Training as a tool for increasing manpower productivity

Adhir Singhal Dy General Manager, ALTTC, BSNL


‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Importance of Training Who Will Do the Training How Employees Learn Best Developing a Job Training Program ‡ Retraining ‡ Overcoming Obstacles to Learning



AND OF COURSE A PICTURE« The training these days is just so high tech but still inefficient! 4 .

teach me and I remember.Benjamin Franklin 5 .DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY ³Tell me and I forget. involve me and I learn´ .

 Recognizing the importance of human capital.The Workplace Skills Strategy  Human capital is increasingly regarded as one of the major drivers of productivity. economic growth and competitive advantage. adaptable. the Training will build and strengthen relationships with and among workplace partners and better engage employers. efficient labour market A responsive strategy to meet employers needs for skilled workers A learned employee can retain customers and increase business & market share thro¶ proper behavior and good public relations 6 As a demand-driven approach to human resource and skills development. . unions to respond to the challenges of workplace skills development. motivated and resilient workforce A flexible. the training manpower sets out to generate: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ A skilled.

An organization is only as good as it¶s employees. ‡ In order for an organization to produce professional career minded employees an investment has to be made. 7 .

8 .What type of investment must an employer offer employees to gain this? ‡ An investment in training and education is a sure payoff.

Trends in Proportions Viewing Skill Shortages as a µSerious Problem¶ 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 48% 55% 57% 60% 55% 58% 59% 61 % 1996 31 % 30% 20% 10% 0% Private Managers Public Managers Private Labour Public Labour 2002 c 20% 2005 1 6% 9 .

Importance of Training Managers: Importance to overall business strategy Labour leaders: Importance to collective bargaining issues 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% not/sli tl i ortant i ortant very i ortant crucial 5% 9% 22% 29% 30% 25% anagers labour 44% 37% 10 .

S automakers spend about 40 hours training new employees compared to 300 hours for Japanese automakers. 11 . Study of major automobile manufactures found U.00 in return. Over next 7 years. Motorola¶s CEO required all divisions to spend at least 2% of budget on training.Examples of Training Investments Industry and government in the United States spend approximately $90 billion each year on employee training and education.00 in training yielded $30. profits increased 47% and it was estimated that each $1. Average Japanese companies spends about 6% of budget on training.


Case Study in Training to Support Industry Standards The British Health Service Project 13 .

The British National Health Service ‡ 1.3 million employees needed basic IT skills training Main objectives: ‡ Address productivity issues ‡ Prevent resistance to change by preparing for it ‡ Effect a change of behaviour and change of attitude 14 .

Factors to consider ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Training to benefit organisation Training to benefit employees Training to benefit the industry Provide a good return on investment? 15 .

‡ 83% wanted to progress to further training ‡ 94% ³much more´ or ³more´ confident in use of ICT ‡ Positive attitude to new systems up from 30% to 74% ‡ Negative attitude to new systems down from 30% to 3% 16 .Results .Independent Survey ‡ 99% rated training experience as µvery¶ or µquite¶ worthwhile.

Return on Investment Hours spent learning less than hours saved by use of new skills H our 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 M i l lli N r S rt Pri r Ho u r L Ho u r S r i r i & H our v ( r r) 17 .

the employer must provide training as one of the needed tools for employees to get the job done.Investment ‡ To invest properly. 18 .

19 .Why Training? ‡ The sharing of information through training is our most valuable tool to develop our most valuable asset«our employees.

with enthusiasm and the positive attitude to give a full days work for a full days pay.Once employees have proper ³tools´ in their toolbox ‡ They will come to work on a daily basis. 20 .


Importance of Training ± contd« 1. upport career development. Respond to organizational restructuring. Fulfill employee need for growth. . Respond to technology changes affecting job requirements. . Adapt to increased diversity of the workforce. 5. 22 . 3.

manpower) ‡ Integrate new technologies into work ‡ Establish standards for work practices 23 .Importance of Training and Development ‡ Maintain skill levels ‡ Advance skill and knowledge to improve ± Performance (efficiency) ± Service delivery (error rate) ± Profitability (productivity.

