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**Instructor: Carlos Pomalaza-Ráez Fall 2003 University of Oulu, Finland
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**Media Access Control (MAC)
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Protocols that enable multiple users to share a finite amount of frequency and time resources Needed for efficient operation and good performance for wireless systems An important goal is to minimize overhead while maximizing overall network capacity Ad Hoc networks have no pre-existing infrastructure or centralized administration, e.g. base stations, and as such they require distributed MAC protocols

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**Wireless MAC issues
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Half-duplex operation Time varying channel

reflection diffraction scattering multipath fading received signal power varies as function of time

**Burst channel errors
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bit-error rate can be as high as 10 or higher packet loss can be minimized by using smaller packets, forward error correcting codes and retransmission methods such as acknowledgement packets

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**Wireless MAC issues
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Location dependent carrier sensing

Hidden nodes. A hidden node is one that is within the range of the intended destination but out of range of the sender Exposed nodes. An exposed node is one that is within the range of the sender but out of range of the destination Capture. This event occurs when a receiver can correctly receive a transmission from one of two (or more) simultaneous transmissions, all within its range, because the signal strength of the correctly received signal is much higher than strength of the other signals

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Hidden and Exposed Node Problems A B C A is transmitting to B If C transmits to B it will cause a collision at B Hidden node C is out of range of A and is unaware of the transmission A B C D B is transmitting to A C wants to transmit to D C senses transmission & declines even if its transmission will not cause any collision at A Exposed node 5 .

Capture Problem If A and C transmit simultaneously to B then the signal power of C. but it results in unfair sharing of the channel with preference given to nodes closer to the receiver. received at B. Wireless MAC protocols need to ensure fairness under such conditions 6 . is higher than the one from A (because dCB < dAB) and there is a good probability that C¶s signal can be correctly decoded in the presence of A¶s transmission A dAB B dCB C D This capture of C¶s signal can improve protocol performance.

according of the type of network architecture for which they have been designed. distributed and centralized. into random access protocols. based on the mode of operation.Classification of MAC Protocols Wireless MAC protocols can be classified into two categories. Protocols can be further classified. guaranteed access protocols. and hybrid access protocols Wireless MAC protocols Distributed MAC protocols Centralized MAC protocols Random access Random access Guaranteed access Hybrid access Since we are interested in Ad Hoc networks we will focus our discussions on distributed type protocols 7 .

Performance Metrics Delay ± Average time spent by a packet in the MAC queue. Common methods are the use of access priorities and scheduling 8 . It is a function of protocol and traffic characteristics Throughput ± Fraction of the channel capacity used for data transmission Fairness ± A fair MAC protocol does not exhibit preference to any single node when multiple nodes are trying to access the channel Stability ± A stable system can handle instantaneous loads that are greater than the maximum sustained load Robustness against Channel Fading Power Consumption ± Most wireless devices have limited battery power. it is then important to design MAC protocols that have power saving features Support for multimedia ± Protocols need to treat packets from various applications based on their delay constraints.

pp.A.. ³Packet Switching in Radio Channels: Part II ± The Hidden Terminal Problem in Carrier Sense Multiple Access and the Busy Tone Solution. Tobagi and L.´ ARRL/CRRL Amateur Radio 9th Computer Networking Conf. Klienrock. 1990 9 .Distributed MAC Protocols These protocols are based on carrier sensing and collision avoidance Carrier sensing refers to listening to the physical medium to detect any ongoing transmission Collision avoidance techniques must be implemented to minimize the probability of collisions. 1417-1433 Collision Avoidance with Control Handshaking such as one used in MACA (multiple access with collision avoidance) protocols P. Commun. Karn. 1975.´ IEEE Trans.. COM-23. Two mechanisms can be used: Collision Avoidance with Out-of-Band Signaling such as the one used in the BTMA (busy tone multiple access) protocol F. ³MACA ± A New Channel Access Method for Packet Radio.

