B.

Tech 7 sem (IIET,Bareilly)

INS

Inertial navigation system

An inertial navigation system (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors (accelerometers) and rotation sensors (gyroscopes) to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of a moving object without the need for external references. It is used on vehicles such as ships, aircraft, submarines, guided missiles, and spacecraft. Other terms used to refer to inertial navigation systems or closely related devices include inertial guidance system, inertial reference platform, inertial instrument, and many other variations.

Contents
y y y y y y y y y y y

Overview Error History Guidance in Human spaceflight Aircraft inertial guidance Inertial navigation systems in detail Basic schemes Methodology See also References External links

Overview
y An inertial navigation system includes at least a computer and a platform or module containing accelerometers, gyroscopes, or other motion-sensing devices. The INS is initially provided with its position and velocity from another source (a human operator, a GPS satellite receiver, etc.), and thereafter computes its own updated position and velocity by integrating information received from the motion sensors. The advantage of an INS is that it requires no external references in order to determine its position, orientation, or velocity once it has been initialized. y An INS can detect a change in its geographic position (a move east or north, for example), a change in its velocity (speed and direction of movement), and a change in its orientation (rotation about an axis). It does this by measuring the linear and angular accelerations applied to the system. Since it requires no external reference (after initialization), it is immune to jamming and deception.

y Inertial-navigation systems are used in many different

moving objects, including vehicles such as aircraft, submarines, spacecraft and guided missiles. However, their cost and complexity place constraints on the environments in which they are practical for use y gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of the system in the inertial reference frame. By using the original orientation of the system in the inertial reference frame as the initial condition and integrating the angular velocity, the system's current orientation is known at all times.

Accelerometers measure the linear acceleration of the system in the inertial reference frame, but in directions that can only be measured relative to the moving system (since the accelerometers are fixed to the system and rotate with the system, but are not aware of their own orientation).

y However, by tracking both the current angular

velocity of the system and the current linear acceleration of the system measured relative to the moving system, it is possible to determine the linear acceleration of the system in the inertial reference frame.

yError
y All inertial navigation systems suffer from integration

drift: small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progressively larger errors in velocity, which are compounded into still greater errors in position. Since the new position is calculated from the previous calculated position and the measured acceleration and angular velocity, these errors are cumulative and increase at a rate roughly proportional to the time since the initial position was input.

y History
y Inertial navigation systems were originally developed for rockets. American rocket pioneer Robert Goddard experimented with rudimentary gyroscopic systems. Dr. Goddard's systems were of great interest to contemporary German pioneers including Wernher von Braun. The systems entered more widespread use with the advent of spacecraft, guided missiles, and commercial airliners.

y In the early 1950s, the US government wanted to insulate itself

against over dependency on the Germany team for military applications. Among the areas that were domestically "developed" was missile guidance. In the early 1950's the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory (later to become the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc.) was chosen by the Air Force Western Development Division to provide a self-contained guidance system backup to Convair in San Diego for the new Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile (Construction and testing were completed by Arma Division of AmBosch Arma).

WORD TO THE WISE
The inertial system uses deviations to generate corrective commands to drive the system from a position where it is, to a position where it isn t, arriving at the position where it wasn t, it now is. Consequently the position where it is, is now the position where it wasn t and it follows the position where it was is the position where it isn t.

INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
Completely self-contained navigation system capable of providing great circle tracks over random routes without reference to external information sources. - The most complex and expensive flight deck navigation system currently in use. - Still the navigation system of choice for many operations. - Developed for the military accurate, reliable, not susceptible to signal jamming or erroneous signal transmission. - Extremely simple in concept, extremely complicated in execution. - Sometimes described as a very accurate dead-reckoning system.

INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
Starts from a known point, advances estimated position based on speed, direction and time. - Uses acceleration (changes in speed & direction) in place of speed itself. - Movement detected by accelerometers mounted on a stable platform (Stabilized gyroscopically). - Accelerometers are like pendulums but more sophisticated, using sliding shutters with frictionless bearings and now solid state technology. - This is the basic principal of INS. - Most critical element is platform stability. - Gyros are of primary importance. - Accelerometer technology fairly static; advances now are mostly in gyro technology, especially Ring Laser Gyros.

LASER-light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation The basic operating principle of a laser is to use light or electrical impulses to excite atoms of a crystal, gas, liquid, or other substance. The atoms release light energy (photons) to return to their original state. Atoms of the same type will release light energy of the same frequency. Mirrors are used to contain the photons which further excite the atoms into releasing even more photons; some of these photons escape through a partially silvered mirror as coherent light. This light energy is emitted as a directional beam.

