Sare Jahan Se Achchha Hindostan Hamara

"What makes a nation, is the past, what justifies one nation against others is the past" - Eric Hobsbawm

Outline of Presentation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ About our Nation Dance Paintings Music

‡ The official Sanskrit name for India is Bharat. ‡ The number system was invented by India. ‡ Aryabhatta was the scientist who invented the digit zero. ‡ Chess was invented in India. ‡ India is the Largest democracy in the world and one of the most ancient and living civilizations. ‡ India has the most post offices in the world ! ‡ The largest employer in the world is the Indian railway system, employing over a million people! ‡ The World's first university was established in Takshila in 700 BC ‡ Sushruta is regarded as the father of surgery.

the dancing Lord Shiva. where the body is used as a medium of communication. ‡ The dance heritage of India is at least 5000 years old. the sculptures of Khajuraho stand ample evidence for popularity of Indian dances from ancient times.Indian Dances ‡ Dance is a form of art. ‡ Nataraja. is the supreme manifestation of Indian dance. . ‡ The wall paintings of Ajanta and Ellora.

Dance Forms of India .

Andhra Pradesh o Manipuri ± Manipur o Mohiniattam ± Kerala o Odissi .Uttar Pradesh o Kathakali ± Kerala o Kuchipudi.Orissa .Tamil Nadu o Kathak .Classical Dance Forms o Bharatnatyam .

. ‡ Bharatanatyam dancers are predominantly women. ‡ The contemporary form of Bharatnatyam evolved during the late 18th or early 19th century.BHARATANATYAM ‡ Widely appreciated dance form of Tamil Nadu.


.KATHAK ‡ Kathak was initially very similar to Bharatanatyam. ‡ Originated in the North. literally means story teller. ‡ Music and dance were used by story tellers to illuminate the story. ‡ The word kathak derived from "Katha". ‡ Kathak focuses more on footwork as compared to the hand movements in Bharatanatyam.



vocalists and percussionists. ‡ Kathakali is embedded in stories from the ‡ The dancers encompass dance with dialogue. in a Kathakali performance. ‡ Elaborate masks are used by the performers.KATHAKALI ‡ Originated in Kerala. ‡ There are 3 groups . Ramayana and Mahabharata. They wear huge skirts and head-dress. ‡ Performed in the temples. .


C.KUCHIPUDI ‡ Originated from a hamlet in Andhra Pradesh called Kuchelapuri or Kuchelapuram in the 3rd century B. ‡ In a Kuchipudi performance. ‡ Presented at temples. ± A daru is a small composition of dance and song specially designed for each character to help him or her reveal his or her identity. each principal character introduces himself or herself on the stage with a daru. .


ODISSI ‡ Originated from Orissa. lyrical classical dance which depicts the ambience of Orissa. ‡ Odissi is similar to Bharatnatyam with respect to the mudras and expressions. bust and torso in soft flowing movements to express specific moods and emotions. ‡ Odissi is based on the popular devotion to Lord Krishna. . ‡ It is a soft. ‡ Odissi dancers use their head. ‡ One of the oldest surviving dance forms.


‡ The theme of Mohiniattam is love and devotion to god. Vishnu or Krishna is more often the hero. Jaganam. Dhaganam and Sammisram. ‡ Mohiniattam maintains realistic make-up and simple dressing.MOHINIATTAM ‡ Mohiniattam means Mohini's dance. ‡ The basic dance steps are the Adavus which are of four kinds : Taganam. ‡ Mohiniattam is the feminine dance form of Kerala. ‡ The dancer are attired in a beautiful white and gold bordered Kasavu saree of Kerala. . ‡ It signifies transformation of Lord Vishnu into a female form.


‡ The earliest records of this dance form date back to about 100 AD.MANIPURI ‡ Manipuri is the classical dance from the Manipur region in the North East. ‡ The art form primarily depicts episodes from the life of Vishnu. . ‡ Manipuri dance is very much religious and associated to Vaishnav cult of Hinduism. ‡ Slow and gracious movements differentiate Manipuri from other dance styles.


.FOLK DANCES ‡ Indian culture includes a treasure of a variety of folk dances. ‡ The diversity in culture and tradition is reflected in the variety of Indian folk dances.

Padayani (Kerala) ‡ One of the most colourful and enchanting dances of Southern Kerala. Pathanamthitta and Kottayam districts. ‡ Associated with the festival of certain temples. etc. ‡ The main kolams (huge masks) presented in Padayani are Kali. Kalan . Pakshi (bird). ‡ These temples are formed in the districts of Alleppey. singers and instrumentalists. Quilon. Yakshi (fairy). ‡ The performers consist of dancers. . ‡ The literal meaning of Padayani is military formations or rows of army.