RTS-CTS-DATA-ACK DIFS Sender node Receiver node SIFS RTS SIFS DATA SIFS CTS NAV(DATA) NAV(CTS) NAV(RTS) NAV.Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC It is a derivative of the MACA protocol It is the basic access protocol of the IEEE 802.11 standard Consists of a four-way exchange.Network Allocation Vector ACK Others 10 .

Distributed Foundation Wireless MAC To give preference to a stations trying to send and ACK different waiting intervals are specified: DIFS (distributed inter frame space) a node must sense channel idle for DIFS interval before making an RTS attempt SIFS (short inter frame space) a node has to sense channel idle for SIFS before sending an ACK. SIFS < DIFS NAV (Network Allocation Vector): Packets contain time field (NAV) to indicate duration of current transmission. All nodes that hear RTS/CTS back off NAV amount (time) before sensing the channel. 11 .

each always having a packet available for transmission (saturation condition) Each packet needs to wait for random backoff time before transmitting Constant & independent collision probability for each transmitted packet Ideal channel condition (no hidden terminals and capture) Notation b(t) = stochastic process representing the backoff time counter CWmin = minimum contention window = W m m = maximum backoff stage CWmax = 2 W i Wi = 2 W.11 DCF Assumptions Fixed number of stations.m) is called ³backoff stage´ s(t) = stochastic process representing the backoff stage at time t p = probability of each transmitted packet being collided 12 .Performance Analysis of 802. where i (0.

b(t9)} = {1. After B¶s ACK station A has another packet to transmit and this time it chooses a backoff time of 4 which brings it to a collision condition with the station that had resumed its counter.3} DIFS Station A BO=3 {s(t9). Because of the collision station A increments its contention window size and chooses a backoff time of 7. t8 collision DIFS Others ACK BO=7 BO=4 DIFS Busy channel NAV(RTS) Busy channel NAV(CTS) BO=4 RTS BO=2 RTS Station A has a packet to transmit to station B. At the end of the ACK station A waits for a DIFS and then chooses a backoff time equal to 3 before sending an RTS to station B.11 DCF Example {s(t0).. The station that had a backoff time of 7 ³freezes´ its timer until the channel is idle again. At t3 station A initiates the RTS/CTS transaction with station B.b(t0)} = {0..802.7} DIFS DATA BO=4 RTS BO=7 BO=5 SIFS RTS SIFS Busy channel t9 Station B t0 t1 t2 t3 CTS ACK t4 «. 13 . Another station also waits for a DIFS and chooses a backoff time equal to 7.

802. the backoff time is decremented as long as the counter has not reached zero and that the channel has been sensed idle for a mini-slot (*) G.Markov Chain Model A bi-dimensional process model {s(t).11 Distributed Coordinated Function. March 2003. Wi ± 2). Bianchi. k (0. k+1} = 1. vol.b(t)} can be used (*) which leads to a discrete-time Markov chain model with the following transition probabilities: P{i. 3. ³Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.m) i. 535-547 14 . pp. i (0.k This equations accounts for the fact that. at the beginning of each slot time.11 DCF . 18.k | i.´ IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications. no.k+1 1 i.

W0 ± 1) 15 . and that the backoff is initially uniformly chosen in the range (0. W0 ± 1 This equations accounts for the fact that a new packet following a successful packet transmission starts with backoff stage 0..Markov Chain Model P{0.0 0.m) Tx Success i.. 0} = (1-p)/ W0 .0 (1-p)/ W0 0.11 DCF . i (0.W0 ± 2 0.1 . 0.k | i. W0 ± 1).802. k (0.

k (0.m) Tx Collision i-1. i (1.k | i-1. i.0 p/ Wi i. the backoff stage increases.802.1 .. 0} = p/ W1 ..Wi ± 2 i. Wi ± 1 When an unsuccessful transmission occurs at backoff stage i-1.Markov Chain Model P{i. Wi) 16 .11 DCF . Wi ± 1). and the new initial backoff value is uniformly chosen in the range (0.0 i.

