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PROBABILITY SAMPLING &
NON--PROBABILITY
NON
SAMPLING

Darwin Cunanan
Ma. Clara Cruz

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þ Measuring a small portion of something
and then making a general statement
about the whole thing.

þ Process of selecting a number of units for


a study in such a way that the units
represent the larger group from which
they are selected.
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 £different characteristics)
  
- The universe or population to be studied
maybe too large or unlimited that it is almost
impossible to reach all of them. Sampling
makes possible this kind of study because in
sampling only a small portion of the population
maybe involved in the study, enabling the
researcher to reach all through this small portion
of the population.
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- Research without sampling may be too
costly. Sampling reduces the study
population to a reasonable size that
expenses are greatly reduced.
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- Research without sampling might be
too time consuming.
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- If it takes too long a time to cover the
whole study population, there maybe
inaccuracy. The research must be
finished within a reasonable period of
time so that the data are still true, valid
and reasonable.
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- The act of gathering data may
consume all the sources of information
without sampling. In such a case, there is
no more data to apply the conclusion to.
  
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è. If sampling is biased, or not representative, or
too small, the conclusion may not be valid and
reliable.
2. In research, the respondents to a study must
have a common characteristics which is the
basis of the study.
  
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D. If the population is very large and there are
many sections and subsections, the sampling
procedure becomes very complicated.
4. If the researcher does not possess the
necessary skill and technical knowhow in
sampling procedure.
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þ *  

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è. ### ² bias is absent from the sample
£ex. A company is thinking of lowering its price for its
soap bar product. After making a survey in the sales
of their product in a known mall in Makati they
concluded that they will not cut down the price of the
soap bar since there was an increased in sales
compared to last year. Bias is present in this study
since the company based its decision for the sales of a
known mall which have consumers who can afford
high price products. They did not consider the sales of
their products in other area wherein they have middle
class or low class consumers.)
Π'| ((|  )
2. 
#   ² sample represents the population
£ex. Customers who visited a particular dress shop
are requested to log in their phone numbers so
that they will receive information for discounts
and new arrivals. Management wish to study
customers satisfaction for that shop. By means
of interviewing thru phone they get comments
and reactions of their client. Samples used are
not an exact representative of the population
since it is limited only to those customers who
log in their phone numbers and they did not
consider customers without phone numbers
indicated.
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è. What is the target population?
- Target population is the aggregation of elements £members
of the population) from which the sample is actually selected.
2. What are the parameters of interest?
- Parameters are summary description of a given variable in a
population.
D. What is the sampling frame?
- Sampling frame is the list of elements from which the sample
is actually drawn. Complete and correct list of population
members only.
4. What is the appropriate sampling method?
- Probability or Non-
Non-Probability sampling method
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]. What size sample is needed?
There are no fixed rules in determining the size of a sample
needed. There are guidelines that should be observed in
determining the size of a sample.
þ When the population is more or less homogeneous and
only the typical, normal, or average is desired to be
known, a smaller sample is enough. However, if
differences are desired to be known, a larger sample is
needed.
þ When the population is more or less heterogeneous and
only the typical, normal or average is desired to be
known a larger sample is needed. However, if only their
differences are desired to be known, a smaller sample is
sufficient.
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þ The size of a sample varies inversely as the size of the
population. A larger proportion is required of a smaller
population and a smaller proportion may do for a bigger
population.
þ For a greater accuracy and reliability of results, a greater
sample is desirable.
þ In biological and chemical experiments, the use of few
persons is more desirable to determine the reactions of
humans.
þ When subjects are likely to be destroyed during
experiment, it is more feasible to use non-
non-humans.
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axample:
A Company would like to make a study in the quality of digital
cameras it manufactured.
è. Target population ² consumers of digital cameras
2. Parameters of interest ² quality of digital cameras £scale of è to
] , ] being the most satisfactory)
D. Sampling frame ² database of stores in which digital cameras
are sold, usually customers gives information about them for
warranty purposes
4. Sampling method ² Probability sampling £Stratified sampling).
]. Size of sample ² it is more on heterogeneous population,
average responses would like to know by the manufacturer, so
large proportion will be needed from the population.
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è. Determine the size of the target population.
2. Decide on the margin of error. As much as possible
the margin of error should not be higher than ] .
Probably D is an ideal one.
D. Use the formula n = N
è + Ne2 £pagoso , et al. p.46)
n = sample size
N = the size of the population
e = the margin of error
4. Compute the sample proportion by dividing the result
in number D by the population.
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è. Population is ],D46
2. Margin of error is D
D. Using the formula
n = ___],D46_
è+ ]D46£.0D)2
n = 920
4. Sample proportion £ ) = 920 / ]D46
= è


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þ the sample is a proportion £a certain percent)


of the population and such sample is selected
from the population by means of some
systematic way in which every element of the
population has a chance of being included in
the sample.
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þ randomization is a feature of the selection


process rather than an assumption about the
structure of the population.

þ more complex, time consuming and more costly




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þ the sample is not a proportion of the


population and there is no system in selecting
the sample. The selection depends upon the
situation.
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þ no assurance is given that each item has a


chance of being included as a sample

þ there is an assumption that there is an even


distribution of characteristics within the
population, believing that any sample would be
representative.
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þ this type of sampling is one in which every one
in the population of the inquiry has an equal
chance of being selected to be included in the
sample.

þ also called the lottery or raffle type of sampling.

þ this may be used if the population has no


differentiated levels, sections, or classes.

