ! EP ! sin J Path of recess ! PF ! NF NP From triangle O1 NP : NP ! O1 P sin J ! r sin J O1 N ! O1 P cos J ! r cos J (1) ( 2) (3) 25 .

Length of path of contact for Rack and Pinion From triangle O1NF: N ! O1 .

2 O1 N 1 2 2 ! .

r .

2 a r 2 cos 2 J 1 2 1 2 Substituti ng NP and N values in the equation (3) Path of racess ! P ! ra2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J .

r sin J 1 2 @ Path of length of contact ! E ! EP P a ! ra2 r 2 cos 2 J sin J 26 .

Summary Length of path of contact in spur gear Arc of contact in spur gear Contact ratio in spur gear Number of pair of teeth in contact in spur gears Length of path of contact in Rack and pinion 27 .

Exercise 1 Two spur wheels have 24 and 30 teeth with a standard addendum of 1 module. The pressure angle is 20r. addendum = 1m and J=20r mt m v 24 Pitch circle radius of the pinion ! r ! ! ! 12m 2 2 mT m v 30 Pitch circle radius of the gear ! R ! ! ! 15m 2 2 28 . Solution: Data: t =24. Calculate the path of contact and arc of contact. T=30.

Continued Addendum circle radius of the pinion ! ra ! r m ra ! 12m m ! 13m Addendum circle radius of the gear R A ! 15m m ! 16m ! RA ! R m 29 .Exercise 1.

Exercise 1.Continued 2 Length of path of contact ! KL ! KP PL RA R J Wheel N J KL ! .

RA 2 R 2 cos 2 J r 2 cos 2 J K M J 1 L itch ircle Addendum ircles .

ra 2 .

R r sin J r ra itch ircle ase ircle inion 30 .

Continued Length of path of contact ! KL ! KP PL ! ! .Exercise 1.

RA 2 R 2 cos 2 J .

ra 2 r 2 cos 2 J .

R r sin J .

16m .

15m cos 2 2 2 20 .

13m .

12m cos 2 20 .

11m. mm cos 20 31 .802m Length of path of contact Length of arc of contact ! cos J 4.802m ! ! 5. m 12m sin 20 15 2 2 ! 4.

The larger gear has 57 teeth while the pinion has 23 teeth. T=57. addendum = 1m= 8mm and J=20r 32 .Exercise 2 Two gears in mesh have a module of 8 mm and a pressure angle of 20r. If the addenda on pinion and gear wheel are equal to one module (1m). The angle of action of the pinion and the gear wheel. Solution: Data: t =23. find 1. The number of pairs of teeth in contact and 2.

Exercise 2 .continued mt 8 v 23 ! ! 92mm Pitch circle radius of the pinion ! r ! 2 2 mT 8 v 57 Pitch circle radius of the gear ! R ! ! ! 228mm 2 2 Addendum circle radius of the pinion ! ra ! r addendum ra ! 92 8 ! 100mm Addendum circle radius of the gear R A ! 228 8 ! 236mm 33 ! R A ! R addendum .

Exercise 2 .continued 2 Length of path of contact ! KL ! KP PL RA R J Wheel N J KL ! .

RA 2 R 2 cos 2 J r 2 cos 2 J K M J 1 L itch ircle Addendum ircles .

ra 2 .

R r sin J r ra itch ircle ase ircle inion 34 .

Exercise 2 .continued Length of path of contact ! KL ! KP PL ! ! .

RA 2 R 2 cos 2 J .

ra 2 r 2 cos 2 J .

R r sin J .

236 .

228 cos 2 2 2 20 .

100 .

92 cos 2 20 .

76mm Length of path of contact Length of arc of contact ! cos J 39.31mm cos 20 35 .228 92 sin 20 2 2 ! 39.76 ! ! 42.