1 m.2 . 0} = p/ Wm . W0 ± 1 (1-p)/ W0 m. 0. k (0. it is not increased in subsequent packet transmissions 17 ... Wm ± 1) 0.Markov Chain Model P{m..11 DCF . Wm ± 1 This equation models the fact that once the backoff stage reaches the value m.Wm ± 2 m.0 0.0 p/ Wm m.1 ..802. m.W0 ± 2 0.k | m.

m).0) ! T (0.0) i (0.k) is then T (i.0) is determined by using the normalization condition § § T (i. k (0. k ) ! T (i. Wi 1) Wi (0. k ) ! 1 i !0 k !0 m Wi 1 from which 2(1 2 p )(1 p ) T (0.0) 0 i m pm T (m.0) 1 p Wi k T (i.Steady State Probabilities The stationary transition probability distribution (i.0) ! (1 2 p )(W 1) pW (1 (2 p ) m ) 18 .0) ! p iT (0.

the probability that a transmitted packet encounters a collision. each remaining station transmits a packet with probability .0) ! (1 2 p )(W 1) pW (1 ( 2 p ) m ) i !0 p. is the probability that in a time slot at least one of the n-1 remaining stations transmits. At steady state.Steady State Probabilities The probability that a station transmits in a randomly chosen slot time can be derived since any transmission occurs when the backoff time counter is zero 2(1 2 p ) X ! § T (i. this results in m p ! 1 (1 X ) n 1 From this two equations the values for p and can be found using numerical techniques 19 .

i.e. tr ! 1 (1 X ) n The probability Ps that a transmission on the channel is successful is given by the probability that exactly one station transmits on the channel. defined as the fraction of the time the channel is used to successfully transmit payload bits is then S! E[payload information transmitted in a slot time] E[length of a slot time] 20 . s ! nX (1 X ) n 1 tr nX (1 X ) n 1 ! 1 (1 X ) n The normalized throughput S..Throughput Let Ptr be the probability that there is at least one transmission in the considered slot time. i.e. conditioned on the fact that at least one station transmits..

Throughput If E[P] is the average packet payload then S can be expressed as Ps Ptr E[ P ] S! (1 Ptr )W Ptr PsTs Ptr (1 Ps )Tc where W ! duration o an empty slot time Ts ! average time the channel is sensed busy because o a success ul transmission Tc ! average time the channel is sensed busy by each station during a collision For the basic access mechanism (no RTS/CTS transaction) the packet header is H! Yhdr AC hdr And let be the propagation delay 21 .

Throughput PH hdr Basic Access SIFS MAChdr PAYLOAD ACK DIFS Tsuccess (basic access) PHYhdr MAChdr PAYLOAD Tcollision (basic access) DIFS Tsbasic ! H E[P ] SIFS H ACK DIFS H Tcbasic ! H E[ P * ] DI H E[P*] is the average length of the longest packet payload involved in a collision Pmax ¨n¸ k nk © ¹X (1 X ) ´ (1 F k ( x))dx k !2 © ¹ 0 ªk º 1 (1 X ) n nX (1 X ) n 1 n E[ P * ] ! Where F(.) is the probability distribution function for the packet payload size 22 .

Throughput RTS RTS/CTS PAYLOAD SIFS ACK SIFS CTS SIFS PHYhdr MAChdr DIFS Tsuccess (RTS/CTS) RTS DIFS Tcollision (RTS/CTS) Tsrts / cts ! RTS SIFS H CTS SIFS H H E[ P ] SIFS H ACK DIFS H Tcrts / cts ! RTS DIFS H 23 .

Model Validation The model is validated by comparing its results with those obtained via simulation. The parameters used for the validation study are summarized in the following table. Packet payload 8184 bits MAC header PHY header ACK RTS CTS 272 bits 128 bits 112 bits + PHY header 160 bits + PHY header 112 bits + PHY header Channel Bit Rate Propagation Delay Slot Time SIFS DIFS ACK-Timeout CTS-Timeout 1Mbit/s 1 s 50 s 28 s 128 s 300 s 300 s 24 . A PHY layer using a FHSS modulation system is assumed.

