Ìmportance of Ìnformation Systems

·Necessary Ior Decision Making
·For Taking Rational, Timely & Accurate Decisions
·For Taking decisions in Complex Decision situations
·Globalization & Liberalization have added various dimensions
that necessitate use oI InIormation Systems
·IS is regarded as the IiIth important resource besides- Money,
Material, Men & Machine.
·In short Today`s business organizations can`t survive and
grow without properly planned. designed. implemented
and maintained Information System.
What is Management Information System
anagement Ìnformation Ìnformation System is composed of three parts
1. Management
2. Information
3. System
anagement may be defined as 'The art of getting things done through
and with the people in formally organized groups.
A anager gets the things done by performing different functions in a
SYSTEATÌC way and these are
· PIanning
· Organizing
· Staffing
· Directing
· ControIIing
There are broadly three levels oI Management Hierarchy
·Top Management( Strategic Planning)
·Middle Management( Management control)
·Operating Management ( Operational control)
Top
Management
Middle
Management
Operating
Management
Strategic Planning
·Policies
·Plans
·Budgets
·Objectives
Management control
·Revenue
·Costs
·Profits
·Schedules
·Measurements
Operational control
·Goods
·Services
·Performance
Management Hierarchy
Ìnformation
· One oI the Most valuable resource required by the
management in order to run the organization.
·Information is the data that is processed and presented
in the Iorm that assists in decision making.
Data Processing InIormation
· Concept oI data & InIormation is a relative one.
InIormation Ior one may be data Ior Another.
e.g. Withdrawal slip in a bank is a inIormation Ior data
entry operator but data Ior the bank manager.
Ìnformation
Senior anagement Operating
anagement
1. Unstructured
2. Non-Programmed
3. Futuristic
4. External & Ìnternal
1. Structured
2. Programmed
3. Historical
4. Ìnternal
5. Exact
DiIIerent layers oI Management require
diIIerent types oI inIormation
System
· A System may be deIined as a set oI elements which
are ioined together to achieve a common obiective.
· The set oI elements Ior a system are:
1. Input
2. process
3. Output
4. Feedback/ Control
5. Environment
Input Process
Output
Feedback
/Control
%PES of INFORMA%ION SS%EMS
Two Types:
1. Manual Systems
2. Computer- based Systems
2. Computer based InIormation systems
A Computer based InIormation System consists oI
hardware, soItware, databases, telecommunications,
people, and procedures that are conIigured to
collect, manipulate, store, and process data into
inIormation.
For example
·Company`s Payroll System,
·Order Entry System
·Inventory Control System
1. Manual InIormation Systems
InIormation System is created, operated and
managed in manual mode.
· Example: Inventory Register, Accounts Register/book.
· Lacks Iunctionalities oI InIormation Technology.
ÌS Defined
A Management InIormation system (MIS) is an organized
collection oI
·People
·Procedures
·SoItware
·Databases,and
· Devices
that are used to provide routine inIormation to managers
and decision makers.
The System gathers data Irom internal and external sources
OI the organization; processes it according to the procedure;
And supplies InIormation to assist Manager in taking
eIIective decisions in a speedy manner.
·The Iocus oI MIS is primarily on Operational eIIiciency
oI resources. Marketing, production, Finance, and
other Iunctional areas are supported by Management
InIormation systems and linked through a common
database.
·Thus MIS is not a single system, rather it is an integrated
system where subsystems Iit into an overall design.
·Management InIormation Systems typically provide
standard reports generated Irom the Transaction
Processing Systems.
ÌS
Nature & Scope of MIS
The discipline oI MIS is interdisciplinary. It involves
diIIerent domains like
·ccounting
·Management
·Computers
·Organizations
·Mathematics & Operations Research
·Behavioral Sciences etc.
Management
Information Systems
Accounting
Mathematics &
Operations Research
Computer Science
Behavioral Sciences Management
Constituents of MIS
MIS constitutes oI
· ardware
The computer equipment to perIorm input,
processing and output activities. E.g. CPU, monitor,
keyboard, Printer, drives, tapes, communication
devices, etc.
· Software
Computer programs that direct the operation oI
the hardware. SoItware could be
1. System soItware
2. Application soItware
· Databases
The databases contain all data that is generated and
used by application soItware.
· Telecommunications and Networks
· People
Analysts, Programmers, System managers,
Computer Operators
Constituents of MIS (Contd.)
·Procedures
Procedures include the strategies, policies,
methods, and rules Ior using the MIS.