Exercise 2 .continued Length of arc of contact Number of pairs of teeth in contact ! circular pitch Length of arc of contact 42.31 ! v 360 ! 26.31 ! ! ! 1.36 o ! 26 o 21' 47' ' 2T v 92 36 .637 o ! 10 o 38'16' ' 2T v 228 Length of arc of contact v 360 o Angle of action of pinion ! 2T v r 42.684 } 2 pc Tm Length of arc of contact Angle of action of gear wheel ! v 360 o 2T v R 42.31 ! v 360 ! 10.

continued Angle of action of pinion 26.637 T 57 ! ! 2.Exercise 2 .478 t 23 37 .36 ! ! 2.478 and Angle of action of gear 10.

speed of pinion is 250 rpm. module = 12 mm. G=2. Solution: Data: t =20. m= 12mm. If the addendum on each wheel is such that the path of approach and the path of recess on each side are half of the maximum permissible length. Number of teeth on pinion is 20. find the maximum velocity of sliding during approach and recess and the length of arc of contact. n=250rpm and J=20r 38 . Gear ratio = 2.Exercise 3 The following data refers to two mating involute gears of 20r pressure angle.

Exercise 3 .continued mt 12 v 20 ! ! 120mm Pitch circle radius of the pinion ! r ! 2 2 T T !2 Gear ratio ! ! 2 20 t Number of teeth on gear ! T ! 2 v 20 ! 40 mT 12 v 40 !R! ! ! 240mm 2 2 Pitch circle radius of the gear 39 .

52mm 2 J itch ircle Addendum ircles K M J 1 r ra itch ircle ase ircle inion 40 .continued 2 From the given condition: J RA R Wheel N L ase ircle Re quired path of approach : Maximum path of approach ! 2 r v sin J ! 2 120 v sin 20 ! ! 20.Exercise 3 .

04mm 2 J itch ircle Addendum ircles K M J 1 r ra itch ircle ase ircle inion 41 .continued 2 Re quired path of recess : RA J R Wheel N L ase ircle Maximum path of recess ! 2 R v sin J ! 2 240 v sin 20 ! ! 41.Exercise 3 .

Exercise 3 .continued Path of approach: KP KP ! KN PN ! .

R A 2 R 2 cos 2 J R sin J 20.52 ! .

R A 2 .

240 2 cos 2 20 240 v sin 20 @ R A ! 247.77 mm 42 .77 240 ! 7.77 mm ! addendum radius of the gear Addendum of the gear ! R A R ! 247.

Exercise 3 .continued Path of recess: PL PL ! ML MP ! .

rA 2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J .

rA .

46mm ! addendum radius of the pinion Addendum of the pinion ! rA r ! 139.120 2 2 41.46 120 ! 19.46mm Path of contact = Path of approach + Path of recess = 20.56 mm 43 .52 + 41.04 ! @ cos 2 20 120 v sin 20 rA !139.04 = 61.

Exercise 3 .continued Path of recess: PL PL ! ML MP ! .

rA 2 r 2 cos 2 J r sin J .

rA .

04 ! @ cos 2 20 120 v sin 20 rA !139.46mm Path of contact = Path of approach + Path of recess = 20.56 mm 44 .46mm ! addendum radius of the pinion Addendum of the pinion ! rA r ! 139.04 = 61.120 2 2 41.46 120 ! 19.52 + 41.

56 ! ! 65.Exercise 3 .51mm Arc of contact ! cos J cos 20 2T v n Angular speed of the pinion ! [ p ! 60 2T v 250 ! ! 26.08 rad / sec 60 v 2 45 .16 rad / sec 60 2T v N 2T v n ! Angular speed of the gear ! [G ! 60 60 v G 2T v 250 ! ! 13.continued Path of contact 61.

Exercise 3 .continued Maximum velocity of sliding during approach : ! .

[ P [G v Path of approach ! .

16 13.26.52 ! 805.2mm / sec Maximum velocity of sliding during recess : ! .08 v 20.

[ P [G v Path of recess ! .

04 ! 1610.08 v 41.26.16 13.4mm / sec 46 .

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