Model Validation. simulation results by symbols 25 .Simulation vs. Analysis Analytic results are represented by lines.

and transmission 26 .Elimination Yield Non-Preemptive Multiple Access (EY-NPMA) EY-NPMA is the channel access protocol used in the HYPERLAN system. HIPERLAN is a high-speed (24 Mb/s) wireless LAN standard.700 bits then it is considered free and the node can start transmitting Each data frame must be explicitly acknowledge with an ACK packet If the channel is sensed busy the node synchronizes itself with the end of the current transmission interval At that point a channel access cycle begins according to the EY-NPMA scheme This scheme has 3 phases: prioritization. contention. The protocol works as follow: A node that has data to transmit senses the channel If the channel is free for at least 1.

If no transmission is detected during this time. If the channel is idle the node moves to the yield phase In the yield phase the node listens to the channel for a random number of slots.Channel Access (EY-NPMA) Prioritization phase Contention phase Transmission phase Elimination phase (B) Yield phase (D) Data Frame ACK Priority Detection Cycle Synchronization Interval Priority Assertion Survival Verification Interval In the prioritization phase only the nodes with the highest channel access priority frame are allowed to continue to the next phase The contention phase has 2 sub-phases: elimination. the node starts and completes its data transmission 27 . and yield In the elimination phase each node transmits for a random number of slots after which it listen to the channel. If the channel is busy the node loses contention and waits for the next cycle.

Each node that has a frame with priority h senses the channel for the first h prioritization slots.. each node transmits a burst for a number B. If the channel is idle during this interval. of yield slots before beginning a transmission. H-1). i. ® q)q b 0 e b e n (1 B has a truncated geometric probability ± r{ ! b} ! ¯ n distribution function. 0 D m. otherwise it stops contending and waits for the next channel access cycle. r{D ! d } ! ¯ m ± p b!m ° 28 .e. then the node transmits a burst in the h + 1 slot and it is admitted to the contention phase. D has also a truncated geometric probability ® p) p d 0 e d e m (1 ± distribution function.. i. 0 B n.e. The elimination phase consists of at most n slots followed by an elimination survival verification slot. ± q b!n ° The yield phase consists of at most m yield slots.Channel Access (EY-NPMA) For the prioritization phase each frame is assigned a priority level h (0. Each node listens to the channel for a number D. Starting from the first elimination slot. of subsequent elimination slots.

The ON/OFF period lengths are Weibull distributed with = 1 (Markov Modulated Markov Process) and < 1.x u0 (*) G.´ Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM¶98. ³Stability and Performance Analysis of HIPERLAN. The nodes have infinite buffers and they contribute with the same offered load. L. (*) the simulation model compared the performance of the protocol with different arrival processes. The Weibull probability distribution function of a random variable X is: P{ X e x} ! 1 e ( x / F )E . Pareto.Performance Analysis (EY-NPMA) Analysis of the HIPERLAN MAC protocol via a mathematical model is very difficult because of the complexity and level of interdependence of the various processes that are involved. 29 . Anastasi. Weibull. Mingozzi. and E. Studies have shown that experimental data related to WWW applications can be satisfactorily modeled by ON/OFF processes where the ON and OFF time-lengths distributions are heavy tailed. Lenzini. For the study carried by Anastasi et. Poisson and ON/OFF processes are used. 134-141.g. e. pp. al. Therefore the analysis is carried out using simulation models.

Simulation Analysis (EY-NPMA) 30 .

Multi-Channel Assignment Approach 6 2 1 5 7 3 4 8 Proposed for CDMA Ad-Hoc Networks Nodes use different channels (codes) to transmit data The codes must be ³locally´ unique but they can be reused The code or channel can be used as an implicit address for the node Similar approach is used in cellular networks but there the topology is static 31 .

