Elements of Military Intelligence

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Terminal Learning Objective
• ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army. • CONDITION: In a classroom with the use of references • STANDARD: The student will identify the four intelligence tasks IAW FM 2-0 and how they are influenced by the variables of the Contemporary Operational Environment.

3

Admin Data
• Normal safety considerations for this class. • The risk assessment is LOW. • There are NO environmental considerations. • Evaluation:
– 30 multiple choice questions at the end of the Intelligence instruction, Must answer 70% correctly to pass.

4

Warfighting Functions
• • • • • • • Maneuver Intelligence Fire Support Air Defense Artillery Command and Control Logistics Mobility, Survivability, Counter-Mobility
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Your S2 Section
• Brigade S2
– – – – – – – –

Works at Corp Level or Higher

MI (35D) MAJ MI (35D) CPT MI (35D) CPT INF (11) MSG MI (96B) SFC* MI (96B) SGT 4 MI (96B) SL1 INF (11) SL1

Half of the MI Branch
– – – – –

• BATTALION S2
MI (35D) CPT MI ( 35D) LT INF (11) MSG MI (96B) SSG* MI (96B) SL1

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What is MI??
1-1. The commander requires intelligence about the
enemy and the battlespace prior to engaging in operations in order to effectively execute battles, engagements, and other missions across the full spectrum of operations. Intelligence assists the commander in visualizing his battlespace, organizing his forces, and controlling operations to achieve the desired tactical objectives or end-state. Intelligence supports force protection by alerting the commander to emerging threats and assisting in security operations.

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Intelligence - The Forms
• All Source Intelligence
• • • • • HUMINT - Human Intelligence SIGINT - Signals Intelligence IMINT - Imagery Intelligence TECHINT - Technical Intelligence MASINT – Measurements and Signals Intelligence • CI – Counter Intelligence
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The Four Intelligence Tasks
1. Support to Situational Understanding 2. Support to Strategic Responsiveness 3. Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance 4. Provide Intelligence Support to Effects

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The Four Intelligence Tasks

1. Support to Situational Understanding

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Enabling Learning Objective #1
• ACTION: Discuss the role of the Intelligence soldier in Support to Situational Understanding. • CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of References. • STANDARD: The student will understand that all intelligence tasks stem from the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) process and what input they will have 11 as a platoon leader.

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Enabling Learning Objective #2
• ACTION: Conduct IPB as a leader. • CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of references. • STANDARD: The student will correctly define IPB and identify the steps of IPB IAW FM 34-130, as well as understand their role in conducting IPB as leaders.
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IPB Definition

• IPB is a systematic, continuous process of analyzing the threat and the environment in a specific geographic area.

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Objective
• Answer the commander’s questions about:
– Terrain – Weather – Enemy Situation.

• IPB helps commanders selectively apply combat power at critical points in time and space on the battlefield by – Describing the environment and it’s effects. – Determining the threat’s likely Course of Action (COA).
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Who Conducts IPB?

• Conducted at all levels
– Different levels of detail are required

• S2/G2 is staff lead in IPB • Everyone in the US Army conducts IPB in some form
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The Four Steps of IPB
1. Define the Battlefield Environment 2. Describe the Battlefield Effects 3. Evaluate the Threat 4. Identify Threat Courses of Action

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The IPB Process
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic
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Define The Battlefield Environment
• AREA OF OPERATIONS - The physical space where your unit is authorized to conduct operations. Given to you by your higher headquarters. • AREA OF INTEREST - The physical area where enemy forces or their actions may affect your unit’s mission. Determined by the S2 and commander.
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LOA (PL Gold)

PL Zinc

XX
PL Silver

II

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The IPB Process
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic
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Describe The Battlefield Effects
• Analyze the battlefield with regards to:
– Terrain – Weather

• Describe the battlefield’s effects on threat / friendly capabilities and broad courses of action. • Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay (MCOO) is the ultimate product.
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Describe The Battlefield Effects (Terrain Analysis)
• Military aspects of terrain (OCOKA / OAKOC) • Lines of communications (roads, rail, waterways) • Cross-country movement overlay • Drainage overlay

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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• OBSERVATION - The ability of a force to see the enemy either visually or through the use of surveillance devices.
– From where can the enemy see me? – Where can I see the enemy from here?