%ypes of MIS
InIormation Systems are developed around the Iunctional
areas oI business like marketing, Iinance etc. and are also
termed as Functional InIormation Systems.
These may be as
·inancial Information System
·Marketing Information System
·Personnel Information System
·Production Information System
and so on.
FinanciaI Information System
inancial Information System provides Iinancial inIormation
to all Iinancial managers within an organization and a
broader set oI people who need to make better decisions.
Financial MIS perIorms the Iollowing Iunctions:
·Makes Iinancial data available on a timely basis to shorten
analysis turnaround time.
·Provides easy access to data Ior both Iinancial and
non-Iinancial users, oIten through the use oI corporate
intranet .
·Integrates Iinancial an doperational inIormation Irom
multiple sources, including the Internet, into a single MIS.
·Enables analysis oI Iinancial data along multiple dimensions-
time, geography, product, plant , customer etc.
·Analyzes historical and current Iinancial activity.
·Monitors and controls the use oI Iunds over time.
·For adhering to legal requirements
inancial MIS aids managers in:
·Capital Budgeting Decisions
·Financing decisions
·Dividend decisions
·Current asset management
FinanciaI Information System ( Contd.)
Financial MIS composes oI the Inputs
. Transaction Data: This data includes credit applications,
billing, payment vouchers, stock transIers, cheques,
iournal and ledger entries etc.
2. inancial Intelligence : This data is collected Irom banks,
government, stock markets, etc. which is processed to
determine its impact on the company`s economy.
3. Organizational Plan: Another important input to
Financial MIS, that portrays the obiectives oI the
company. This needs to be reIlected in the output oI
Financial MIS, which may be in the Iorm oI Iinancial plans.
Some of the Financial ÌS are
Tally
BS
ÌFPS
Marketing MIS
It is the MIS that supports managerial activities in marketing
as product development, distribution, pricing decisions, and
promotional eIIectiveness.
The Marketing MIS help managers in marketing activities oI:
· Customer Identification: who, when, where, in
what quantity, etc.
· Purchase motivation factors: social, economical,
psychological Iactors oI customers.
· Physical distribution: optimum integration oI
transportation, warehousing, merchandising.
· Communication function: This Iunction includes
decisions on advertising, personal selling,
sales promotion, publicity, packaging etc.
· Transaction functions : Activities that transIer the
title oI ownership as order handling,
invoicing, billing, credit management, policy
& guarantee etc.
· Post transaction unction: Feedback, aIter sales
service support etc.
Human Resource Management
Information System
uman Resource MIS are concerned with activities related to
employees and potential employees oI the organization.
The HR Iunctions that are Iacilitated by HRMIS are as:
·Manpower Planning
·Staffing
·Training & Development
·Performance evaluation
·Wage & Salary administration
·Separation activities
Manufacturing Management
Information System
Manufacturing or Production Information System provides
inIormation on production/ operation activities oI an
organization and thus Iacilitates the decision-making process
oI production managers oI the organization.
Manufacturing MIS Iacilitate decision making in areas as:
·Product Design: CAD, CAE
·Plant Location & Layout:
·Production Planning & Control:Routing, Scheduling,
Loading
·Quality Control:
Office Automation System
OIIice automation reIers to the application oI computer and
communication technology to oIIice Iunctions.
OIIice Automation systems improve productivity oI
managers at various levels oI management by providing
secretarial assistance and better communication Iacilities.
These systems include Iacilities Ior activities as
· Typing
· Mailing
· Scheduling oI meetings and conIerences
· calender keeping
· retrieving documents
· conIerencing
· Production oI inIormation( messages, memos,
reports), and so on
OIIice Automation Systems provide support Iacilities in
Iorm oI:
·Word Processing
·Electronic mail,
·Message Switching,
·Data Storage,
·Data & Voice Communications.
MIS Characterstics
A Management InIormation System has the Iollowing
Characterstics:
·Systems pproach
MIS Iollows Systems approach i.e. MIS adopts
wholistic approach to the study oI systems and its
perIormance in the light oI the obiective oI the MIS. It takes
comprehensive view or complete look at the subsystems
oI the organization.
·Management Oriented
MIS should be designed in Top-down approach.
MIS should be derived Irom the overall business plan.
·Need based
MIS should cater to speciIic inIormation needs oI
managers at diIIerent levels I.e. Ior strategic planning level,
management control level, and operations control level.
·Exception Based
MIS should be on Exception based reporting
Principle and deviation should be reported to decision
maker at the required level.
MIS Characterstics( Contd.)
