Managerial Communication

Introduction:

Managerial Communication

A manager can considerably impact workforce expansion and employee performance. Whether such impact is positive or negative, it is often the direct result of communication management and their understanding of each other's work habits and style. In order to understand what communication is good to a manager, let us first describe what communication is and how a manager can benefit through it . Managerial Communication is the ability to fluent yourself so that others can understand both your words and what your goals are. You have more ways to communicate today than ever before, and many more

Managerial Communication
Earlier as a manager, you had only a few different communications skills to master in order to be a good manager. i.e. Telephones, letters, face-to-face conversations, and  the occasional speech or presentation. Now however, you have all kinds of exciting and new ways to tell your counterpart on the other side of the world to take a walk. You have e-mail both on local networks within companies and on the internet voice mail, voice pagers, conference calls, teleconferencing, faxes, wireless phone, satellite uplinks, satellite downlinks, and on and on those are the technology side.

Listening communication. therefore we are going to go through some of those skills that manager is to have. especially the workplace. Open door policy communication. . so that he or she can be a good manager. These are very important in all areas of life. Therefore the good manager has to marginalize both qualities in order this equation to be balanced equation. The communication equation has two sides the doing side and the listening side. Body communication.Managerial Communication Here we are going to focus the ability of a manager to communicate his employers personally.

• State the guidelines for effective communication. . • Define the main element of the communication process. • Describe the importance of information technology in the communication process. • Define the barriers to communication and describe ways to overcome them. – After studying this chapter should be able to.COMMUNICATION • Learning Objective.

It is a way of exchanging and sharing.COMMUNICATION Communication • Communication is the transfer and exchange of information and understanding from one person to another through meaning symbols. – Ideas – Attitudes – Values – Opinions – Facts .

who completes the communication link. and a receiver. who begins the process. the cycle is complete. managers can accomplish very little .COMMUNICATION The Communication Process Significantly. Communication affects how people in an organization interact each other without effective communication. When the receiver understand the communication. communication is a process that requires both a sender.

What Is Communication? .

COMMUNICATION .

MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) 3. Elements of Communication Process There are three elements : • • • Sender (encoder) Symbols (media) Receiver (decoder) .

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• The sender tries to choose the type of message and the channel that will be most effective. • The sender then encoders the message . . • The meaning of the word encode – Convert into code.COMMUNICATION • Element in the Communication Process Sender (Encoder) • The sender is the source of information and the initiator the communication process.

way communication Two – way communication .MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) One .

– – – – Medium Written Visual. selecting the: » Word » Symbols. Relevancy » Relevancy make the message meaningful and significant. or » Gestures to be used . or Spoken that conveys the meaning intended.• Element in the Communication Process – Encoding COMMUNICATION • Encoding translate thoughts or feelings into a. Five principles of increasing encoding accuracy 1.

because words may not be clearly heard or fully understood the first time. Simplicity • Put the message in the message in the simplest possible terms.• Encoding COMMUNICATION 2. reducing the number of words. . 3. Repetition is particularly important in spoken communication. 4. Repetition • Restate key points of the message at least twice. and/or gestures used to communicate the intended thoughts and feelings. Organization • Arrange the message as a series of points of to facilitate understanding complete each point in a message before proceeding to the next. symbols.

or key points.COMMUNICATION • Encoding 5 . make the message clear and avoid unnecessary detail. emphasize significant points by: – Changing your ton of voice – Pausing – Gesturing or. Focus In written communication – Underline key sentences – Phases – Words . of the message. Focus • Focus on the essential aspects. – Using appropriate facial expressions. in spoken communication.

Decoding It is the process to make the message understandable . Some are highly informative for both sender and receiver.MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) Channels Channel is the path through message flows from the sender to receiver. Receiver (Decoder) The person who receives and decodes to interprets the information. The information carrying capacity of a channel of communication is different . Other provide little information. . Not all channels can carry the same richness of information.

3. Verbal (Spoken) Communication Written Communication Nonverbal Communication .4 1.MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) Types of Communication. 2.

organizing. that is one to one . • • • Reports Memorandum Letters or news letters. Written Communication A formal communication from the commander as . .MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) a. b. coordinating. Any type of exchange of ideas . as. Important communication should also be “kept on record” for later reference. Decisional (negotiator) is called verbal or interpersonal communication. Verbal (Spoken) Communication Most of the communication is “one to one” communication .either it’s Informational. information's . directing and controlling is the use of written communication. emotions. planning .

Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is the most commonly used and understood form of human communication. almost 60% content of the message is transmitted through facial expression and body movement. • • • Facial expressions Body movement Signs When people communicate the message while meet to each other. as. such as. • • • Use of space Personal appearance Body language . Some ways of non verbal communication that you should be aware of and use effectively.MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) c.

Nonverbal Communication Messages are communicated verbally or non-verbally. Overview . Verbal communication may be oral or written. Non-verbal communication means employing audio signs or visual signs to communicate a message.

Overview • Examples of Nonverbal communication .

MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) Non Verbal Communication .

you have beard the expression “clothes make the person” style consultants for major corporation believe that the way a person dresses. where you sit or stand. Is the way I am dressed going to hurt or help may business? People will judge you partially on the basis of how look.MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES (COMMUNICATION) c. customer and others may see you as a more effective person than someone other. and how you arrange your office that can have a real impact on personal. You should ask yourself. If you are dressed appropriately. Space Proxemics. How close you are to another person. Nonverbal Communication (continue) a. . The branch of knowledge that deals with the amount of space that people feel it necessary to set between themselves and others. definitely communicates something to others. Personal appearance Undoubtedly. b.

Personal Appearance • Body Language COMMUNICATION – The body and its movements particularly those of the face and eyes. which are very expressive. .  The words them selves may account for only 20 percent of the content of the message.  Tell other people a lot about you as much as 5 percent of the content of a message may be communicated by facial expression and body posture another 30 percent by inflection and tone of the speech.

Personal Appearance • Body Language COMMUNICATION .

Personal Appearance • Body Language COMMUNICATION .

COMMUNICATION Management roles in Communication Communication Interpersonal  Figurehead  Leader  Liaison Informational Decisional  Spokes  Entrepreneur person  Disturbance  Monitor handler  Disseminators  Negotiator .

• Before each person leaves. . which put people on the defensive and may makes them “ calm up” or become angry. • Remove distractions • Try to see the other person’s point of view. • Go easy on argument and criticism. confirm what been said.COMMUNICATION Guideline for Effective Listening • Stop talking! You can’t listen if you are talking • Show a talker that you want listen. paraphrase what’s been said to show that you understand.

encoding and decoding of the message may very because of differences between the sender’s and the receiver’s back \grounds and viewpoints.COMMUNICATION Guideline for Effective Listening • Message – The message contains the verbal (spoken and written) symbols and non verbal cause that represent the information the sender wants to the receiver. a message has two sides. – Like a coin. – Second. the sender may be sending more than on message. and the message sent and the message received aren’t necessarily the same. Why? – First. .

COMMUNICATION .

 Verbal Messages COMMUNICATION – Employees communicate verbally (speaking and writing) more often than in any other way. the must choose their words and tone of voice carefully. • Spoken communication takes place face to face and over the telephone. . To get their meaning across on the telephone. • Most people prefer face to face communication because non verbal messages are an important part of it.

• Convey they message in a well o organized manner. and • Try to eliminate distractions .COMMUNICATION  Verbal Messages – Effective verbal communication requires the sender to • Encode the message in words (and nonverbal cause) that will convey it accurately to receiver.

• Reports • Memorandum • Letters • News letters .COMMUNICATION • Written messages – People usually prefer spoken to written messages because spoken communication is quicker and the sender and receiver can interact. However. organization uses many forms of written massages for example.

 If the message has to be long.• Written Message COMMUNICATION – Such messages are most appropriate when information has to be distributed to many people at scattered locations and when keeping a record of what was sent is necessary.  This summary should clarify the main points and contain page references to details on each item. Content well though out ahead of time. – The message should be.     . without irrelevant work and ideas. drafted with the receiver clearly in mind. – The following are some guidelines of good written messages. include be a brief summary on the first page. Important message should be prepared in draft from first and then and then polished. As brief as possible.

then the next most important point.• Written Message The Message: COMMUNICATION  Should be carefully organized. the essentials of the message will get across. make the subject clear by giving the message a title make the message more readable by using simple words and short.  State the most important point first. and soon. even if the receiver roads only first few points. . This way. clear sentences.