þ done with or without replacement


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þ main advantage of this technique of sampling


is that, it is easy to understand and it is easy
to apply too.

þ disadvantage is that, it is hard to use with too


large a population because of the difficulty
encountered in writing the names of the
persons involved.
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þ Steps in selecting sample using a table of random numbers:
þ Define the population
þ Determine the desired sample size
þ List all the members of the population
þ Assign each of the individuals on the list a
consecutive number from zero to the required
number, ex. 0è-
0è-89 or 00è-
00è-249
þ Select an arbitrary number in the table of random
numbers £Close your eyes and point)
þ For the selected number, look at only the
appropriate number of digits
þ If the selected number corresponds to the number
assigned to any individual in the population, then
that individual is in the sample
þ Repeat the steps until the desired sample size is
reached.
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þ a technique of sampling in which every kth
name £old system of counting off) in a list may
be selected to be included in a sample.

þ also called as interval sampling, there is a gap or


interval, between each selected unit in the
sample.

þ used when the subjects or respondents in the


study are arrayed or arranged in some systematic
or logical manner such as alphabetical
arrangement and geographical placement from
north to south.
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þ Steps in systematic sampling:


þ Define the population
þ Determine the desired sample size

þ Obtain a list £preferably randomized) of the population

þ Determine what K is equal to by dividing the size of the


population by the desired sample size
þ Select some random place at the top of the population list

þ Starting at that point, take every Kth name on the list until
desired sample size is reached
þ If the end of the list is reached before the desired sample is
reached, go back to the top of the list.
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k = skip interval = population size


sample size
population size = 64
sample size = 8
k=8
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þ main advantage is that it is more convenient,


faster, and more economical

þ disadvantage is that the sample becomes biased


if the persons in the list belong to a class by
themselves whereas the investigation requires
that all sectors of the population are to be
involved.
+|'/ '. | 
þ the process of selecting randomly, samples from the
different strata of the population used in the study.

þ advantage is that it contributes much to the


representative of the sample

þ Steps involves in stratified sampling:


þ Define the population
þ Determine the desired sample size
þ Identify the variable and subgroups £strata) for which you want to
guarantee appropriate representation £either proportion or equal)
þ Classify all members of the population as members of one of the
identified subgroups
þ Randomly select £using table of random numbers) an appropriate
number of individuals from subgroups.
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axample: A call center company wants to seek suggestions of their agents for a
new marketing strategy for their new services.
è. Population ],000 agents.
2. Desired sample size ]00
D. Variable of interest is age and there are three subgroups under D0, D0 to 4] and
over 4]
4. We classify the agents into the subgroups
20 or è,000 are under age D0
6] or D,2]0 are age D0 to 4]
è] or ]0 are over age 4]
]. We want ]00 agents. Since we want proportional representation.
20 of the sample £è00) under age D0
6] £D2]) should be age D0 to 4]
è] £]) should be over age 4]
Therefore, using table of random numbers,
è00 of the è000 under age D0 are selected
D2] of the D2]0 age D0 to 4] are selected
] of the ]0 over age are selected
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þ also called as multistage cluster sampling

þ used when the population is so big or the geographical


area of the research is so large.

þ Advantage : afficiency

þ Disadvantage: reduced accuracy or representativeness,


on the account of the fact that in every stage there is a
sampling error.
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þ Steps in cluster sampling:


þ Define the population
þ Determine the desired sample size
þ Identify and define a logical cluster
þ Obtain, or make a list of all clusters in the population
þ astimate the average number of population members per
cluster
þ Determine the number of clusters needed by dividing the
sample size by the estimated size of the cluster
þ Randomly select the needed number of clusters £using a
table of random numbers)
þ Include in the sample all population members in selected
cluster
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þ Same example in the stratified sampling:


è. Population ],000 agents
2. Desired sample size ]00
D. Logical cluster is a branch
4. ]0 branches all over the country
]. Although the branch vary in number of agents , there is
an average of è00 agents per branch.
6. The number of clusters £branch) needed equals the
desired sample size, ]00 divided by the average size of
a cluster, è00. Thus, the number of branch needed is ].
. Therefore, we randomly select ] of the ]0 branch
8. All the agents in each of the ] selected branch are in
the sample.
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3+(*  + | 
þ no system of selection but only those whom the
researcher or interviewer meet by chance are
included in the sample.

þ process of picking out people in the most


convenient and fastest way to immediately get
their reactions to a certain hot and controversial
issue.
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þ not representative of target population because


sample are selected if they can be accessed easily
and conveniently.

þ Advantage : easy to use

þ Disadvantage: bias is present

þ it could deliver accurate results when the


population is homogeneous.
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axamples:
þ the female moviegoers sitting in the first row of a
movie theatre
þ the first è00 customers to enter a department
store
þ the first three callers in a radio contest

þ use of volunteers
0,/(|* | 

þ the respondents are chosen on the basis of their


knowledge of the information desired.
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è. QUOTA SAMPLING
þ specified number of persons of certain types are
included in the sample.

þ advantage over accidental sampling is that many


sectors of the population are represented. But
its representativeness is doubtful because there
is no proportional representation and there are
no guidelines in the selection of the
respondents.
,/(|* | 

2. JUDGaMaNT SAMPLING
þ sample is taken based on certain judgements
about the overall population.

þ Critical issue: Objectivity ´how much can


judgement be relied upon to arrive at a typical
sample?µ

þ Advantage: reduced cost and time involved in


acquiring the sample