OCOKA

• FIELDS OF FIRE - An area that a weapon or groups of weapons can effectively cover with fire from a given position.
– From where can the enemy shoot me? – Where can I shoot the enemy from here?
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)

OCOKA
• COVER - Physical protection from the effects of both direct and indirect fires.
– Examples - Ditches, caves, hills, ravines, river banks, shell craters, buildings, fighting positions, and embankments.

• CONCEALMENT - Protection from observation.
– Examples - Camouflage, weeds, underbrush, tall grass, heavy vegetation, rocky outcrops.
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)

OCOKA
• OBSTACLES - Natural or man-made terrain features that stop, impede, or divert military movement.
– Obstacles are the foundation of an engagement area. – Can I stop/slow the enemy here long enough to mass fires upon him? – Will the enemy stop/slow me here and try to mass fires upon me? – Use the MCOO to graphically depict obstacles.
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)

OCOKA
• KEY TERRAIN
– Any natural or man-made feature which gives the force which controls it an advantage. – Consider the following in analyzing terrain:
• Mission • Level of Command • Type of Unit.

– Does that piece of terrain aid me in the accomplishment of my mission? – Would it aid the enemy in the accomplishment of his mission?

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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)

OCOKA
• AVENUES OF APPROACH
– Air or ground route of an attacking force which leads to the objective or key terrain within its path. – On the attack, ask - what route can I take to the objective? – In the defense, ask - what route could the enemy take to get to me or the objective?
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• Always consider both mounted and dismounted avenues of approach. • Develop a MCOO (Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay) to identify avenues of approach. • Consider
– doctrinal distances – formations – speeds – maneuver space.
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• Classify terrain as it pertains to maneuverability into one of three categories:
– UNRESTRICTED. Free of any restriction to movement. Units maneuver at doctrinal speeds/distances. Nothing needs to be done to enhance mobility. – RESTRICTED. Terrain hinders movement. Units must adjust doctrinal distances or speeds. Some effort required to enhance mobility . – SEVERELY RESTRICTED. Terrain severely hinders movement. Units cannot travel at doctrinal distances and speeds.

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AA3C
LOA (PL Gold)

K9
II

AA3B
II
II

II

I

II

II

K8
K7b II K7a
II
PL Zinc

AA4A
II

II

XX

II

K5 K6
PL Silver

II

X

K2
II

K4
II
I

K1

X

K3
II

AA4B

II

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II

Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• OTHER ASPECTS OF THE BATTLEFIELD • Examples include:
– Logistical Infrastructure (Sources of potable water, power production facilities, natural resources, communications system, transportation system) – Population Demographics (Education levels, cultural distinctions, religious beliefs) – Economic Conditions – Politics (Local, regional and international, treaties, ‘unofficial’ politics (gangs, warlords))
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Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army. • Enabling Learning Objectives
1. ACTION: Discuss the role of the Intelligence soldier in Support to Situational Understanding 2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader.

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The IPB Process
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• MILITARY ASPECTS OF WEATHER (FM 34-81-1)
– Visibility – Winds – Precipitation – Cloud Cover – Temperature and Humidity
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• VISIBILITY
– Light data (BMNT, EENT, Sunrise, Sunset, Moon Phases) – Laser range finding – Poor visibility increases light infantry survivability

• WINDS
– Smoke / Chemical dispersion – Decrease trajectory data and first hit probability – Affects airborne, air assault, aviation operations
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• PRECIPITATION
– – – – Degrades mobility Limits visibility Degrades weapons effectiveness Affects troop morale

• CLOUD COVER
– Heavy cloud cover limits illumination and solar heating of targets – Degrades many target acquisition systems – Ceiling affects aviation operations
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Describe the Battlefield Effects (Military Aspects of Terrain)
• TEMPERATURE & HUMIDITY
– Extreme temperature reduces personnel effectiveness – Low temperature degrades ballistics of weapons – Temperature can affect vehicle performance – High humidity decreases stamina of foot soldier
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The IPB Process
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic
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Evaluate The Threat
Do not underestimate your opponent! • Doctrinal Template • Description Of Tactics And Option • Identify High Value Target • Identify Threat Capabilities • Operational Capabilities: Attack, Defend, Reinforce, And Retrograde • BOS Capabilities (Equipment and Capabilities)
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Doctrinal Template
• Illustrate the deployment pattern and disposition preferred by the threat's normal tactics when not constrained by the effects of the battlefield environment. • Usually scaled graphic depictions of threat dispositions for a particular type of standard operation, such as a
– battalion movement to contact – an insurgent ambush – terrorist kidnapping.
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DOCTEMP
I
I
I