Padayani .

on Thiruvathira day in the Malayalam month of Dhanu (DecemberJanuary). pirouetting pattern accompanied by clapping of the hands and singing. ‡ The sinuous movements executed by a group of dancers around a nilavilakku. in order to attain everlasting marital bliss.KAIKOTTIKALI (Thiruvathirakkali) KERALA ‡ Thiruvathirakali also known as Kaikottikali is a dance performed by women. ‡ The dance follows a circular. . embody 'lasya' or the amorous charm and grace of the feminine.


the goddess of health and rain.Karakattam (Tamil Nadu) ‡ One of the most essential parts of a ritual. ‡ Karakattam is popular in villages during temple festivals. ‡ It is performed by men. surrounded by a tall conical bamboo frame covered with flowers. . dedicated to Mariamma. wherein they balance pots filled with uncooked rice. ‡ Drums and long pipes form the musical instruments accompanying the dance.

Karakattam (Karagam) Karagam) .

Kummi (Tamil Nadu) ‡ Kummi means to dance while clapping hands to a rhythm. ‡ Women form a circle and dance during the Maariamman and Kaanum Pongal festivals for ten consecutive days. . accompanied by songs in popular tunes.

‡ The original form of Yakshgana involves the use of recitative modes of poetry. colourful costumes and graceful make up. melodies of music.Yakshgana (Karnataka) ‡ Yakshgana is a folk theatre form of Karnataka and it is an ancient art. . rhythm and dance techniques.

a host of drummers and musicians start beating the Dhol and the Dhamsa. ‡ The Chhau dance is mythological.Chhau (West Bengal ) ‡ The Chhau dance of West Bengal has originated from the Purulia distrct . ‡ As the singer complete the invocation song. as it is mainly based on various episodes of the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. ‡ Chhau dance is mostly performed in the open space or ground field during the night. ‡ The masks are made up from the clay and paper. . ‡ The Chhau dance is a mask dance performed only by the male dancers.

Chhau .

‡ It is quite a virile dance rendered during the time of festivals. ‡ The men generally play the musical instruments and the drummers often join the dance.Dalkhai (Orissa) ‡ The 'Dalkhai' is a dance performed by women of the tribes from the Sambalpur district of Orissa. .

Dalkhai .

.Namagen (Himachal Pradesh) ‡ The autumnal hue is celebrated in September by a dance performance called Namagen. ‡ The most striking dance amongst these is the Gaddis. ‡ The costumes are largely woollen and richly studded ornaments of silver are worn by women.


Bhangra (Punjab)
‡ One of the most popular dances of India. ‡ Performed during Baisakhi usually by the men in Punjab. ‡ It includes tricks and acrobatic feats. ‡ The songs include recitation of meaningless 'bolis', words, such as hoay, hoay. ‡ The drummer usually in the centre of the circle, is surrounded by men dressed in lungis and turbans. ‡ The dance performed by the women folk of Punjab is called the 'Gidha'.
± In the Gidha, at a time a woman or a pair of women dance while the others clap in rhythm. The dance is performed in the festival of Teeyan to welcome the rains.


Ghoomer Dance (Rajasthan)
‡ The Ghoomer dance is a very famous and a community dance of women in Rajasthan. ‡ It is performed on various auspicious occasions like fairs & festivals. ‡ It is called as `Ghoomer`, from the `ghoomna` of Ghaghra i.e. the flowing of Ghaghra, a long skirt of the Rajasthani women. ‡ Women from any age group, may it be the young or old can participate in Ghoomer dance. ‡ While dancing, the dancers move in a circular direction with clockwise and anti-clockwise steps.

Ghoomer Dance .

Assam ‡ The Bihu dance is performed in the Bihu festival.Bihu Dance. ‡ The dance is performed in an open space during daytime. celebrated for the arrival of spring in the Assamese New Year. .

Bihu Dance .

‡ The theme of the story could be anything that has happened or is happening. Andhra Pradesh ‡ Burra' is a special instrument used by two performers who dance encourage the main story teller by exclamation and questions. ‡ Burra katha needs three people to enact the story telling. ‡ While the main artiste is dressed in a colourful attire with a garland round his neck and a tambura slung across his shoulder.Burra Katha Dance. ‡ The Burra katha demands oratory as well as dancing skills on the part of the performers. ‡ The two accompanying artistes have a drum and hand taal. the other two artistes dressed similarly question the narration to alert a sleepy audience. .

Burra Katha .

Holi etc. ‡ The word Garba is derived from the word `Garbha Deep` (a lamp inside a perforated earthen pot). singing and clap at the same time. Sharad Purnima. .Garba Dance (Gujarat) ‡ This dance form has connection with ShaktiPuja. ‡ In this folk dance. the women place the pot known as Garba with the lamp on their heads and move in circular direction. Vasant Panchami. ‡ It is played in a circular form performed by ladies on the nine nights of Navaratri festival.