·uture Oriented
MIS should not merely provide past inIormation but
should provide inIormation based on the Iuture proiections
based on which manager may initiate suitable action.
·Integrated
MIS should blend inIormation Irom diIIerent
departments or constitute oI diIIerent possible subsystems
oI the organization.
·Long Term Planning
MIS designers should have Iuture obiectives and
needs oI the company in mind.
·Common Data low & Central Database
%ypes of MIS
InIormation Systems are developed around the Iunctional
areas oI business like marketing, Iinance etc. and are also
termed as Functional InIormation Systems.
These may be as
·inancial Information System
·Marketing Information System
·Personnel Information System
·Production Information System
and so on.
FunctionaI Business IS
FinanciaI Information System
inancial Information System provides Iinancial inIormation
to all Iinancial managers within an organization and a
broader set oI people who need to make better decisions.
Financial MIS perIorms the Iollowing Iunctions:
·Makes Iinancial data available on a timely basis to shorten
analysis turnaround time.
·Provides easy access to data Ior both Iinancial and
non-Iinancial users, oIten through the use oI corporate
intranet .
·Integrates Iinancial and operational inIormation Irom
multiple sources, including the Internet, into a single MIS.
·Enables analysis oI Iinancial data along multiple dimensions-
time, geography, product, plant , customer etc.
·Analyzes historical and current Iinancial activity.
·Monitors and controls the use oI Iunds over time.
·For adhering to legal requirements
inancial MIS aids managers in:
·Capital Budgeting Decisions
·Financing decisions
·Dividend decisions
·Current asset management
FinanciaI Information System
FinanciaI Information System ( Contd.)
Financial MIS composes oI the Inputs
. Transaction Data: This data includes credit applications,
billing, payment vouchers, stock transIers, cheques,
iournal and ledger entries etc.
2. inancial Intelligence : This data is collected Irom banks,
government, stock markets, etc. which is processed to
determine its impact on the company`s economy.
3. Organizational Plan: Another important input to
Financial MIS, that portrays the obiectives oI the
company. This needs to be reIlected in the output oI
Financial MIS, which may be in the Iorm oI Iinancial plans.
FinanciaI Information System
Business
Transactions
Transaction
Processing
System
Database
OI External
Data
Database
From
TPS
Datawarehouse
INNCIL
MIS
·Sorted Data
·Forecasts
·Management Ratios
·Audit &
Control
·Other Financial
Decisions& Plans
·Financial DSS/EIS
Some oI the Financial MIS are
· Tally
· BMS
· IFPS
FinanciaI Information System
Marketing MIS
It is the MIS that supports managerial activities in marketing as product
development, distribution, pricing decisions, and promotional eIIectiveness.
The Marketing MIS help managers in marketing activities oI:
· Customer Identification: who, when, where, in what quantity,etc.
· Purchase motivation factors: social, economical,
psychological Iactors oI customers.
· Physical distribution: optimum integration oI
transportation, warehousing, merchandising.
· Communication function: This Iunction includes
decisions on advertising, personal selling,
sales promotion, publicity, packaging etc.
· Transaction functions : Activities that transIer the
title oI ownership as order handling,
invoicing, billing, credit management, policy
& guarantee etc.
· Post transaction unction: Feedback, aIter sales
service support etc.
Marketing MIS
Marketing MIS
Business
Transactions
·Internet
·CRM
Transaction
Processing
System
Database
OI External
Data
Database
From
TPS
Datawarehouse
MRKETING
MIS
Marketing DSS
Marketing EIS
Marketing ES
Human Resource Management
Information System
uman Resource MIS are concerned with activities related to
employees and potentiaal employees oI the organization.
The HR Iunctions that are Iacilitated by HRMIS are as:
·Manpower Planning
·Staffing
·Training & Development
·Performance evaluation
·Wage & Salary administration
·Separation activities
Human Resource Management
Information System
Manufacturing Management
Information System
Manufacturing or Production Information System provides
inIormation on production/ operation activities oI an
organization and thus Iacilitates the decision-making process
oI production managers oI the organization.
Manufacturing MIS Iacilitate decision making in areas as:
·Product Design: CAD, CAE
·Plant Location & Layout:
·Production Planning & Control:Routing, Scheduling,
Loading
·Quality Control:
Manufacturing Management
Information System
Office Automation System
OIIice automation reIers to the application oI computer and
communication technology to oIIice Iunctions.
OIIice Automation systems improve productivity oI
managers at various levels oI management by providing
secretarial assistance and better communication Iacilities.