Fire Sac

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Description Of Tactics And Options
• Operations of the major units or elements portrayed on the template • Activities of the different battlefield operating systems. • Listing or description of options available to the threat should the operation fail (branches), or subsequent operations if it succeeds (sequels).
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Identify High Value Targets
• HVTS are assets the enemy commander requires to accomplish his mission. • High Payoff Targets are the targets (HVTS) that belong to the enemy that we must kill to be successful.

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Identify Threat Capabilities (Can the enemy dance?)
• Four tactical COAs open to military forces in conventional operations: • Attack. • Defend. • Reinforce. • Conduct a retrograde. • Broad COAs can be divided into a variety of more specific COAs.
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BOS Capabilities (Equipment and Capabilities)
• Examples of these types of capabilities are-– Use of NBC weapons. – Use of supporting air assets. – Intelligence collection. – Electronic Warfare. – Engineering operations. – Air assault or airborne operations. – Amphibious assaults. – Psychological operations (PSYOP). – Deception operations.

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The IPB Process
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic
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Determine Threat COAs (How the Enemy will Dance)
• Identify the threat's likely objectives and desired end state. • Identify full set of COAs available to the threat SITEMPs. • Evaluate and prioritize each COA. • Develop each COA in the amount of detail time allows. • Identify initial collection requirements.

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Identify Threat's Likely Objectives/Desired End State.
• What does the enemy seek to do to us? • How does the enemy define success? • How can we deny him success?

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Identify Full Set of COAs Available to the Threat.
• Develop as many potential COAs as time allows. • Criteria for each COA
– suitability – feasibility – acceptability – uniqueness – consistency with doctrine.

• Situation templates are graphic depictions of expected threat dispositions should he adopt a particular COA
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I

I

I

Fire Sac

Enemy SOP (Threat Model)

Environment (Terrain Weather)

I

I

I

Fire Sac

Enemy COA (SITEMP)
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Develop Each COA in the Amount of Detail Time Allows.
• • • • • WHAT WHEN WHERE HOW WHY

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IPB for Special Staff and Support Units
4
Determine Threat COAs Evaluate The Threat

1
Define The Battlefield Environment Describe The Battlefield Effects

3

2

Continuous

Systematic

• The products will be slightly different, but • THE PROCESS REMAINS THE SAME!

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Situation Development
• The act of quickly compiling, displaying, and analyzing the current battle as it relates to the enemy and friendly forces. • Based upon the collection effort and the unit’s effort to answer the Commander’s Critical Information Requirements. • Determines which COA the enemy has adopted • May identify some HVTs not initially named during IPB process • Based on the Priority Intelligence Requirements. • Helps the commander make decisions.
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Patrols

Since the success of Battalion, Brigade… will frequently depend on the conduct of one small patrol. The patrols must be carefully picked, instructed, and given a clear definite mission. These three things play a vital part in the borderland between success and failure. George C. Marshall Infantry in Battle
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Force Protection
• Determines if friendly forces are
– under threat of enemy action – in proper security posture – informed of the threat

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Enabling Learning Objective #3
• Action: Identify elements of Subversion And Espionage Directed Against The U.S. Army (SAEDA) • Conditions: With the use of references. • Standard: Identify the elements of SAEDA, the threat to Fort Benning, and how to respond to and report any SAEDA incidents.
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Definitions
• SUBVERSION - Sabotage or terrorist acts. • ESPIONAGE - Spying (Internal and External)

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COUNTERINTELLIGENCE MEASURES
• The enemy must not get information about US operations. • This means that you and your fellow soldiers must:
– Practice camouflage principles and techniques. – Practice noise and light discipline. – Practice field sanitation. – Use proper radiotelephone procedure.