Garba Dance .

zanz and shehnai. cymbals. ‡ The Ras is simple and is generally performed by a group of young people who move in typical style in measured steps around a circle. accompanied by a singing chorus and a host of musical instruments like the dhol. ‡ This dance is also a feature of most welcomed festival. . Navratri.DandiaDandia-Ras (Gujarat) ‡ Dandia -Ras is also known as the `stick` dance.

DandiaDandia-Ras .

people sometimes call it the BAMBOO DANCE. ‡ Long pair of horizontal bamboo staves are tapped open and close in rhythmic beats by people sitting face to face on the ground. . ‡ Because bamboos are used for the dance.Cheraw (Bamboo) Dance (Mizoram) ‡ the most popular and colourful dance of the Mizos.

Bamboo Dance .


± Prime examples are the Rajasthani & Mughal miniatures. ‡ Miniature paintings are those executed on a very small scale on perishable material such as paper. ‡ Indian Paintings can be broadly classified as the Murals & Miniatures. etc. ‡ Murals are huge works executed on the walls of solid structures.‡ Painting as an art form has flourished in India from very early periods. cloth. .. ± Classic examples are the paintings in Ajantha & Kailasantaha temple.

The Ajanta Caves are carved out of volcanic rock. . then applied the colours & renewed the contours in brown.MURALS Ajanta . They drew the outline in red ochre. deep red or black. ± Buddhist Monks employed artists who turned the stone walls into picture books of Buddha's life & teachings. ± The artists applied mud plaster in two coats the first was rough to fill in the pores of the rocks & then a final coat of lime plaster over it. ± The painting was done in stages.

Ajanta Murals Illustration of a Prince .Cave 1 .

Bodhisattava Padmapani Cave 1 An Apsara .Cave 17 .

they are somewhat preserved. but only in the Kailasa temple. at the time of carving the caves & the subsequent series was done several centuries later. ‡ The paintings were done in two series .ELLORA Murals ‡ Mural paintings in Ellora are found in 5 caves.the first. .

Thanjavur. Tamilnadu .‡ Brihadeeswarar Koil .

Murals on the walls (Brihadeeswarar Koil) .

Murals on the ceiling (Brihadeeswarar Koil) .

‡ The Mughal emperors introduced their own style of miniature paintings with Persian inspiration. as the name indicates were small works. mostly paintings of Buddha on palm leaves. which were made on perishable material. ‡ In Bengal. Bihar & Orissa.Miniatures ‡ The miniatures. . Buddhist manuscripts were illustrated.

Miniatures .

‡ Later he learnt water colour painting from the palace artist Rama Swamy Naidu. . and gave him initial training in painting. ‡ He was was born in Kilimanoor Palace.1906) is famous for his paintings based on Indian mythology & epics.PAINTINGS BY RAJA RAVI VARMA ‡ Raja Ravi varma (1848 . ‡ He learnt oil painting from the British artist Theodor Jenson. ‡ Even at the young age his talent was spotted by his uncle Raja Raja Varma.

in order to get the fisher girl married to his father Shantanu Draupadi.Mother & child Bhishma abdicating his right to the throne. in disguise carrying honey and milk to the court of Keechaka Jatayu attempting to save Sita Devi from Ravana PAINTINGS BY RAJA RAVI VARMA .


. ‡ The tradition of Indian music practiced and developed is nearly three thousand years old.‡ In India. ‡ In Indian music. ‡ Carnatic ragas differ from Hindustani ragas. The names of ragas are also different. there is a vast profusion of folk music which varies according to locality. ‡ Indian classical music is based on the ragas. ‡ Carnatic Style employs Shrutis or semitones to create a Raga and thus have many more Ragas than the Hindustani style. ‡ Classical Indian music can be classified into two distinct styles: ‡ North Indian or Hindustani ‡ South Indian or Carnatic music. musical sound is called nada.

‡ Carnatic music originated in the fertile plains of the Cauvery delta. . Muthuswamy Dikshithar and Syama Shastri were all born in Thiruvarur near Thanjavur Sa Re Ga Ma Pha Dha Nee are the seven basic notations called the Sapthaswaras. The Trinities of Carnatic Music Saint Thyagaraja.

Indian Musical Instruments The Indian musical instruments are classified into four major categories:  Tata vadya  Sushira vadya  Avanaddha vadya &  Ghana vadya .


‡chimpta is popular in Punjabi folk music . ‡It has evolved into a musical instrument by the permanent addition of small brass jingles.CHIMPTA ‡The chimpta is actually a fire tong.

Bansuri .












Proud to be Indian! 4/28/2011 83 .

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