WHITE LEDS

Yogesh Kumar 2008ph10643 Group no. 3 Course- EPL335

WORKING OF AN LED
p-n junction diode Forward bias Photon release during recombination process Direct band-gap semiconductors

USES
Automotive lighting(brake lamps, indicators, turn signals) White LEDs in Anti collision systems Text displays Sensors Communication Technology(high switching rates) Infra red LEDs in remote controls White LEDs can be used for lighting purposes

UNIQUE PROPERTIES
High energy efficiency Low power consumption High life-time High switching speed Compatible Intensity independent colors Temperature dependent output

WHITE LED
Mainly two basic methods to make White LEDs ² 1. Mixing of primary color( Red, Green & Blue) LEDs (RGB white LEDs)  Can be used to make LEDs of different colors  Color of LED is determined using RGB color space model  Low intensity LEDs 2. Phosphor coating(Phosphor Based LEDs)  High intensity LEDs

RGB COLOR SPACE MODEL
Three parameters x, y( Chromaticity coordinates) & Y and one more parameter z(=1-x-y) x & y represents intensity of color using ´CIE1931 color spaceµ Y represents brightness of color

Fig: CIE 1931 color space

WHITE LED USING CIE MODEL
The x and y coordinates are determined using the CIE 1931 color space Any color enclosed in the triangle formed by the coordinate points representing the three color can be obtained Ratio of luminance(brightness) of three colors determines the resultant color

PHOSPHOR BASED LEDS
Commercial high intensity white LEDs LED of one color(mostly blue LED made of InGaN or GaN) are coated with layer of phosphor of distinct color Blue light goes Stokes shift and the spectrum is broadened Cerium-doped yttrium Aluminium garnet (Ce3+:YAG) is a commonly used phosphor UV LEDs can be coated with europium-based red and blue emitting phosphors plus green emitting copper and Aluminium doped zinc sulfide (ZnS:Cu, Al) Simpler and cheaper than RGB system

PHOSPHOR BASED LED

fig: spectrum broadening due to Stokes shift

LIMITATIONS OF WHITE LEDS
Complicated packaging Larger energy consumption due to heat produced in Stokes shift Low color rendering index High color temperature

STRAIN ADJUSTED WHITE LED
Single chip Phosphor free 4-period MQW (multiple quantum well) active region3nm InGaN well and 14 nm GaN barrier InGaN ultra-layer (strained) Light is emitted in InGaN well Indium rich quantum dots emit yellow; In poor QDs emits blue resulting white light

fig: white LED with InGaN ultra layer

STRAIN ADJUSTED WHITE LEDS

fig: spectrum of a single chip white LED

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