These systems include Iacilities Ior activities as
· Typing
· Mailing
· Scheduling oI meetings and conIerences
· calender keeping
· retrieving documents
· conIerencing
· Production oI inIormation( messages, memos,
reports), and so on
OIIice Automation Systems provide support Iacilities in
Iorm oI:
·Word Processing
·Electronic mail,
·Message Switching,
·Data Storage,
·Data & Voice Communications.
Office Automation System
MIS Characterstics
A Management InIormation System has the Iollowing
Characterstics:
·Systems pproach
MIS Iollows Systems approach i.e. MIS adopts wholistic
approach to the study oI systems and its perIormance in the light oI the
obiective oI the MIS. It takes comprehensive view or complete look at
the subsystems oI the organization.
·Management Oriented
MIS should be designed in Top-down approach. MIS should be
derived Irom the overall business plan.
·Need based
MIS should cater to speciIic inIormation needs oI managers at
diIIerent levels I.e. Ior strategic planning level, management control
level, and operations control level.
MIS Characterstics( Contd.)
·Exception Based
MIS should be on Exception based reporting Principle and
deviation should be reported to decision maker at the required level.
·uture Oriented
MIS should not merely provide past inIormation but
should provide inIormation based on the Iuture proiections
based on which manager may initiate suitable action.
·Integrated
MIS should blend inIormation Irom diIIerent departments or
constitute oI diIIerent possible subsystems oI the organization.
·Long Term Planning
MIS designers should have Iuture obiectives and
needs oI the company in mind.
·Common Data low & Central Database
%ypes of Information Systems
INFORMATION SYSTEMS
Operations
Support Systems
Management
Support Systems
Office
utomation Systems
·Transaction
Processing Systems
·Enterprise Resource
Planning Systems
·Management
InIormation Systems
·Decision Support
Systems
·Executive InIormation
Systems
·Expert Systems
·Text Processing Systems
·Electronic Document
Management Systems
·Electronic Message
Communication Systems
Operations Support Systems
The Operations Support Systems are the Information Systems that process
the business transactions .control industrial processes.and update company`s
databases.
Such Systems don`t produce specific information that can be used by the managers.
The output of these Systems act as input for higher level systems. To generate
useful information. further processing of output from these systems is required.
Enterprise Resource PIanning Systems
A Single InIormation System that perIorms processing oI all or most oI the
business transactions and has characterstics as
I) Automation
II) Integration.
The design oI such system is specially made to incorporate all the processes
oI the company.( e.g. Marketing, Accounts, HR, Production etc are mapped
in the ERP)
More complex in design, Implementation and Maintenance. It has a single
database.
Decision Support Systems
pplication of DSS:
For Inventory Management
To identiIy Customer buying patterns
Optimizing discounts/price markdowns.
Targeting direct- mail marketing customers
Store location
Evaluation oI Potential drilling sites.
Flight Scheduling etc.
Web-Based Decision Support System
The DSS based on Web & Internet can support decision making,by
providing online access to various databases and inIormation pools
along with the soItware Ior data analysis.
GE Plastics
Customer Decision Support Systems: In such DSS customers using web
interIace to selI-serve using the DSS tools oI the sponsoring company.
Fidelity Investments
Homes.com, etc.
roup Decision Support System
GDSS is an interactive computer based system to Iacilitate the solution
oI unstructured problems by a set oI decision makers working together
as a group.
While Groupware & video-conIerence tools provide a platIorm Ior
communication in group decision, GDSS provides additionally the tools
and technologies explicitly Ior group decision making.
Components oI GDSS
Hardware
SoItware
People
roup Decision Support System
GDSS software tools include:
Electronic questionnaire
Electronic brainstorming tools
Idea Organizer
Prioritizing tools
Group dictionaries
Stakeholder IdentiIication &Analysis tools
Policy Formation tools
Executive Information System
Executive InIormation Systems are IS that help senior management take
decision in unstructured problem situations.
EIS Iind application in decision areas oI:
Monitor company perIormance
Track activities oI competitors
Spot & Ioresee problems
IdentiIy opportunities
Forecasting
EIS depend heavily on external sources oI data like stock market,
economic databases, news services etc. as well as on internal inIormation.
EIS have highly Ilexible and user Iriendly input & output interIaces.
They have drill-down options.
nowIedge Management System
Knowledge is the ability oI person to understand
the situation and act eIIectively.
·Competition & Market Iorces demand that
organizations today can be competitive iI they
manage the knowledge and continuously upgrade
as per changing requirements.