RING LASER GYROS
y Two laser beams travel around a closed circuit (made with three

or four mirrors) in opposite directions and are sensed by a detector.

y When the gyroscope is not turning, the two beams are both at

the same frequency and the detector senses a level attitude. distances around the circuit.

y As the gyroscope turns, the two beams have to travel different y As viewed from a reference point inside the gyro (the detector),

there is a shift in the frequencies of the two laser beams

RING LASER GYROS
y An electronic processor calculates the difference between the frequencies of the two laser beams. y The rate of rotation of the gyro determines the phase difference of the frequencies. Each particular phase difference coincides with a unique rate of turn which the processor can thus calculate. y Each ring laser gyroscope only rotates on one axis, therefore three of them are required to register changes in pitch, roll, and yaw.

ADVANTAGES
y Few moving parts y Small size and light weight y Rigid construction y High tolerance to shock, acceleration, and vibration y High level of accuracy y Low cost over the lifetime of the gyro

DISADVANTAGES
y Base cost of Laser ring gyros is more expensive than

mechanical gyros.
y Laser ring gyros are susceptible to an error known as

LOCK-IN

LOCK-IN
y When the rate of turn is very small, the frequency

difference between the two beams is small. y There is a tendency for the two frequencies to couple together and lock-in with each other. y As a result of lock-in, a zero turning rate is indicated.

LOCK-IN
y While lock-in errors are not substantial, they can be

accounted for by using more complex ring laser gyro systems. y By mechanically moving or twisting the system, the coupling of frequencies does not occur. y This mechanical adjustment is called DITHERING.

Requirement
y We are integrating through a Kalman filter two

Accelerometer and a three Gyroscope digital compass into one navigational system in space that provides precise and smooth results. y Problems ?
y White noise y Drift velocity Etc

.

y 2-axis measurement; X-Y measurement and Z-Y y y y y y y y y y y y

Accelerometer

measurement Measuring range ±1.7g Single +5V supply; two ratio-metric analog voltage outputs Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) compatible digital output (11 bits) Frequency response 3dB at Condition 40 125°C is 50±30Hz Output noise density is80µg/Hz Sensitivity at room temperature is 1.2V/g Zero point Mounting position is Vdd/2V(2.5V) Zero point error over temperature 25 85°C typical is ±70mg Sensitivity error over temperature 25 85°C typical is ±3% Typical non-linearity Over measuring range is ±20mg Ratio-metric error Vdd = 4.75...5.25V is 2%

The accelerometer weighs < 1.2g. The size of the part is approximately (W x H x L) 9 x 5 x 16 mm.

Gyroscope
y SENSITIVITY Clockwise y y y y y y y y

rotation is positive output Dynamic Range Full-scale range ±300 °/s Initial Min.4.6mV and Max. 5.4 mV/°/s Nonlinearity Best fit straight line Initial null 2.50V± 2V POWER SUPPLY Operating Voltage Range 5.00V The electrostatic resonator requires 14 V to 16 V for operation. Since only 5 V is typically available in most applications, a charge pump is included onchip

Gyroscope

Kalman Filter
y KF is a set of mathematical equation that implement as

simply recursive data processing algorithm

y The recursive data process mean KF does not require all

previous data to be kept in storage and reprocessed very time a new measurement is taken

y The filter is actually a data processing algorithm it is like a

computer program in a central processor.

y The process have two type estimator predictor corrected

that is optimal in sense that minimizes the estimated error covariance process.

y There two type system one is linear system other is

nonlinear system

STABLE PLATFORM
Stable platform has 2 functions:
y To keep accelerometers aligned with the surface

of earth despite changes in aircraft attitude. This is accomplished by mounting the platform on gimbals. of earth to compensate for transport and earth rate precession. These apparent errors are corrected by torquing a feedback process that keeps the stable platform level with the local vertical through the application of real precession.

y To keep the stable platform aligned with surface

STRAPDOWN PLATFORM
- In a strapdown platform

installation the platform is not gimbaled; instead ring laser gyro feedback allows a computer to electronically monitor orientation of the platform.

CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (CDU)
y 2 Flavours:- Older 2-window display & more modern CRT display y Older displays easier to read but CRT units provide much more information y Multiple flight plans, >9 waypoints y Used in conjunction with mode select panel y Standby Battery Absolutely critical to avoid complete loss of unit during power variations y These form the system package

TRIPLE SYSTEMS
y Ultimate & most expensive form y Provides double redundancy + second check on route entry &

initialization + supporting information when systems diverge Voting identifies weakest system by matching 2 closest together & rejecting the 3rd 3rd could be most accurate one but odds are in favour of the other 2 Eliminates Rogue system y Triple Mixing is flip side of voting uses middle Lat & Long coordinates to produce a single, optimum position estimate y Typical drift of 1.7 NM/Hour is about cut in half to 1.0 NM/Hour with modern gyros

MIXED SYSTEMS
-Another way to provide redundancy is by adding a complimentary system such as GPS. This system can be used to update the INS.

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