Figure 10.1 Relationship of Noncomparative Scaling to the Previous Chapters and the Marketing Research Process Focus of This Chapter • Continuous Rating Scales • Itemized Rating Scales Relationship to Relationship to Marketing Previous Chapters Research Process • Research Design Components (Chapter 3) • Basic Types of Scales (Chapter 9) Problem Definition Approach to Problem Research Design Field Work Data Preparation and Analysis Report Preparation and Presentation .

3 Table 10.2 Scale Evaluation Fig 10.2 Non Comparative Scaling Techniques: An Overview Opening Vignette Internet Applications Fig 10.4 and 10.5 Stapel Semantic Differential Rating Scale Decisions Table 10.Figure 10.1 Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Likert Figs 10.6 Choosing a Scaling Technique TQM Application to Contemporary Issues Internationa Technolog l y Ethics Focus on Elrick & Lavidge Noncomparative Scaling Techniques .

Figure 10.3 A Classification of Noncomparative Rating Scales Noncomparative Rating Scales Continuous Rating Scales Itemized Rating Scales Semantic Differential Stapel Likert .

4 Balanced and Unbalanced Scales Balanced Scale Surfing the Internet is ____ Extremely Good ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Bad ____ Very Bad ____ Extremely Bad Unbalanced Scale Surfing the Internet is ____ Extremely Good ____ Very Good ____ Good ____ Somewhat Good ____ Bad ____ Very Bad .Figure 10.

5 Rating Scale Configurations A variety of scale configurations may be employed to measure the comfort of Nike shoes.Figure 10. Some examples include: Nike shoes are: 1) Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces… Very Very Uncomfortable Comfortable 2)Circle the number… Very Very Uncomfortable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Comfortable 3)Place an “X” on one of the blank spaces… Very Uncomfortable Neither Uncomfortable nor Comfortable Comfortable .

5 Rating Scale Configurations (continued) 4) Uncomfortable Somewhat Somewhat Comfortable Very Neither Uncomfortable Comfortable Uncomfortable Comfortable nor Uncomfortable Very Comfortable 5) -3 2 Very uncomfortabl e -2 3 -1 Neither Comfortable nor Uncomfortable 0 1 Very Comfortable .Figure 10.

Figure 10.6 Scale Evaluation Scale Evaluation Reliability Content Internal Consistency Criterion Construct Convergent Validity Discriminant Validity Nomological Validity Validity Test-Retest Alternative Forms .

a n d e rs a tile V co m p a n y im a g e s U n ip o la r te no in t sc a le . w itho u t a n e u trattitu d e s a n d al p o in t (z e ro ) im a g e s E a s y to c o n s tru c t Co n fu s in g a n d A d m in is te re d o ve r d iffic ult to te lep h o n e a p p ly . p ro d u c t.T A B L E 1 0 . a n d c o n s u m in g u n d e rs ta n d D iffic ult to c o n stru ct a p p ro p ria te b ip o la r a d je c tive s B a s ic C h a ra c te ris tic s E x a m p le s P lac e a m a rk o n a c o n tin u o u s lin e R e a c tio n to T V co m m e rcia ls A d va n ta g e s D is a d va n ta g e s E a s y to c o n s tru c t S co rin g c a n b e c u m b e rs o m e u n le s s c o m p u teriz e d S e m a n tic D iffe re n tia l S ta p e l S c a le B ra n d . M e a su re m e n t o f -p -5 to + 5 .1 B a s ic N o n c o m p a ra tive S c a le s S c a le C o n tin u o u s R a tin g S c a le Ite m ize d R a tin g S c a le s L ik e rt S ca le D e g re e o f a g re e m e n t o n a a su re m e n t o f Me 1 (stro n g ly d is a g ree ) to a ttitu d e s 5 (stro n g ly a g re e ) s c a le S e ve np o in t sc a le w ith b ip o la r la b e ls E a s y to c o n s tru c t. M o re tim e a d m in is te r.

TABLE 10. Balanced vs. Number of categories While there is no single. unbalanced In general. . optimal number. Odd or even number of categories If a neutral or indifferent scale response is possible for at least some of the respondents. an odd number of categories should be used. the scale should be balanced to obtain objective data. traditional guidelines suggest that there should be between five and nine categories. 2. 3.2 Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 1.

The category descriptions should be located as close to the response categories as possible. 6.2 (Cont. . Verbal description An argument can be made for labeling all or many scale categories. Physical form A number of options should be tried and the best one selected.TABLE 10.) Summary of Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 4. Forced versus nonforced In situations where the respondents are expected to have no opinion. 5. the accuracy of data may be improved by a nonforced scale.

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