• Information richness – The information carrying capacity of a channel of communication.• Channels COMMUNICATION – Definitions • The channels is the path message follows from the sender to receiver. Not all channels can carry the same richness of information » Some are highly informative for both sender and receiver » Other provide little information. – Channels low in richness are consider to be lean because they are effective mainly for sending specific data and facts .

COMMUNICATION Information Richness of channels Information channel Rich Information Richness Face to face discussion Telephone Conversation Written letters / memos (individually addressed) Formal written documents (unaddressed bulletins or reports) Formal numeric documents (printouts. budget reports) Highest High Moderate Low Lowest .

L. bloo drivers. . * job description detailing duties and responsibilities.000 employees. and the like. and the organization's rules and employee benefits. * News of activities and events that management believes employees should participate in (chartable organizations. * Polices and procedures explaining what is expected of employees. bean’s 3.COMMUNICATION • Type Channels – Downward channels • Definitions – Down channels A communication path that managers use to send messages to employees or customers – For example » To communicate effectively with L. its managers used down ward channel to communicate * how to handle special promotional items. * Feed back about an individual’s job performance.

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To correct this problem. Infect. » Goals » Strategic plans » Activities – The downward channel also may be the most misused because it provides little opportunity for employees to respond. . policy directives. devotes nearly 50 percent of his time to communicating with employees through meetings. – Doug key. the fundamental problem with downward communication is that is too after one-way.COMMUNICATION • Downward channel – Manager frequently use downward communication as a channel. it’s a clean channel that doesn’t encourage feedback from those on the receiving end. manager should urge employees to use upward channels. and memos to explain med stars. president of med star Ambulance. • Example.

Subordinates use upward channels to send messages to superiors. If effective. » Setting goals. it enables employees to voice their opinions and ideas. upward communication can provide .• Upward channel – Definition COMMUNICATION • A channel by which subordinates send information to superiors • For example – Some mangers do not see the value of encouraging employees to participate in. such channels may be the only formal means that employees have for communicating with managers and managers with higher level mangers in the organization. – Upward communication provides feedback on how well employees understand the messages they have received moreover. » Planning » Formulating policies – The result is a failure to provide upward channels of communication. .

or customers. • Horizontal channels – Definition • Manager and other employees use a horizontal channel when communicating across departmental lines. at the same time. This type of channel is especially important in network organization.• Upward channel COMMUNICATION – An emotional release and. – Give employees a chance to participate – The feeling they are being listened to and a sense of personal worth. they often have excellent suggestions for improving efficiency and effectiveness. with suppliers. . – Most important.

COMMUNICATION • Horizontal Channel – Essential to the success of a net week organization is maintaining effective communication among. – Horizontal channels are formal if they follow formal organizational paths. sharing information. The frequently connect people on the same level in company. However. they also may be informal. . Horizontal channels are extremely important in today’s hi-tech organization. – Message communicated horizontally usually are related to coordinating activities. • Customer • Suppliers • Employees in various divisions or functions. and solving problems.

The grapevine functions to ease communication problem between managers and/or employees. The path that message\s follow along the grapevine is based on social interaction. offer compliment and suggestions. The term comes from a civil war practice of hanging telegraph lines. • Grapevine – The grapevine is an organization's informal communication system. like a grapevine. – For example • A Saudi Airlines has recognized the importance of this channel to the extent of maintaining a “grapevine file” in the computer’s online systems.• Informal channels. This file enable employees to ask managers and other employees questions. do not underestimate the importance of informal channels of communication. However. COMMUNICATION – So far have concentrated on for formal channels of communication. . and verify rumors. – Loosely from tree to tree.

and other gatherings – As a result. trading favors and calling on each other’s recourses for career advancement or other types of information and support. they may develop various close. informal relationships with talented and useful people outside the organization. . • Professional associations • Trade shows. They attend meetings of.COMMUNICATION • Networking – Mangers and other employees also spend considerable time meeting with peers and others outside the organization. People use these networks to help each other.

and other companies have set up guidelines to encourage effective feedback. . If the receiver is evaluative (or judgmental). the feed-back is likely to be in-effective or even cause a breakdown in communication. feed back should have the following characteristics. • Procter & Gamble.COMMUNICATION • Feed back – Feed back is the receiver’s response to the sender’s message. » It should be descriptive rather than evaluation » If the receiver responds to the message in a descriptive manner. the feed-back is likely to be effective. According to these guidelines. – Characteristics » It should be helpful. » If the receiver of the message provides feedback that adds to the sender’s information. It is the best way to show that a message has been received and to indicate whether it has been understood. the feed back is likely to be helpful. IBM. 3M.