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Counterintelligence Measures
– Do not take personal letters or pictures into combat areas. – Do not keep diaries in combat areas. – Be careful when discussing military affairs (the enemy may be listening). – Report anyone who tries to get information about US operations. – Discuss military operations only with those persons having a need to know the information. – Remind fellow soldiers of their counterintelligence responsibilities
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What Defines A SAEDA Incident?
• Attempts by unauthorized personnel to obtain classified information. • Attempts by unauthorized personnel to obtain unclassified, yet FOUO information. • Acts of espionage or treason by Army personnel. • Contact with persons known or suspected to be a foreign agent or terrorist. • Missing classified documents. • Discovery of surveillance devices near sensitive areas.
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What If I Am Approached?
• • • • Don’t play James Bond Don’t make any deals, agreements or think about anything. Don’t try to apprehend or be your own SWAT team Simply stay calm, get info, and buy time then report.

Reporting Procedures
• Recall as many details as possible as SOON as possible. Make notes of what occurred. • Contact your S2 / security manager. • Inform as few people as possible, generally only two (your commander and the S2) • If outside US, report it to nearest military authority or US Embassy/Consulate.

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Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army. • Enabling Learning Objectives
2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader. 3. ACTION: Identify elements of Subversion And Espionage Directed Against The U.S. Army (SAEDA)

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The Four Intelligence Tasks

2. Support to Strategic Responsiveness

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Enabling Learning Objective #4
• ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel Support to Strategic Responsiveness. • CONDITION: With the aid of References. • STANDARD: The student will correctly identify the role of intelligence personnel and leaders in preparing soldiers to act in any operational environment as well as identify the challenges posed by the variables of the Contemporary Operational Environment
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Operational Environment
• A composite of all the conditions, circumstances, and influences that affect the employment of military forces and bear on the decisions of the unit commander. • IN SHORT: The factors and variables that affect where soldiers will live, work, and fight.
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Enabling Learning Objective #5
• ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in the COE • CONDITION: With the aid of References • STANDARD: Identify and define the 11 Critical Variables of the COE
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Critical Variables
Operational Environment

Information

Nature & Stability of the State

Economics Makeup of Population Military Capabilities Physical Environment External Organizations Alliances & Coalitions

Technology

Time

National Will

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Physical Environment
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Military forces are optimized for certain environments. • Less complex and open environments favor the US. • Enemies will use urban environments and other complex terrain to their advantage.
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Nature/Stability of State
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Who is in charge - where the real strength is.
– Political leadership – Military – Police

• How strong or how shaky. • Nature and aims of military campaign. • Kinds of threat present.
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Makeup Of Population
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Cultural, religious, ethnic. • Failed and failing states. • Devotion to a cause/hatred of another group • Refugees and displaced persons. • Urban environments (cities).
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Makeup Of Population
(Operational Environment Factors)
• ROE has to Address • Difficulty distinguishing friend from foe. • Presence of children/ women. • Short ranges of contact/ time to react. • Involvement of civilians from both sides.
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Alliances And Coalitions
(Operational Environment Factors)

• • • •

Political, economic, military, or cultural. Regional or global. Opponents can influence our coalitions. Add to military capability and broaden scale of military operations. • Unpredictability. • Nonaligned states.
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Military Capabilities
(Operational Environment Factors) • The most critical and most complex factor. • Foreign views:
– US has overall technological advantage. – Others use this as guide to optimizing their own capabilities and negating ours (asymmetric focus).

• Conventional against local or regional actors. • Adaptive (asymmetric) when US becomes involved.

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Military Capabilities (WMD in Third World States)
• • • • • • • Negate US advantages Threaten higher casualties Complicate military planning Perception of military strength Interfere with force buildup / early entry Complicate operations Require protective measures
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Who Has Nuclear Weapons
• Nuclear
– US, UK, France, Russia, Pakistan, India, China, North Korea, Israel???

• Suspected to have Nuclear Weapons
– Libya, Iran

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Technology
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Symmetric capabilities.
– Level the playing field. – A few systems that are more advanced.

82

Technology
(Operational Environment Factors) • Asymmetric counters to our high-tech systems.
– Less advanced systems in complex/urban settings. – Selected niche areas. – Low-cost, high-payoff new technologies. – Upgrades and hybrids. – Precision munitions.