Benefits of Training Individuals ‡ Do job more efficiently ± learn new methods ‡ Professional approach to work. engaged in best practice routines ‡ Personal satisfaction ± felt valued ‡ Recognised qualification to add to CV 24 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ What Does Employee Training Do For Your Business? ± Keeps Good Employees ± Expands Your Offerings = Business ± Provides Better Customer Service ± Makes you MONEY!! 25 .

They quit bosses!´ 26 .The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Keeps Good Employees ± No training program says to your employees: ‡ you¶re not worth it ‡ you can¶t be trained ± Training programs say: ‡ We value you enough to put some time (money!) into making you better! ‡ We value your thinking ³Employees don¶t quit companies.

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ³We¶re in this thing together´ 27 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Expands your offerings . thinking employees can provide a fresh outlook = ‡ new business opportunities ‡ better ways of doing things 28 .your business: ± training = thinking ± training exposes employees to: ‡ ³how we do it´ = in-house training ‡ ³how others do it´ = outside training ± Well trained.

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Customer Service: Is it Selling or Marketing?? Selling: providing a product to customers for money Marketing: convincing customers they need the product + = 29 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Better Customer Service: ± Direct Customer interaction changes as a business grows ± With a small business. the chance of interacting may be 100% customer owner 30 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ What are your employees saying to the customers? I require«!! We don¶t know We can¶t help you We don¶t sell anything like that customer 31 .

The Importance of Employee Training in Increasing Sales ‡ Good Employees ‡ Expanded Business ‡ Better Customer Service ‡ Makes you MONEY!! 32 .

standardized performance. boost morale and job satisfaction. ‡ Gives the business a good image and more profit. reduces injuries and accidents. gives them a chance to advance. reduces tension.The Benefits of Training ‡ Gives the supervisor more time to manage. more customers. less turnover. less absenteeism. lower costs. 33 . better service ‡ Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs. reduced tension. consistency.

Benefits of Training-a summary ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Improved customer service and public relations Fewer complaints Better morale and attitudes Less turnover and absenteeism More involved and caring employees Proactive vs. reactive employees 34 .


Then why is training often neglected? ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Urgency of need Training time Costs Employee turnover Short-term worker Diversity of worker Kinds of jobs (simple-complex) Not knowing exactly what you want your people to do and how 36 .

Attitudes to training Individual: ‡ How is that related to what I do? ‡ ³I¶m good at my job and anyway. I have no time´ ‡ ³I suppose that¶s my weekends shot for months!´ ‡ ³Are they trying to get rid of me?´ Employer: ‡ How can I be sure the organisation will benefit? ‡ Training is so expensive ± how will I know if it has been effective? ‡ Will this effect the goal of developing and implementing standards and protocols for the organisation? ‡ ³If I train them. they¶ll 37 leave´ .

Our front-line employees are often ³good´ will ambassadors. 38 . Their role and their understanding of their role is the vital key towards their development and their ability to provide excellent customer service. ‡ Yet they are the ones who hold the most ³thankless´ job.

and Orientation. 39 . ‡ When good training is absent there is likely to be an atmosphere of tension. Retraining. crisis. ‡ The big sister/ big brother system is when a old hand dominates a newcomer.Importance of Training Teaching people How to do Their Jobs: ‡ There are three kinds of training: Job Instruction. and conflict because nobody knows what to do.

Training Process Model II. Developing & Conducting Training I. Evaluating Training 40 . Needs Assessment III.

I. Needs Assessment 1. Organizational Level 2. Job Level 3. Individual Level

1. Organizational Level
‡ Technology change. ‡ Organizational restructuring. ‡ Change in workforce. ‡ Marketing Plans. ‡ Productivity measures

2. Job Level
‡ Job and task analysis. ‡ Identify Key areas. ‡ Review procedural and technical manuals.
Design Training Program

‡ Prior training and experience. ‡ Career assessment. Individual Level Determine who needs training and what kind. 44 . ‡ Performance review. ‡ Tests.3.

