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because these require consistent control over at least one muscle group. Many patients cannot use conventional devices made for patients with severe motor disability. such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 2 .epilepsy can lead to severe motor disability.Thought Translation Device Introduction  Some neurological conditions.  Such patients are referred to as locked-in .

3 . a technique was developed where subjects learn to control their slow cortical potential producing signal according to the task requirement.  In order to enable such patients to communicate.  EEG-based communication methods requires no neuromuscular control.Thought Translation Device  Recent studies indicate that humans can learn to control certain components of their EEG and can use them as a new communication channel.

Therefore. they are present in the brain activity of every person. the the control of SCP was found to be highly specific. Second. a SCP self regulatory method has been developed for communication purposes. SCPs have two important advantages: First.Thought Translation Device What is SCP?  SCP(slow cortical potential) one of the EEG signal  Compared with other EEG signals. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 4 .

the software has to be flexible in order to adjust it to the individual shaping procedure.Thought Translation Device 3 Requirements 4 Communication  First. the learning ability of completely paralyzed patients must be proven.  Third.  Second. the EEG must be analyzed on-line for immediate reinforcement.  The on-line analysis must include all the transformations necessary to extract the to-becontrolled signal. 5 .

and various applications for braincomputer .communication such as spelling.Thought Translation Device Technology used in TTD  In its present form.  This software contains the functions of electroencephalogram (EEG)acquisition storage . the core of the TTD consists of a single computer program that runs under all MSWindows versions.  It was written in C++ for windows and uses the BCI-2000 common standard . classification . signal processing. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 6 .

SCP shifts from Cz (vertex) serve as the primary signal. C3. ‡The signals are amplified with an EEG amplifier set to a low-pass filter of 30 Hz and a time constant of 8 s and then digitized with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. ‡Thus we get many kind of signals i. ‡EEG amplifier with a long time constant is essential.Block Diagram Thought Translation Device ‡The EEG is recorded from Cz. ‡We use filters to remove the background noise and again perform signal transformation to get the required signal and to perform cursor movement on the computer screen. which has to be controlled and used for operating the thought-translation device (TTD). Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 7 .e. signals for all the component s of EEG including background noise. and C4 of the 10-20 leads.

Thought Translation Device Procedure  Patients sit in wheelchairs or beds and viewed a color PC screen . Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 8 .

Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 9 .  viewing distance is about 140 cm. held the patient to the rhythm of the program.  If the second (C3 C4) channel used. which followed each other in an interval of 2 s. two more goals (on the right and the left frame of the screen) are displayed.Thought Translation Device  two rectangles (goals) and a small moving object (ball) are displayed.  Two alternating tones of different pitch.

Thought Translation Device  The ball move during the low-pitch tone and the high-pitch tone (active phase) and remained in the center of the screen between the high-pitch tone and the low-pitch tone (baseline phase). Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 10 .  The minimum SCP amplitude difference between baseline and active phase necessary to move the ball from the center of the screen into a goal.  The patient s task is to move the ball in a specified direction toward one of the goals during the active phase.

the ball remained in the center of the screen. and vice-versa ( positivity ).Thought Translation Device  If a negative potential has to be produced in the active phase. the ball moves upwards. compared with the baseline interval. is true when the ball moves downwards. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 11 .  If there was no difference between the baseline interval and the SCP amplitude in the active phase.

the patient s task would be to keep the ball away from this goal.  In the case depicted.Thought Translation Device Production of Language HUMAN HU M  Goals used presented a word or letter sequence (the lower goal) and a space for the patient s own text (the upper goal). In order to do this. the patient has to select the letter M . the patient has to move the ball into the bottom goal. If the characters shown should not be selected (if it doesn t contain the required letter). Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 12 .

.  In training condition. the alphabet is divided in two parts. four and so on. learning to use LSP proceeds from easy to more difficult task. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 13 .  At the first level.Thought Translation Device ABEH AB A B EH E H N PST NP N P S ST T  When EEG responses reach an accuracy of 80 85%. It starts with two-level dichotomic structure to three. the method of choice is a dichotomic LSP structure.  Any of the above two methods can be used for selecting text. etc. at the second level each half is divided into two quartiles. up to the last level containing only one letter.

) by means of short task sequences being linked with corresponding technical devices..Thought Translation Device Merits  TTD can achieve an accuracy level of 65 85%.  The present software can easily be used for control of patient s environment (e.g. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 14 . call attendant. switch a light on or off. etc.  Studies shows a reduction of epileptic seizures by teaching patients to voluntarily produce positive SCP shifts.

Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 15 .  It requires more time for communication.  It is costly. contamination by Electrooculogram (EOG) artifacts. hence.Thought Translation Device Demerits  SCP is the necessity of a low time constant and.

control during self regulation have developed. Complexity of the alphabet and language structure of LSP should be reduced. 3.Thought Translation Device Improvements  Reliable techniques for on-line EOG artifact  1. We should reduce the time necessary for each single response. 2. Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 16 . To achieve higher speed :Error rate should be reduced.

org Sapthagiri College Of Engineering 17 .Thought Translation Device Reference  ieeexplore.

Thought Tra slation vic Sapthagiri Coll ge Of Engineering 18 .