• Technological surprise.
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Information
(Operational Environment Factors)
• Information-based society and information technology.
– Computers. – Other information systems.

• Information warfare.
– Information systems attack. – Psychological warfare. – Deception.

?
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Information
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Media and global information flow.
– Transparency (access to data). – Sway public and political opinion.

• Many factors to take into consideration. • Very short time to react. • Strategic implication of the tactical incident- the strategic corporal (he works for you).

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External Organizations
(Operational Environment Factors) • International humanitarian assistance.
– Manmade and natural disasters. – Disease, hunger, and poverty.

• Growing in influence and power. • Willingness to become involved in crisis situations. • Stated and hidden interests/objectives.
– Favorable to US and provide assistance. – Adverse to US or create conflict. – Make mistakes.

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National Will
(Operational Environment Factors)

• • • •

People, government, and military. Objectives and duration of a conflict. Victory often depends on will. Attack the opponent’s national will and try to preserve your own. • US national will as a vulnerability—a strategic center of gravity.
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Time
(Operational Environment Factors)

• Time drives decision making and operations. • Opponents see time as being in their advantage.
– Adjust the nature of the conflict. – Control US entry. – Dictate the tempo.

• Outlast the US will to continue.
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Economics
(Operational Environment Factors)

• “Haves” and “have-nots.” • Economic vs military superiority. • Ability to buy military technology or to conduct prolonged operations. • Regional and global relationships can result in military or political assistance.

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11 Variables I T and ECONOMIC NATURE WILL MAKE EXTERNAL ALLIED MILITARY PHYSICAL in TIME Please Never Make Any MILTIARY I T Excuses Near The End
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Threat
• Any specific foreign nation or organization with intentions and military capabilities that suggest it could be adversarial or challenge the security interests of the United States, its friends, or allies. • IN SHORT: A potential adversary to the United States.
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Enabling Learning Objective #6
ACTION: Categorize actors. CONDITION: In a classroom with aid of references STANDARD: Correctly categorize nation states as Core States, Transition States, Rogue States, Failed or Failing States and Nonnation actors as rogue actors, third-party 93 actors.

Actors
• Who are the actors (participants)?
– Nation-states (countries). – Non-nation actors.

94

Nation-state Actors
• Categories of nation states
– Core States (Major Powers). – Transition States (Want-to-be). – Rogue States (Hostile). – Failed or Failing States (Instability).

• Fluid definitions based on:
– Economics – Politics (Internal and External) – Expeditionary Military
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Core States (Major Powers). • Dominate World Politics. • Most conflict with global consequences will involve the core states. Transition States (Want-to-be) • Larger, industrialized countries that want to be Core States.
– China – India – Indonesia – Russia

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Rogue States (Hostile).
• • • • Countries hostile to their neighbors Weaker countries, but still a threat. Seek weapons of mass destruction. Support and sell arms to terrorists.
– North Korea – Iran – Cuba – Libya
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Other Areas of Concern (SatireWire)
Axis of Just as Evil? • Libya • China • Syria Axis of Somewhat Evil? • Cuba • Sudan • Serbia

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Failed or Failing States (Instability).
• Weaker countries falling apart. • Revolution • Economic collapse

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Countries Can Switch Categories
• Iran - long time ally of U.S. became rogue nation • Soviet Union/Russia - once a world power now is a collection of transition and failing states.

Multinational Alliances and Coalitions
• NATO
–Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, Canada, Poland

• OPEC
– Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Venezuela
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Non-nation Actors
• Rogue actors • Third Party Actors

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Rogue Actors

– Terrorist. – Drug-trafficking. – Criminal.

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Third Party Actors
– Media – External Orgs – Civilians

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Indication and Warnings SO WHAT???
• Analysis of situation development.
– What does this mean? – Why would the enemy do this?