·Knowledge Management is the process oI capturing,
maintaining and updating continuously the
company`s expertise both internal as well as external
where-ever it resides- in computers, in peoples
heads, on paper or thru external sources- and
distributing eIIiciently wherever it can help
produce the biggest payoII.
nowIedge Management System
Knowledge Management Systems involve the
tasks oI
·deIinition,
·acquisition,
·construction,
·storage,
·delivery and
·application oI the knowledge
so as to maintain and improve the
competitiveness oI the organization..
MS Architecture
KMS architecture deals with three main Iunctions as :
·Knowledge Identification
·Knowledge Generation
·Knowledge Delivery
KMS
Knowledge
IdentiIication
Knowledge
Generation
Knowledge
Delivery
·DeIinition &
Categorization
·Surveying &
Locating
·Build Knowledge
Structure
·Processing Ior
Acquisition
·Manupulating &
Modelling
Creation oI KDB
·Access Control
·Application
Methods
·Storage &
Security
MS %ooIs
The tools Ior KMS are as:
Database management tools
-For data management and seeking
knowledge thru SQL queries
Data Warehousing. Data mart. Data
Mining tools
Process Modeling and Management tools
-For recording standard processes Ior
knowledge use
Search Engine tools
Document Management tools-like Lotus Notes
Web based tools- Internet& Intranet
System DeveIopment For MIS
System Development includes the all activities oI the
development stages oI any MIS solution.
It includes activities as :
· &nderstanding the Management Problem
· Deciding a Plan for a Solution
· Coding the Planned Solution
· Testing the Coded Program
System DeveIopment Stages
To develop any system, the proiect is managed by breaking the
total development process into diIIerent sub activities or stages.
These areas:
. System Investigation
2. System nalysis
3. System Design
4. System Construction
5. System Implementation
6. System maintenance
System Investigation
The organization may be Iacing any problem and the managers oI
the organization may not be very clear about the problem.
The organization would in such case invite a business/system/
inIormation analyst to help in deIining and resolving the business
problem in clear Iorm.
System Investigation deals with this stage.
The Investigation stage constitutes oI two sub-stages
·Problem Definition
·easibility
ProbIem Definition
One oI the MOST IMPORTANT stages in the System
Development Cycle but yet most neglected oIten.
Tasks perIormed at this stage are
Prepare a written statement oI the obiectives
IdentiIy scope oI Problem
Discover the causes oI Problems, etc.
For example some oI the possible deIinition oI Problems may
be as
·The existing system has a poor response time
·Unable to handle load
·Does not provide suIIicient inIormation
·Problem oI security, etc
FeasibiIity Study
Feasibility addresses the viability oI the intended MIS would be
useIul Ior the organization. It is intended to assess the
various alternatives and identiIy the most Ieasible and
desirable system Ior development
.
Feasibility is assessed in terms oI the below categories:
. Organizational easibility: The extent up to which the
proposed MIS supports the strategic plans oI the
organization.
2. Economic easibility:
The costs and returns are evaluated to iustiIy the
investment in the system proiect. The Iactors
evaluated are
· Cost of W. SW. NW. Cost of ull
System Investigation. Maintenance. etc
· Benefits in form of targeted objectives of MIS.
easibility Study
FeasibiIity Study
3. Technical easibility: It deals as with issues as
whether hardware and soItware, capable oI meeting
the needs oI the proposed system can be acquired
or developed, in required time. It concerns regarding
·Does the necessary technology exist?
·Does the proposed equipment have the technical
capacity to hold the data, provide response to
enquiries, regardless oI locations
·Can the system be expanded
·Technical surety oI accuracy, reliability, ease oI
access, data security, etc.
OperationaI FeasibiIity
Operational Feasibility contains Iactors like
management support and willingness, employees,
customers, suppliers willingness to operate, and
adopt the proposed system, etc.It includes
·Support Irom Management
·Willingness oI employees, Customers to adopt
new system and business methods
·Support Irom suppliers, vendors, external partners, etc.
·Involvement oI users in system development
·Meeting regulatory/legal requirement, etc.
Methods of System Preliminary Investigation
1. Reviewing Documents
1. Conducting Interviews
System AnaIysis
System Analysis is the detailed study oI various operations oI the
business system/activity, along with its boundaries.
The obiective is to determine exactly what must be done to
solve the problem.
System analysis involves detailed study oI:
·Information needs of the organization and its
end users.