Based on job/task analysis and individual needs. o Consider appropriateness and cost. Developing and Conducting Training 1. offsite. outside vendors. o Considering learning principles.II. o Inside training staff vs. elect training methods. o Onsite facilities vs. 45 . 3. Develop training curricula. Determine location and who will conduct the training. .

Having the employee do it (right). ‡ It should provide check points to measure progress. ‡ Training materials should be the same as used on the job. ‡ Should include two elements: 1. Showing and telling the employee what to do. 46 . 2. ‡ Location should be ambient.Developing a Unit Training Program ‡ This is taught in several sessions.

Who will do the Training? ‡ The magic apron method: people train themselves the easiest ways to get the job done. ‡ The logical person to train new workers is The employer! 47 . ‡ The person that is leaving trains: teaches shortcuts and ways of breaking the rules. ‡ Big sister. big brother method: passes on bad habits and may resent new person as a competitor.

or attitudes. A number of the following tips come from the adult leaning theory.How do Employees Learn the Best? ‡ Learning is the acquisition of skills. 48 . ‡ The adult learning theory is a field of research that examines how adults learn. knowledge.

49 . ‡ When they receive feedback on performance.How employees learn the best: ‡ When they are actively involved in the learning process-(to do this choose a appropriate teaching method). ‡ When they are rewarded. ‡ Training is relevant and practical. ‡ When they have a good trainer. and comfortable setting. ‡ Training material is organized and presented in chunks. quiet. ‡ Training is in an informal.

involve me and I learn´ .How do Employees Learn the Best? ³Tell me and I forget.Benjamin Franklin 50 . teach me and I remember.

relates to workplace standards 51 .Kinds of training ‡ Informal ± on the job. ³phone a friend´ ‡ Formal ± ³attendance´ or ³completion´ ‡ Formal ± certified. vindicated ± Evidence of Return on Investment ± Must be planned ± Allows for customisation.

Prepare the learner 2. Have the worker do the task 4. 52 . correcting and supporting as nessicary. Follow through: put the worker on the job. ‡ Consists of 4 steps: 1.Job Instruction Training (JIT) ‡ Also called on the job training. Demonstrate the task 3.

53 . ‡ Handle problem behaviors in an effective manner. ‡ Watch how you talk to employees. ‡ Avoid time wasters. Covey respect and appreciation.Classroom Training Skills ‡ Be aware of appropriate body language and speech. ‡ Facilitate employee participation and discussion. ‡ Use visual aids to avoid constantly referring to notes.

MAKE MISTAKES  Training is a great place to make mistakes. ASK QUESTIONS  The only dumb questions are the ones you don¶t ask! 2. The you won¶t make as many at work in the li e en ironment! 54 .DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING: 1.

DELIVERING CUSTOMISED TRAINING SUCCESSFULLY MAKE IT FUN ± RULES FOR LEARNING 3. HAVE FUN  This rule is ery important 4. CHEAT  Watch how other people do things or yell for help Continued« 55 .

7. Creativity Training. Types Training 1. 4. 3. Skills Training. 2.Types ofof Training 3. CrossFunctional. 8. 6. 5. Literacy Training. Diversity Training. Customer Service. 56 . Retraining. Team Training.

57 . SKILLS TRAINING Focus on job knowledge and skill for: ‡ Instructing new hires.1. ‡ Overcoming performance deficits of the workforce.

2. Retraining Maintaining worker knowledge and skill as job requirements change due to: ‡ Technological innovation ‡ Organizational restructuring 58 .

59 . Cross-Functional Training Training employees to perform a wider variety of tasks in order to gain: ‡ Flexibility in work scheduling.3. ‡ Improved coordination.

Team Training Training self-directed teams with regard to: ‡ Management skills. 60 . ‡ Coordination skills. ‡ Cross-functional skills.4.

