ppt | Extraversion And Introversion | Psychology & Cognitive Science





Managers: Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Organisation: A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that function on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Organisational Behavior: A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organisations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving and organisation s effectiveness.

Nature ‡ A Separate Field of Study and not a Discipline only ‡ An Interdisciplinary Approach ‡ An Applied Science ‡ A Normative Science ‡ A Humanistic and optimistic approach ‡ A Total System Approach Scope ‡ Individuals ‡ Groups of Individuals ‡ Organisation/Structure

Need for studying OB ‡ Understanding ourselves and others in better way. Improving inter-personal relations and cordial relations between employee and management. ‡ It helps managers to know employee better and motivate them ‡ Tackles human problems humanly. ‡ To predict human behaviour and then apply it in some useful way ‡ Effective utilization of people

Contributing Disciplines to OB Field Psychology : The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animals. Sociology : The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture. Social Psychology : An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Anthropology : The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities.

Political Science : The study of the behavior of individals and groups within a political environment. Challenges for OB

Workforce Diversity : The concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse group. Quality Management (QM) : The constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes.

OBModel Dependent Variable: A response that is affected by an independent variable. Independent Variable: The presumed cause of some change in the dependent variable.

Productivity: A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency.

‡ Absenteeism: The failure to report to work. ‡ Turnover: The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. ‡ Organisaitonal Citizenship Behavior: Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee¶s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization. ‡ Job Satisfaction: An individual¶s general attitude toward his or her job.

PERSONALITY PERSONALITY: The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. PERSONALITY DETERMINANTS : 1. Heredity 2. Environment 3. Situation PERSONALITY TRAITS: Enduring characteristics that describe an individual¶s behavior

Search for Primary Traits: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): Asks 100 questions about how people usually feel or act in particular situation Personality Types identified through MBTI Extroverted or Introverted Sensing or Intuitive Thinking or Feeling Perceiving or Judging 2. The Big Five Model: Talks about 5 major factors of Personality«. Extroversion: A personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious (expressive), and assertive (confident) Agreeableness: A personality dimension that describes someone who is good-natured, cooperative and trusting

Conscientiousness (carefulness): A personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent and organised Emotional Stability: A personality dimension that describes someone who is calm, self-confident, secure versus nervous, depressed and insecure. Openness to Experience: A personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, creative sensitivity and curiosity

Personality traits identified by The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: ‡ EXTROVERTED are outgoing, sociable and assertive. ‡ SENSING practical and prefer routine and order; and focus on details ‡ THINKING use reason and logic to handle problems ‡ INTROVERTED are quite and shy. ‡ INTUITIVE rely on unconscious processes and look at the big picture ‡ FEELING rely on their personal values and emotions

‡ JUDGING ‡ PERCEIVING want control, and prefer are flexible and their world to be spontaneous ordered and structured

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB 

Locus o Control


Machiavellianism  Self Esteem  Self Monitoring  Risk Taking  Type A Personality  Proactive Personality

‡ Locus of Control : The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. - Internals : Who believe that they control what happens to them. - Externals : Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance ‡ Machiavellianism : The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. ‡ Self ±esteem : Individual¶s degree of liking or disliking themselves.

‡ Self-Monitoring : A personality trait that measures an individual¶s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors. ‡Risk Taking : High willingness to take risks. ‡ Type A : Aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people. ‡Proactive Personality : People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.

John Holland s Personality-Job Fit Theory
Sr.No. Type

Occupation Forestry, Farming



Realistic Involves Aggressive Behavior, Physical Activities Requiring Skills, Strength and oordination. Investigative Involves Activities Requiring Thinking, Organizing and Understanding rather than Feelings or Emotions.

Biology, Mathematics, News Reporting

Sr.No. Type




Social Involves Interpersonal rather Foreign Service, than Intellectual or Physical Social Work, linical Activities. Psychology Conventional Involves Rule-Regulated Accounting, Activities and Sublimation of Finance, Personal Needs to an orporate Organization or Person of Management Power and Status. Continue


Type Enterprising




Involves Verbal Activities to aw, Public Influence Others to Attain Relations, Small Power and Status. Business Management Artistic Involves Self-Expression, Art, reation, or Writing Artistic Emotional Activities. Music,

The theory argues that satisfaction is highest and turnover lowest where personality and occupation are in agreement.

We don¶t see things as they are, we see things as we are. (A. Nin) It explains that two people can see the same thing and interpret it differently PERCEPTION: A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Factors Influencing Perception: Factors In The Perceiver: 1. Attitudes 2. Motives 3. Interests 4. Experience 5. Expectations

Factors In The Target: 1. Novelty 2. Motion 3. Sounds 4. Size 5. Background 6. Proximity 7. Similarity Factors In The Situation: 1. Time 2. Work Setting 3. Social Setting *The Link Between Perception And Individual Decision Making: Decision: The hoice made from among two or more alternatives Problem: A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state. The Link: Interpretation and evaluation of information, Development of alternatives, evaluation of strengths and weaknesses of each alternative and the selection of best suitable alternative are dependent on decision maker¶s perception.

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