• Determines enemy’s future intentions
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Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army. • Enabling Learning Objectives
4. ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel Support to Strategic Responsiveness. 5. ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in the COE 6. ACTION: Categorize Actors
 Nation State  Core, Transition, Failed or Failing, Rogue  Switch categories & may one day face multinational coalition Non-Nation  Rogue  Third Party

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107

The Four Intelligence Tasks

3. Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance

108

Enabling Learning Objective #7
• ACTION: Discuss the conduct of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) in a collection planning and management framework. • CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of references. • STANDARD: Students must understand that Intelligence personnel plan and synchronize collection assets and the role of platoon leaders in the collection process. 109

Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance, And Reconnaissance (ISR)
With staff participation, the intelligence officer synchronizes intelligence support to the ISR effort by focusing the collection, processing, analysis, and intelligence products on the critical needs of the commander. The operations officer, in coordination with the intelligence officer, tasks and directs the available ISR assets to answer the commander’s critical information requirements (CCIRs). Through various detection methods and systematic observation, reconnaissance and surveillance obtains the required information. A continuous process, this task has four subtasks: perform intelligence synchronization, perform ISR integration, conduct tactical reconnaissance, and conduct surveillance
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ISR
• The CCIR (PIR and FFIR). • A prioritized list of the remaining intelligence requirements. • Evaluated ISR assets and resources. • All of the assigned ISR tasks.

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Surveillance and Reconnaissance
• Surveillance involves continuously observing an area to collect information. Wide-area and focused surveillance provides valuable information. • Reconnaissance assets collect information and can validate current intelligence or predictions. Reconnaissance units, unlike other units, are designed to collect information.

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Surveillance and Reconnaissance
• Orient the reconnaissance asset on the named area of interest (NAI) and/or reconnaissance objective in a timely manner • Report all information rapidly and accurately • Complete the mission not later than (NLT) the time specified in the order • Answer the requirement that prompted the task.

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Collectors Must Ask 4 Questions of an NAI
• • • • Why is it important to look there? What do we expect to see? When should we expect to see it? How long do we need to look?

• FM 34-8
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How Do I Contribute as a LT?
Reporting!!!

Salute Report
SIZE ACTIVITY LOCATION UNIT / UNIFORM TIME EQUIPMENT
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The Five S’s
SEARCH SILENCE SEGREGATE SAFEGUARD SPEED TO THE REAR

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The Unapproved Five S’s
SUBDUE BY FORCE SLAP DOWN SHAKE UNTIL BLUE SLAM HEAD INTO WALL SCAR WITH BAYONET

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Search
• Search PWs as soon as they are captured. • Take weapons and papers, EXCEPT identification papers and protective masks. • Give them a written receipt for any personal property and documents taken. • Tag documents and personal property to show which PW had them.
120

Captured Equipment Tag

• Before evacuating a PW, attach a tag to him. You can make these tags yourself. • The battalion S2 should be able to supply these tags.

121

HANDLING CAPTURED DOCUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
• Enemy documents and equipment are good sources of information. • Documents may be official (maps, orders, records, photos) or personal (letters or diaries). • If such items are not handled properly, the information in them may become lost or outdated. • Give them to your leader quickly. • Tag each item using the form shown on the next slide. • If the item was found on a PW, put that PW's name on the tag.

122

Segregate
• Segregate PWs
– By Sex

• And Into Subgroups Such As
– Enlisted Personnel – Civilians – Political Figures.

• This keeps the leaders from promoting escape efforts. Keep the groups segregated as you move them to the rear.
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Silence
• Silence PWs • Do not let them talk to each other. • This keeps them from planning escape and cautioning each other on security. • Report anything a PW says or does.

124

Speed
• Speed PWs to the rear. • Turn them over to your leader. • He will assemble them and move them to the rear for questioning by the S2.

125

Safeguard
• Safeguard PWs when taking them to the rear. • Do not let anyone abuse them. • Watch for escape attempts. • Do not let PWs bunch up, spread out too far, or start diversions (Such conditions may create a chance for escape). • If a PW is wounded and cannot be evacuated through normal channels, turn him over to medical personnel to be evacuated through medical channels.
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127

The Four Intelligence Tasks

4. Provide Intelligence Support to Effects

128

Enabling Learning Objective #8
• ACTION: Discuss The Support Of Intelligence To Targeting, Information Operations and Combat Assessment • CONDITION: In a classroom with the aid of references • STANDARD: Students must understand that Intelligence personnel interact with all other staff elements in support of ongoing operations and planning for future operations.
129