·Existing Information Systems( their activities.
functions. resources. products)
·The Expected Information System( expected
capabilities)
System Design
System Analysis describes WHAT a MIS should do to meet
inIormation needs oI organization and System Design speciIies
HOW the System will accomplish these obiectives.
System design consists oI activities as:
·&se Interface : Interactions between user and
computer systems.
·Data Design: Focuses on structure oI database
·Process Design: Programs and procedures oI
the MIS
System Construction
Once the system speciIications are understood,
required programs are coded, debugged, and
documented.
System Testing
Testing done on new Systems, using test data.
Feedback leads to improved System.
System ImpIementation
Even a well design System will Iail iI not
implemented properly. It involves various
activities as:
·Acquisition oI H/W & S/W
·Site preparation
·User training
·Installation oI the System
·Standardizing the new System in the organization.
System Maintenance
System maintenance involves the monitoring,
evaluating and modiIying the system to make
desirable or necessary improvements and remove
residual errors/shortcomings.
System DeveIopment Approaches
A System Development approach deIines and guides how the
system development activities are to be organized in the overall
system development process. There are Iour most important system
development approaches.
. Waterfall Model or SDLC
2. Prototyping pproach
3. Rapid pplication Development
4. Spiral Model
WaterfaII ModeI
This is also reIerred to as SDLC( SoItware Development LiIe
Cycle) or Traditional approach .
This approach takes step-by -step approach to system
development activities. Once one stage is completed , only
then next stage is taken up. :
WaterfaII ModeI(Contd.)
Systems Investigation
Understand Problem
Systems nalysis
Understand Solution
Systems Design
Select & Plan Best Solution
Systems Implementation
Place solution into eIIect
Systems Maintenance & Review
Evaluate Results oI Solution
Limitations:
1. Each stage is considered as distinct which may
not be in reality.
2. This model involves Ireezing oI requirements Ior hardware.
However in large proiects the hardware technology may
become obsolete.
3. Involves large documentation and time consuming
4. Users cant easily review the intermediate product and
evaluate whether it meets their requirements.
Prototype ModeI
In this approach a prototype is developed, instead oI
developing the complete system. Users are encouraged to try
the prototype and provide Ieedback. Iterations are done
until the Iinal system is developed.
Prototyping is done in situations where identiIication oI
requirements is diIIicult and requirements may change
during the development process.
Investigate & Analyze problem to develop
workable solution
Develop Prototype
Put Prototype in operation
ReIine and ModiIy Prototype
Complete System
System Development Initiated
Prototype ModeI Prototype ModeI
Prototype ModeI(Contd.)
dvantages:
1. Users can try the system and provide the constructive
Ieedback during the development process.
2 An operational prototype can be produced in short
periods.
3 Prototyping enables early detection oI errors and
omissions.
4 Higher motivation & positive response Irom users.
Disadvantages:
1. There may be unending reIinements desired by users.
2. System documentation is ignored
3. Prototypes are not complete systems and many oI the
details are not built in the prototype.
Rapid AppIication DeveIopment
Rapid Application Dvelopment( RAD) employs tools, techniques
and methodologies to speeded the application development processs.
For example Powerbuilder by Sybase, and other tools by IBM,
Oracle, etc. are used Ior RAD.
RAD reduces paper-based documentation, automatically generates
program source code, and Iacilitates user participation in the design
and development activities. Using RAD entire systems are developed
in less than 6 months.
RAD is also known as Extreme Programming,
Agile Development, Joint Application Development.
Rapid AppIication DeveIopment(Contd.)
dvantages:
1. This approach completes the application in lesser time.
2. Documentation produced a s a by-product oI proiect tasks.
3. RAD involves team work and lots oI interaction between users
and stakeholders with the system developers.
Disadvantages:
1.This approach puts high pressure on system developers and
other proiect participants.
2. This approach requires system analysts and users to be skilled
in RAD system development tools & techniques.
3. RAD requires very high involvement & time oI stakeholders
and users aIIecting their routine Iunctions.
SpiraI ModeI
Developed by Boehm, this is the recent approach to
System development. This model suggests that the
various activities involved in system development
should be organized like a spiral. Each cycle oI
spiral consists oI Iour stages represented by one
quadrant each. This approach is suitable Ior high-risk
and large proiects.
&ser
Evaluation
Planning
Risk nalysis
Engineering
SpiraI ModeI SpiraI ModeI
System AnaIysis
System Analysis involves the identiIication, understanding
and examining the system Ior achieving pre-determined
goals/ obiectives oI the system.