If the receiver responds in generalities. when large a mounts of information are involved. Accordingly. the feedback may indicate evasion or lack of understanding. . They may fail to grasp what the speaker is too long and complex. • It should not overwhelm – Spoken communication depends heavily on memory. People tend to ‘tune in and out” of conversations. Giving performance feedback to a person during half time of a foot-ball game or at luncheon is different from giving the same person feed-back in the office. spoken feed back is less effective than written feed back. Informal setting usually are reserved for social as opposed to performance based feedback.• Feed-back COMMUNICATION – Characteristics • It should be specific rather than general – The receiver should respond specifically to points raised and questions asked in the message. • It should be well timed – The reception-and thus the effectiveness-of feed-back is affected by the context in which it occurs.

• Stereotyping – Stereotyping is the process of making assumptions about individuals solely on the basis of their belonging to a certain gender. by the ways they organize these elements in memory and by the meanings they attach to them. » Race » Age other » group . • Selective perception – Selective perception is the process of screening out information that a person wants or needs to avoid. Perception are influenced by what people see. – Some problems in communication can be traced to two problems of perception.COMMUNICATION • Perception – Perception is then meaning a scribed to a message by either sender or receiver.

• Work stations with special software that screen incoming message to ensure that on outsider is authorized to access a certain computer in the company and doesn’t leave confidential information on the internet. • Firewalls. – Internet • A loosely configured rapidly growing web of 25.COMMUNICATION • Importance of information Technology – Electronic mail • E-mail use of computer text editing to send and receive written information.000 corporate educational and research computer networks around the world. .

and cut waste likewise. Manufacturers are using information technology to shrink cycle times. from simple changes of address to billing adjustments. service firms are using electronic data interchange to streamline ordering and communication with suppliers and customers. reduce defects. allowing critical information to be shared instantly across functional departments or product teams and even with teams on the factory floor.COMMUNICATION How information technology affects on organization? Customer relations No longer simply on “order entry” job. New electronic systems are breaking down old departmental barriers. customer service representatives are topping into company wide to solve collars demands instantly. Quality Organization .

Companies are electronically feed customer and marketing comments to product development teams so that they can rejuvenate product lines and target specific customer.COMMUNICATION Staffing New system and processes have eliminated management layers and cut employment levels less costly computers and communication devices are used to create “virtual offices” from workers in farflung location. . New products The information “feedback loop” is collapsing development cycles.

intended meanings. The more levels in the organization. – Barriers to communication • Organization Barriers – Definition » Channels of communication. the more difficult effective communication becomes. and the farther the receiver is from the sender. communication problems are likely or occur. . both formal and informal . are largely determined by organizational design. or sometimes even blocking.COMMUNICATION • Barriers to Effective Communication – Definition • These barriers hinder the sending and receiving of messages by distorting. » Authority Whenever one person holds a higher position then another. The degree of specialization present in the organization also may affect clear communication.

– Different Goals • When AT & T decided to close its plant in Winston – Salem. or shorthand. to simplify communication among them selves . North Carolina.• Organizational Barriers – Specialization COMMUNICATION • As knowledge becomes more specialized. different goals surfaced. professionals in many field develop their own jargon. . AT & T choose to close this plant because it was the company’s smallest. That often makes communication with people outside the field difficult. – Status Relationship • Status is a person’s social rank in a group • Status may be a significant barrier to effective communication because: – It often is used to insulate managers from things they don’t want to hear and – It influences the mount and kinds of information that subordinates channel upward. The company assumed that the work and employees from the plant could easily be absorbed by its larger plants.

• Semantics – The study of the way words are used and the meaning they convey is called semantics. • Communication skills – The ability to communication varies from person to person.COMMUNICATION • Individual Barriers – Consist of • Conflicting Assumptions – The sender assumes that the receiver will interpret the message as the sender intends. But a key word or phrase may mean one thing to the sender and something else to the receiver. persuasive. • Emotions – An emotion is a subjective reaction or feeling remembering experiences. . Articulate. and confident people communicate more effectively than those who are less so. misinterpretation of word meaning can play a large role in communication failure. an individual recalls not only events but also the feelings that accompanied them.