The problem of channel assignment becomes then one of graph coloring For any node: All its neighbors have different colors (ROCA).E) be the graph representation of the network and the maximum degree of the graph. or All two-hop neighbors have different colors (TOCA) ROCA = Receiver-Oriented-Code-Assignment TOCA = Transmitter-Oriented-Code-Assignment Brooks and Vizing theorem: Number of colors needed e min{( (( 1) 1. V } 32 .Channel Assignment in Ad Hoc Networks Let G(V.

code assignment algorithms 33 . dynamic.Channel Assignment in Ad Hoc Networks In Ad-Hoc networks: There is no base station Nodes are free to connect or disconnect Nodes move about Increase or decrease their transmission range Should minimize or avoid the primary and secondary conflicts Two transmissions with the same code arrive at a node simultaneously A transmission arrives at a node that is receiving a signal with a different code These features call for distributed.

ci cj (primary collision avoidance) CA2 .´ IEEE Trans. no. December 1993. on Networking. (vj.For every edge (vi. vol. Hu.Minimal Recoding Strategies A change in the code assignment (recoding) is needed to eliminate potential collisions caused by nodes joining the network. ci cj (secondary collision avoidance) 1 Graph coloring problems of this nature are NP-complete (1) L.vk). moving. ³Distributed Code Assignment for CDMA Packet Radio Networks. 1.vk) E & i j. 6. or changing the power of their transmissions The recoding strategy must be distributed and local The number of events required for recoding should be minimized The maximum number of codes needed for a proper recoding should be also minimized Used TOCA method since it has better performance Assign a code ci to each node such that. CA1 . 668-677 34 . pp.For every pair of edges (vi.vj) E.

Recoding on Node Join Consider the event where a new node n joins an Ad Hoc network Set 1n Set 2n Set 4n n Set 3n Node n joins Nodes in 3n need not change their color since n will be assigned a new color different from any color in 3n. To minimize the amount of recoding there is only to recode the nodes in the set 1n U 2n U {n} 35 .

´ Technical Report. Gupta. and all old colors in 1n U 2n . the set of old colors in 3n U 4n forbidden to be assigned to nodes in 1n U 2n U {n} due to the constraints CA1 and CA2. 36 .«. The edges in E are weighted.v). at least m i !1 ( K i 1) ! m i !1 K i m of the nodes in 1n 7 2 n need to be recoded with different new colors to avoid conflicts into the new code assignment after node n joins the network. Consider the undirected graph G¶= (V1 U V2. To find out which nodes to chose for recoding one can use the following approach(1). edges (u. then apart from recoding n. u is not constrained to be newly colored with v} ³maximum color constraint in the vicinity of 1n U 2n U {n}´ means the maximum integer among all constraints due to 3n U 4n on nodes 1n U 2n U {n}. Cornell University. V1 = 1n U 2n U {n} V2 = {i : i Z+ & i max = maximum color constraint in the vicinity of 1n U 2n U {n} } E = {(u. K2. (1) I. 2001. ³Minimal CDMA Recoding Strategies in Power Controlled Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks. E¶) where. C2. v V2. Km}. e. v V2 where v is the old color assigned to node u are given a weight of 3. all other edges have weight 1. Dept.g.v) : u V1. u 1n U 2n .Recoding on Node Join If the set of old colors in 1n U 2n is {C1. Cm} and the number of nodes in 1n U 2n with these corresponding colors is {K1. of Computer Science.«.

The original color assignment.F. 37 . 2n = {A.Recoding on Node Join (Example) 1n U 2n 2 A H B 3 D 3 C F 1 1 4n E 3 G 2 1n = {G}.B. Note that G¶ is a bipartite graph.F}. 4n = {D. before node H joins the network. Next G¶ is built as previously defined. is indicated next to each node (in the square box). 3n = { }.C}.

pp. 18. Galil.Recoding on Node Join (Example) A 3 1 1 1 Consider now the maximum matching M M E 1 B 3 3 C 1 2 3 F 1 1 G 1 3 3 on this bipartite graph. 23-28. There are many efficient algorithms to find a maximum matching of a weighted bipartite graph(1). and for all the remaining nodes in V1 not matched by M. assign them consecutive colors one by one starting from | V2 | + 1 onwards. March 1998. Once M is found assign a node u in V1 to the color in V2 that M matches into. M is a set of edges with no common end-vertices and with the maximum total weight among all such sets. (1) Z. vol. ³Efficient Algorithms for Finding Maximum Matching in Graphs. 38 H 1 .´ ACM Computing Surveys.