The obiectives oI System Analysis are as:
·To know how existing system works
·To identify the user`s requirements in the new proposed
System
System Analysis is the process oI collecting and interpreting
Iacts, identiIying problems, and using the relevant inIormation
to suggest improvements in the system either through
modiIications in the existing systems or changing the system
altogether.
System nalysis leads to Requirement Determination or
Software Requirement Specification(SRS)
System nalysis
Software Requirements Specifications
SRS is the starting point oI System Development
Process. SRS constitutes oI three activities
·Requirement nticipation
·Requirement Investigation
·Requirement Specification
SRS leads to details on
1. The basic process
2. The data which is used or produced during the
process
3. Various constraints
4. PerIormance controls
Software Requirements Specifications Software Requirements Specifications
Software Requirements
Specifications ( Contd.)
The activities involved in SRS are as:
. &nderstand the Process:as
The purpose oI the business activity, The Steps which and
where are these perIormed; The persons perIorming them;
The Irequency, time and user oI the resulting inIormation.
2. Identify Data &sed and Information
Generated :
3. Determining Timing. requency and Volume
4. Know Performance Controls
%echniques of SRS
Interview
Questionnaire
Record Review
Observation
nowIedge Management System
Knowledge is the ability oI person to understand
the situation and act eIIectively.
·Competition & Market Iorces demand that
organizations today can be competitive iI they
manage the knowledge and continuously upgrade
as per changing requirements.
·Knowledge Management is the process oI capturing,
maintaining and updating continuously the
company`s expertise both internal as well as external
where-ever it resides- in computers, in peoples
heads, on paper or thru external sources- and
distributing eIIiciently wherever it can help
produce the biggest payoII.
%ypes of nowIedge
· Explicit Knowledge ÷ data, documents,
things written down or stored on
computers
· Tacit Knowledge ÷ the "how-tos¨ of
knowledge, which reside in workers
nowIedge Management System
Knowledge Management Systems involve the
tasks oI
·deIinition,
·acquisition,
·construction,
·storage,
·delivery and
·application oI the knowledge
so as to maintain and improve the competitiveness oI the
organization..
eveIs of nowIedge Management
MS Architecture
KMS architecture deals with three main Iunctions as :
·Knowledge Identification
·Knowledge Generation
·Knowledge Delivery
KMS
Knowledge
IdentiIication
Knowledge
Generation
Knowledge
Delivery
·DeIinition &
Categorization
·Surveying &
Locating
·Build Knowledge
Structure
·Processing Ior
Acquisition
·Manupulating &
Modelling
Creation oI KDB
·Access Control
·Application
Methods
·Storage &
Security
MS %ooIs
The tools Ior KMS are as:
Database management tools
-For data management and seeking knowledge thru SQL queries
Data Warehousing. Data mart. Data Mining tools
Process Modeling and Management tools
-For recording standard processes Ior knowledge use
Search Engine tools
Document Management tools-like Lotus Notes
Web based tools- Internet& Intranet
Strategy and Strategic Moves
· Strategy: plan to gain advantage over
enemy
· Business strategy is plan to outperform
competitors
÷ Done by creating new opportunities, not only
beating rivals
· Strategic Advantage: Using strategy to
maximize company strengths
hy Study Strategic ÌT?
· Technology is no longer an afterthought in
forming business strategy, but the actual
cause and driver.
· ÌT can change the way businesses
compete.
Strategic View of Ìnformation
Systems
· Ìnformation systems are vital competitive
networks.
· Ìnformation systems are a means of
organizational renewal.
· ÌS are a necessary investment in technologies
that help a company adopt strategies and
business processes that enable it to reengineer
or reinvent itself in order to survive and succeed
in today's dynamic business environment.
What is IT?
A bunch oI networks and computers
OR
Hardware plus the soItware that mediates and manages human
knowledge or inIormation
Does I% Matter?
How important is I% to E?
÷ Business imperative
÷ Lifeblood for productivity
÷ 20% return on technology investments and
GE invests $2.5 to $3 billion a year
Does IT Matter?
Paul Strassman, Iormer CIO oI General Foods, Xerox,
Pentagon, and NASA
InIormation technology today is a knowledge-capital
issue.
Look at the business powers most oI all Wal-Mart,
but also companies like PIizer or FedEx. They`re all
waging inIormation warIare.
Michael Dell, CEO oI Dell Computers
Anything in business can be either a sinkhole or a competitive
advantage iI you do it really, really bad or you do it
really, really well.