COMMUNICATION Organization and Individual Barriers Time Needs Motivation Objective Behavior FRUSTRATION Barriers Barrier To Goal Diagram Result .

you should choose words that others will understand. Your sentence should be concise. COMMUNICATION – Regulate the flow of Information • If you receive too much information you will suffer from information over load. several organizations have developed training programs to improve employee listening. .• Overcoming Barriers : The good news is that you can overcome barriers to effective communication. – Encourage Feedback • You should flow up to determine whether important messages have been understood. – Listen Actively • You need to become a good listener as well as a good message sender. Recent. – Simplify the language of the message • Because language can be a barrier. you should set up a system that identifies priority message for immediate attention. and you should avoid jargon that others won’t understand or that may be miss leading.

COMMUNICATION Overcoming Barriers Time Needs Motivation Objective Behavior Barrier To Goal Diagram Result .

reducing employee morale and organizational effectiveness. – Use the Grapevine • As a manager you couldn’t get rid of the grapevine in an organization even if you tried. you are more likely than at other times to phrase the message poorly. but negative emotion can distort the content of the message. . so you should use it to send information rapidly. and obtain valuable feedback. you convey emotions when communicating. – Use Nonverbal cause • You should use nonverbal cause to emphasize point and express feelings. the grapevine frequently carriers destructive rumors. Also.• Overcoming Barriers: – Restrain Negative Emotion COMMUNICATION • Like everyone else. when emotionally upset. test reaction before announcing a final decision.

convey a decisions. Communication often is in effective because the message is inadequately planned. – Consult with others. They can often provide a view point that you might not have considered. . – Consider the setting in which the communication will take place • You convey meanings and intent by more than words alone. or persuade someone to take action. Decide whether you want to obtain information. – Clarify your ideas before communicating • Analyze the topic or problem to clarify it in your mind before sending a message. in planning communications • Encourage the participation of those who will be affected by the message. – Examine the true purpose of the communication • Before you send a message ask yourself what you really want to accomplish with it. when appropriate. Trying to communicate with a person in another location is more difficult than doing so face to face.COMMUNICATION • Guidelines for effective communication: To be a good communicator you should be following. Part of good message planning is considering the goals and attitudes of those will receive the message.

. The receiver considers both the words and the nonverbal cause that make up your message – Take the opportunity to convey something helpful to be the receiver. facial expression. • Considering the other person’s interests and needs often presents opportunities to the sender. You can make your message clearer by imagining yourself in the other’s position. eye contact.• Guidelines for effective communication COMMUNICATION – Be mindful of the nonverbal messages you send • Tone of voice. – Follow up the communication • Your best effort at communication can be wasted unless you succeed in getting your message across. Effect communication really try to see the message from the listener’s point of view. You should follow up and ask for feed back to find out whether you succeeded. personal appearance. – Be sure your actions support your communication • The most effective communication is not in what you say but in what you do actions speak louder than words. and physical surroundings all influence the communication process. feedback in some form is necessary. You cannot assume that the receiver understand.

What Is Communication? • Transfer of Meaning—No • Influence of Mental Maps—Yes • Redundant – Visual – Auditory – Kinesthestic – Energetic .

Managerial Communication .

Managerial Communication .

Overview • Communication Skills – Nonverbal communication – Oral communication – Written communication • Interpersonal Applications • Business Applications .

Why Study Communication? • The Only Completely moveable Skill – You will use it in every relationship – You will need it regardless of your career path • The “Information Age” – The history of civilization is the history of information – Language and written documents facilitate the transfer of information and knowledge through time and space .

Why Study Communication? • Your Quality of Life Depends Primarily on Your Communication Skills • You Cannot Be Too Good at Communication • People Overestimate Their Own Communication Skills .

We Want Others to Change .

Listening Techniques • • • • • • • Get ready to listen Remove the distractions Listen to understand Try to see the others point of view Control your emotions Listen for the main ideas and take notes. 69 . Before leaving .confirm . what has been said.

not merely hearing. and near about half time spends in listening to the others. It involves paying attention to the message. • • • Hearing Comprehending Remembering .LISTENING Listening is more then just hearing. Be a good listener to get more information's from the surrounding. it includes 3 steps. More then 75% of their working time commanders spends in communication.