5. 61 . Creativity Training Using innovative learning techniques to enhance employee ability to spawn new ideas and new approaches.

cooperation. writing. and effective employee behaviors such as punctuality. 62 . Literacy Training Improving basic skills of the workforce such as mathematics. reading.6.etc. responsibility.

and different backgrounds. gender. 63 . etc. tolerance.7. respect. Diversity Training Instituting a variety of programs to instill awareness. and acceptance of persons of different race.

Customer Service Training Training to improve communication.8. 64 . better response to customer needs. and ways to enhance customer satisfaction.

Training Methods Classroom Video Computer Assisted Instruction Simulation On-the-Job 65 .

‡ Learner does not control pace or content ‡ Does not consider individual differences. theories. ‡ Effective in explaining concepts. ‡ Limited practice. ‡ Limited transfer to job. 66 . ‡ Limited feedback. ‡ Provides opportunity for discussion. Classroom Instruction PROS CONS ‡ Efficient dissemination of large volume of information.1. and principles.

‡ Adds additional cost. ‡ Allows distribution to multiple sites. ‡ Adds interest. ‡ Limited practice. CONS ‡ Does not consider individual differences.2. Video and Film PROS ‡ Provides realism. ‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. due to: * Script writers * Production specialists * Camera crews 67 . ‡ Allows exposure to hazardous events. ‡ Limited feedback.

‡ Allows scheduling flexibility. ‡ Allows active practice for some tasks.) 68 . Computer Assisted Instruction PROS CONS ‡ Efficient instruction. ‡ Allows learner control.) ‡ High development cost (40-60 hours per hour of instruction at approx Rs. ‡ Limited in presenting theories and principles. ‡ Transfer depends on particular job.000 per hour.3. (Good for computer work. ‡ Limited discussion. ‡ Considers individual differences. ‡ Provides immediate feedback to tasks. 10.

Lowers trainee stress. No job interference. example. Simulation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ PROS CONS Provides realism. reality´ simulators). High transfer to job. ‡ Cannot cover all job aspects. ³aircraft Allows exposure to simulators´ and ³virtual hazardous events. Allows active practice. 69 .5. ‡ Limited number of trainees. Provides immediate ‡ Can be very expensive (for feedback.

Lack of systematic feedback. ‡ Provides immediate feedback.6. May damage equipment. 70 . Inadequate focus on underlying principles. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CONS Disruptions to operations. ‡ Allows active practice. On-The-Job Training PROS ‡ Provides realism. ‡ High motivation. ‡ High transfer to job. ‡ Lowers training cost. Transfer of improper procedures. Inconsistent across departments. Trainee stress.

build in incentives and rewards. make the program form a series of small successes. ‡ Laziness.Overcoming Obstacles to Learning ‡ Reduce fear with a positive approach (convey confidence in the worker). indifference. ‡ Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level. ‡ Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner. resistance: May mean a problem worker. 71 .

Overcoming Obstacles to Learning ‡ Teaching not adapted to learners: Deal with people as they are (teach people not tasks). involve all the senses. keep it simple. etc. sensitive. ‡ Poor training program: revise to include objectives. 72 . helpful. be a good communicator + leader. ‡ Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job. patient.

Knowledge 3. interviews.III. Evaluating Training Effectiveness ‡ Formal evaluation: uses observation. Attitudes 5. Behavior 4.Productivity 73 . and surveys to monitor training while its going on. ‡ Summative evaluation: measures results when training is complete in five ways: 1. Reaction 2.

Detects a change.Types of Evaluation Designs Train Measure Post Test Only. 74 . Measure Train Measure Pre-test with Post-test. but cannot tell if training was responsible. Cannot tell if there is a change in knowledge or skill.

If Training Group has higher performance. Compare performance of Training Group and Control Group after training. 75 . it can be attributed to a training effect.Types of Evaluation Designs Measure Measure Train No Train Measure Measure Scientific Method: Training Group and Control Group.

practice. ‡ Follow-up instruction and support. ‡ Reinforcement to use new knowledge and skills. It is affected by: ‡ Relevance and effectiveness of the training ± readiness. Transfer Transfer refers to the trainee¶s application of knowledge and skills gained in training on the job. and feedback principles. 76 .IV.

77 .

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