Provide Intelligence Support To Effects
The task of providing the commander information and intelligence support for targeting of the threat’s forces, threat organizations, units and systems through lethal and non-lethal fires to include electronic attack and information operations. This task includes three subtasks:
4. Provide Intelligence Support To Targeting 5. Provide Intelligence Support To Information Operation 6. Provide Intelligence Support To Combat Assessment
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Provide Intelligence Support to Targeting
• Provide Intelligence Support to Target Development is the systematic analysis of the enemy forces and operations to determine HVTs, systems, and system components for potential attack through maneuver, fires, or information. • Provide Intelligence Support to Target Detection establishes procedures for dissemination of targeting information. The targeting team develops the sensor / attack system matrix to determine the sensor required to detect and locate targets. The intelligence officer places the following requirements into the integrated ISR plan
– Requires reconnaissance and surveillance operations to identify, locate, and track high-payoff targets (HPTs) for delivery of lethal or non-lethal effects. – Includes employing fires, offensive IO, and other attack capabilities against enemy C2 systems as part of the unit’s FS plan and IO objectives.

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Information Operations
• IO are actions taken to affect adversary information, influence other’s decision making processes and information systems while protecting one’s own information and information systems. Overall operational continuity and mission success requires close, mutual coordination and synchronization of intelligence plans and operations with IO elements and related activities. • This task has three subordinate tasks:
– Provide Intelligence Support to Offensive IO. – Provide Intelligence Support to Defensive IO. – Provide Intelligence Support to Activities Related to IO.

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Combat Assessment
• Determines if desired effects were achieved on targets that were engaged.
– Conduct Physical Damage Assessment – Conduct Functional Damage Assessment – Conduct Target System Assessment

• Re-attack Recommendation. • Part of collection plan.
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Targeting Process
• Decide • Detect • Deliver • Assess
• IPB
– HVTs identified – HVTs depicted in different COAs on SITTEMPS – Specific areas identified where enemy actions will occur

• Situation Development
– Collection plan based on EVENTTEMP – Collection assets refocused after targets are engaged
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Asymmetric Warfare
• Avoid your opponent’s strengths. • Use whatever advantages you may have against his weaknesses. • The enemy will not fight you at the tip of the spear. Is terrorism asymmetric warfare?
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Summary
• Terminal Learning Objective ACTION: Identify the role of intelligence in the tactical Army. • Enabling Learning Objectives
1. ACTION: Discuss the role of the Intelligence soldier in Support to Situational Understanding 2. ACTION: Conduct IPB in as leader. 3. ACTION: Identify elements of Subversion And Espionage Directed Against The U.S. Army (SAEDA) 4. ACTION: Discuss Intelligence Personnel Support to Strategic Responsiveness. 5. ACTION: Identify the Critical Variables in the COE 6. ACTION: Categorize Actors 7. ACTION: Discuss the conduct of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) in a collection planning and management framework. 8. ACTION: Discuss The Support Of Intelligence To Targeting, Information Operations and Combat Assessment

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Summary

2. 3. 4. 5.

Four Intel Tasks
Support to Situational Understanding Support to Strategic Responsiveness Conduct Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Provide Intelligence Support to Effects


• •

5 S’s
– Search, Silence, Segregate, Safeguard, Speed To The Rear Captured Equipment – Tag and ship SAEDA – Simply stay calm, get info, and buy time then report.

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What is the IPB ?
IPB is a systematic, continuous process of analyzing the threat and the environment in a specific geographic area.

What are the four steps of the IPB ?
1. 2. 3. 4. Define the Battlefield Environment Describe the Battlefield Effects Evaluate the Threat Identify Threat Courses of Action
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What is the purpose of the MCOO ?
Modified Combined Obstacle Overlay – A Graphical depiction of all Military Aspects of terrain

What is a Doctrinal Template ?
A scaled graphic depiction of threat dispositions for a particular type of standard operation
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•What are the 11 Critical variables of the COE?
– – – – – – – – – – – Physical Environment Makeup of Population Nature/Stability of State Military Capabilities Technology Information Alliances & Coalitions External Organizations National Will Time Economics

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• Which is the most complex Variable?
– Military Capabilities

• What is meant by Asymmetric Warfare?
– Avoid your opponent’s strengths. – Use whatever advantages you may have against his weaknesses. – The enemy will not fight you at the tip of the spear.

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