Introduction • To stand in front of a group of people to convey some information's or message. • The effective presentation is the result of careful preparation and delivery. “it will be alright at presentation time” and when the time comes you will be inspired. . (safety subjects) • It is mistake to think.EFFECTIVE PRESENTANTIONS 1.

EFFECTIVE PRESENTANTIONS Presentation and Speaking Skills Controlling the volume. speed and pitch of your voice Delivering strong speeches and presentations Improving your physical presence in front of your audience Handling questions and discussions with ease Structuring the content of your presentation Using projectors and visual aids effectively .

Intercultural Communication Understanding cultural differences in negotiations Avoiding inappropriate gestures or questions in other cultures Adjusting to cultural differences in body language and personal space Giving and receiving gifts appropriately Conducting business and entertaining in other cultures .

EFFECTIVE PRESENTANTIONS .

1. Purpose (To inform. etc) 2. Time ( What can be done in the time available or what time is needed to do) . engineers. Preparation The basic requirements to approach to the task are listed below . to give the organization view) 3. academics.EFFECTIVE PRESENTANTIONS 2. Audience (Colleagues. safety. aircrew) 4. Subject (Technical.

Rehearsal To make practice mentally and audibly. the size and the composition of the audience . The subject . . Emphasize the major points. 4.the equipment available and the way of presentation should be acceptable to the audience.EFFECTIVE PRESENTANTIONS 3. Familiarize yourself with the words. Structure the Material Simplicity and clarity is the key. middle and at the end. add some short stories related to the subject in the beginning . the location .

Formal In formal . 2.  Signals  Telephones  Fax  Computer network There are TWO ways of briefing used.BRIEFING 1. 1. Introduction Briefing is giving instructions on essential information .

BRIEFING .

BRIEFING a. Formal Briefing A formal briefing is pre-informed be likely to be the rule rather than the release at higher levels of command.charge) inform his subordinates about today’s tasks needed to complete. . b. In formal Briefings It may involve routine reports at periodic gatherings. as any senior member (in .

1 . any .regarding information .)change in policies etc The person briefing should answer the questions . (about exercise . 2 The Staff briefing. 1 The Advocacy briefing. 4 Informative briefing.It is to inform the listener Has no place for recommendation. 3 The Manuscript briefing.BRIEFING Types of briefing The informative briefing.

2 It means “to support a particular plan or action” for example. Or an advocate support somebody in the court . Or an advocate of nuclear disarmament Aura.as Personality Knowledge Organization Approach . The minister advocated a reform the Tax system.of law.BRIEFING Types of briefing The Advocacy Briefing. the quality of somebody or something that have: . The most important factor in advocacy is the “aura” means.

discussion of various alternative actions and make decision. may . advisor . At low level of command.BRIEFING The Staff briefing.miniatures or by high lightening .3 It is the exchange of information between staff members. policies are discussed. adjutant or any other responsible man will inform to the commanding officer about the main points of letter or massage by using the . At higher level of command.4 In the correspondence with other organizations. and in combat situations.specific to their units The Manuscript Briefing.

What Is Communication? • Conscious and Intentional – Nonverbal – Verbal • Unconscious and Unintentional – Nonverbal – Verbal .

Perception Can Be Tricky

The Communication Process
Message

Sensory Data

Filters
Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State

DecisionMaking

Filters

DecisionMaking

Sensory Data

Encoding Channel

Beliefs Values Questions & Metaphors Beh. Type State

Encoding

Sender

Receiver

The Communication Process

Message DecisionMaking

and Meaning . Language.Experience.

Symbol Systems • Language – Words and sentences – Meaning and labels • Mathematics • Money .

000 years 6.000 years Early writing: 4000 BC Egyptian hieroglyphics: 3000 BC Phoenician alphabet: 1500 to 2000 BC Book printing in China: 600 BC Book printing in Europe: 1400 AD .000 years 55.History of Communication • Nonverbal: • Oral: • Written: – – – – – 150.

Communicating Meaning • Physiology and Appearance: 55 percent • Paralanguage: 38 percent • Language: 7 percent .

Sensory Data and Mental Maps • Bridge Between Internal and External • Internal and External Processing • Internal Processing – Posture and breathing – Language and paralanguage – Eye accessing cues .

