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The study of the sounds of language  Everyone speaks with an accent

The phonological system of a language consists of its individual speech sounds, as well as its stress, rhythm, and intonation patterns

PHONEMES  The smallest unit of sound that can affect meaning in a language Though the English alphabet has 26 letters. English speakers produce more than 40 sounds  .

57) The International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to transcribe any language (handout)  .INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET  Most technical books for language teachers and dictionaries use phonetic symbols to represent English sounds and to describe difficulties (Our text: p. 56.

most children are born with the vocal equipment to produce the sounds of any language  .PRONUNCIATION DIFFICULTIES  Interference from the first language The sounds of the first language are imprinted very early in the child’s development. however.

power/phono.h IN ENGLISH  Homographs  Homophones  Differs (read and read) (red and read) from language to language  http://www.

etc. other languages use consonant clusters differently  . sks.INDIVIDUAL SOUNDS  Especially difficult sounds are th in think and its unvoiced equivalent th in then Consonant clusters – spl. Some languages have no consonant clusters.

STRESSED AND UNSTRESSED SYLLABLES  The degree of force with which a syllable is uttered English words of more than one syllable. one of the syllables is uttered with stronger stress or emphasis than others (text p. 59) patterns are different in other languages  In  Stress .

RHYTHM  English has a characteristic rhythm or stress pattern connected English speech the stresses or beats are spaced evenly through sentences… John speaks French…. equal stress is placed on all the syllables in words  In  Unstressed . syllables are compressed or de-emphasized whereas in many languages.

the words that carry the most information are stressed – content words – and the less important or grammatical function or form words are unstressed  ESL students may have trouble understanding speech even if they recognize words in isolation… What do you mean? Next month or necks month  .SENTENCE STRESS  In an English

Mid. and three basic levels of tone: High.INTONATION English has characteristic patterns of rise and fall in pitch. and Low  ESL students and ELLs need focused instruction on English intonation patterns…  .

youtube. 3. http://www. Communicate meaning Communicate emotions or moods Stress for emphasis 2.PURPOSES OF ENGLISH INTONATION .

TEACHING PRONUNCIATION  Younger children who are learning English seldom need a great deal of help with pronunciation Learners older than 11 or 12 are more likely to have trouble with specific words. intonation patterns… require focused instruction  . sounds.

3. 4. A student confuses or distorts specific sounds that may interfere with comprehension Uses pronunciations that are stigmatized… tree for three Distorts the pronunciation of words by stressing the wrong syllable Uses inappropriate intonation .WHEN TO TEACH PRONUNCIATION 1. 2.

Read aloud often Read the same statement several different ways Books on tape Language arts software Choral reading Minimal pairs . 4.HOW TO TEACH PRONUNCIATION 1. 2. 3. 5. 6.

Make up sentences 9. Use pronunciation guides with older students 12. Be creative…skits…. Practice producing sounds 8. Create posters or booklets for certain sounds 10.HOW TO TEACH PRONUNCIATION 7.Rehearse.…. . Allow pronunciation practice 11. read aloud. short passages 13.

.BASIC PRINCIPLE • Understanding of sounds precedes understanding of the written word.

TERMINOLOGY Phonological Awareness – the ability to break down speech into smaller segments  Phoneme – the smallest unit of sound  Phonics – a method of teaching reading that emphasizes the association of sounds with letters  .

CLASSROOM CONSIDERATIONS  Phonological awareness training – teaching the sound structure of words  Auditory training  Phonics training – teaching the connection between sounds and letters  Training with print .

Phonological awareness training helps children learn vocabulary and reading skills.CLASSROOM CONSIDERATIONS    It is important to first develop oral language skills. . Phonological awareness skills should be taught orally without print.

CLASSROOM CONSIDERATIONS Phonological awareness training improves reading. vocabulary. and syntactic skills  Phonological awareness training can be implemented in the classroom  ESL students benefit from PA training  .