The color (code) assignment for the unmatched nodes is (F.Recoding on Node Join (Example) A 3 1 B 3 3 2 The maximum matching M for this example is then {(A. 2001. ³Minimal CDMA Recoding Strategies in Power Controlled Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks. C F 3 G H 39 .3). (B. of Computer Science. (C.4). this strategy re-assigns the least maximum color to any node (1) I. e.5) and (H.´ Technical Report. (G.1)}. nodes in 1n U 2n U {n}. Dept. and uses only local information. Gupta. Claims(1) Minimal Recoding: For the event where n joins the network this algorithm recodes the minimum number of nodes Optimal among Minimal: Among all minimal strategies that recode nodes only one hop away from the event.2). This recoding strategy is local since the task of recoding the nodes in 1n U 2n U {n} is locally centralized at node n. Cornell University.6).g.

Let max = maximum color seen in these constraints on old colors in 1n U 2n 4. otherwise assign it a weight of 1 5. Transmit this information to all concerned nodes and coordinate on when to change colors 40 . Obtain the constraints (n.Recoding on Node Join (Pseudo Code) 1. For each edge v in V1 that is matched to some edge k in V2 assign k as the new color. u 1n 2 n . Let V1 = 1n U 2n U {n}. v 1n 2 n 3. oldcolor (v)) for n. Obtain the constraints (u. max + m 7.«. «. Run the bipartite matching algorithm on G¶ 6.2. For all the remaining m vertexes in V1 not assigned a color assigned them the colors max + 1. v 1n 2 n {n} 2. oldcolor (v)) of the from-neighbors u of n.max} Build the bipartite graph G¶ by joining edges from each vertex v in V1 to each color k in V2 that it can be assigned without conflicting with the constraints with any of the nodes not in 1n U 2n U {n} Assign a weight of 3 to the edge if it connects to the old color assigned to v. V2 = (1.

2n = {E.F. e.Recoding on Move The event when a node n moves can be handled in almost the same way as when a node joins the network. for the following example.C}. 4n 2 A B B 3 D 3 1 C E G 3 2 F 1 1n U 2n 1n = { }. 3n = { }.G}.D. 4n = {A. before node B moves. 41 . is indicated next to each node (in the square box). The original color assignment.g.

4).3).2). (D.1). (F. (B.3). (E. and (G.2) 42 . (C.Recoding on Move (Example) The bipartite graph G¶ is B 3 1 The maximum matching M is B 1 1 E 3 3 1 E 3 2 3 1 1 2 F 3 F 3 3 3 G 1 G The final color (code) is (A.1).

Define 1n. u 1n 2 n . 6. Run the bipartite matching algorithm on G¶ For each edge v in V1 that is matched to some edge k in V2 assign k as the new color. V2 = (1. and 4n. max + m Transmit this information to all concerned nodes and coordinate on when to change colors 43 7. 3. . v 1n 2 n {n} 2. «. v Obtain the constraints (n. 1n 2 n Let max = maximum color seen in these constraints on old colors in 1n U 2n Let V1 = 1n U 2n U {n}.«. for the node n in its new position 1. Obtain the constraints (u. oldcolor (v)) of the from-neighbors u of n. 2n. oldcolor (v)) for n.2. For all the remaining m vertexes in V1 not assigned a color assigned them the colors max + 1.Recoding on Node Move (Pseudo Code) 0.max} Build the bipartite graph G¶ by joining edges from each vertex v in V1 to each color k in V2 that it can be assigned without conflicting with the constraints with any of the nodes not in 1n U 2n U {n} Assign a weight of 3 to the edge if it connects to the old color assigned to v. 4. otherwise assign it a weight of 1 5. 3n.

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