Sensory Modalities • Visual • Auditory • Kinesthetic – Touch – Taste – Smell – Emotional responses (feelings) .

and smell – Associated emotional responses • Some Prefer “Digital” Processing . taste.Preferred Sensory Modalities • • • • People Use All Their Available Senses Some Prefer Visual Some Prefer Auditory Some Prefer the Kinesthetic Cluster – Senses of touch.

• Physiology and Appearance • Paralanguage . – She has a bright future. – He’s always in a fog. – It looks good to me. – Let’s stay focused on the problem.Visuals • Vocabulary – I see what you mean.

Does the name Pavlov ring a bell? That’s music to my ears. • Physiology and Appearance • Paralanguage . He’s always blowing his own horn. It sounds good to me.Auditories • Vocabulary – – – – – I hear what you are saying.

He’s a smooth operator. It left me with a bad taste in my mouth.Kinesthetics (Kinos) • Vocabulary – – – – – I can grasp the concept. and it feels right to me. • Physiology and Appearance • Paralanguage . She’s still rough around the edges. It smells fishy to me.

beliefs.Developing Rapport • Nonverbal (what you see and do) – Physiology – Appearance – Congruence • Verbal (what you hear and say) – Sense-based predicates – Values. and criteria – Voice tone and rate of speech .

Reading Nonverbal Messages • Sensory Acuity • Agree and Disagree • Posture and Movement – Associated or dissociated – Bodily response .

Exercises: Rapport • Matching and Mirroring – Observing others – Practicing • Calibration – Like/dislike – Yes/no .

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Congruence • Physiology – Left/right body – Left/right brain • Nonverbal and Verbal Messages • “Parts” • Groups .

Strategies • The Structure of Subjective Experience – Four-tuples – Syntax • Learned Behavior – TOTE (Test. Operate. Exit) – Habits – Skills . Test.

Common Strategies • Spelling – Auditory (spell “phonics” phonetically) – Visual • Making Decisions • Communicating – Listening and speaking – Writing .

Decision-making Strategies • Purchasing – An inexpensive product – Dinner in a nice restaurant – An expensive product or service • Relationships • Career Choices .

Communication Strategy. 1 & 2 • Pace – Match (nonverbally and verbally) – Meet expectations • Lead – Set direction – Maintain interest – Maintain rapport .

3 & 4 • Blend Outcomes – Understand objectives and desires – Create win-win solutions • Motivate – Clarify who does what next – Future-pace possibilities – Presuppose positive results .Communication Strategy.

Exercise: Eliciting Strategies • Ordering a Meal in a Restaurant • Learning Something New • Teaching Something for the First Time .

Personal Profiles • • • • Achiever Communicator Specialist Perfectionist A C P S .

– Complies with authority and tries to provide the “right” answer.Profile Characteristics • Achiever – Likes to set goals. – Sees life as a competition. – Finds more enjoyment in the process than in the results. • Perfectionist – Enjoys jobs requiring attention to detail. – Finds enjoyment in knowing what to expect. • Specialist – Likes to plan work and relationships. . challenge the environment and win. • Communicator – Likes to achieve results by working with and through people.

auditory.Changing Behavior • Patterns and Pattern Interrupts • Anchors and Anchoring – Stimulus-response conditioning – Visual. and kinesthetic anchors • Advanced Language Patterns – The Metamodel – The Milton Model .

Exercise: Anchoring • Setting Anchors – Kinesthetic – Visual – Auditory • Stacking Anchors • Collapsing Anchors • Using Sliding Anchors .

and future – Timelines • Sorting for Like and Dislike • Creating and Changing Meaning .The Structure of Subjective Experience • Sorting for Time – Past. present.

then Y – If I study.. • Rules – Can/can’t – Must/must not – Should/should not . then I will..Belief Systems • • • • Cultural Parental Group Individual • Global (Identity) • Cause-effect – If X.

Values
• A Type of Belief • Hierarchical • Either Positive or Negative
– Something desired – Something to avoid

• Congruent or Incongruent

Core Questions
• • • • • Remain Out of Conscious Awareness Focus Attention Influence Interpretation of Events Influence Psychological State Influence the Range of Possibilities

Frames and Reframes
• The Filters That Determine Meaning • Influence State and Behavior • Creating and Changing Frames – Anchoring – Reframing Context – Reframing Content

The Milton Model • Used to Change Another’s Mental Maps • Used to Create New Possibilities • Used to Influence .

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