Concluding Remarks
Strategic Information Systems
DeIinition:
Any kind oI inIormation system that uses inIormation
technology to help an organization gain a competitive
advantage, reduce a competitive disadvantage, or meet
other strategic enterprise obiectives.
Porter's Competitive Forces ModeI
To survive and succeed, a business must
develop and implement strategies to
effectively counter the:
· Rivalry of competitors within its industry
· Threat of new entrants into an industry and its
markets
· Threat posed by substitute products which
might capture market share
· Bargaining power of customers
· Bargaining power of suppliers
Competitive Forces and Strategies
Ìnitiative #1: Reduce Costs
· Customers want to pay little for service
· Reduce costs to lower price
· Automation greatly reduces costs
· eb can automate customer service
Ìnitiative #2: Raise Barriers to
arket Entrants
· Less competition is better for company
· Raise barriers to entrants to lower
competition
· Techniques include obtaining copyrights
and patents on inventions, techniques,
and services
· Building unmatchable information systems
blocks entrants
Ìnitiative #3: Establish High
Switching Costs
· Switching costs: incurred when customer
stops buying from company and starts
buying from another company
÷ Explicit: charge customer for switching
÷ Ìmplicit: indirect costs over period of time
· High switching costs locks in customers
Ìnitiative #4: Create New
Products or Services
· Having unique product or service gives
competitive advantage
· First mover: organization that is first to
offer a new product or service
÷ Superior brand name, better technology, more
experience
· CriticaI mass: body of clients that is large
enough to attract other clients
Ìnitiative #4: Create New Products or
Services (continued)
EBay created a new service that established it as an industry leader
Ìnitiative #5: Differentiate
Products or Services
· Product differentiation: persuading
customers that product is better than
competitors'
÷ Achieved through advertising
÷ Exemplified by brand name success
÷ Promotes brand name
÷ Develop new ÌT features to differentiate
product and service
Ìnitiative #5: Differentiate Products or
Services (continued)
Google did not offer an original service, but the service has grown superior to other
eb search services
Ìnitiative #6: Enhance Products
or Services
· Enhance existing products or services to
increase value to consumer
· any products and services have been
enhanced by the eb
Ìnitiative #6: Enhance Products or
Services (continued)
Dell continues to enhance its service to maintain the competitive advantage of its
online order site
Ìnitiative #7: Establish Alliances
· AIIiance: two companies combining
services
÷ akes product more attractive
÷ Reduces costs
÷ Provides one-stop shopping
· AffiIiate program: linking to other
companies and rewarding the linker for
click-throughs
Ìnitiative #7: Establish Alliances
(continued)
Strategic aIIiances combine services to create synergies
Ìnitiative #8: Lock in Suppliers
or Buyers
· Accomplished by achieving bargaining
power
· Bargaining power: leverage to influence
buyers and suppliers
÷ Achieved by being major competitor or
eliminating competitors
÷ Uses purchase volume as leverage
· Lock in clients by creating high standards
'aIue Chain AnaIysis
Input
Output
Process
DDED VL&E
Value Chain is a series oI activities that include inbound logistics,
warehouse and storage, production, Iinished goods storage, outbound
logistics, marketing & sales, and customer service.
Value Chain nalysis reIers to understanding the value chain
activities i.e. the activities perIormed in the transIormation process
and identiIy the areas where additional value may be generated
at one or more value chain activities.
MIS/SIS helps in Value Chain Analysis Process
and Value Addition to the Value chain.
Porter's 'aIue Chain ModeI(SIS
Framework)
Porter`s Model has divided organization`s activities
in two categories:
Primary ctivities: 1.Inbound Logistics
2.Operations
3.Outbound Logistics
4.Marketing
5.Service
Support ctivities:
1. Administration
2. Human Resources
3. Technology
4. Procurement Process
Porter's 'aIue Chain ModeI
This model can be used to design MIS can be used to
gain competitive advantage by identiIying speciIic,
critical leverage points in the Value Chain activities.
Porter`s Value Chain Model
MIS & BPR
IT Iacilitates and enables Business Process Reengineering
Ìnterneterprise Ìnformation
Systems
Definition:
· Ìnformation systems implemented on an
extranet among a company and its
suppliers, customers, subcontractors, and
competitors with whom it has formed
alliances.
· E.g. CÌSCO
'irtuaI Company
A business that:
· can anticipate customers` Iuture needs.
· responds to customer concerns.
· provides top-quality customer service.
Customer-focused Organization
MIS in Customer Focused Business
Knowledge-Creating
Companies
· Consistently creating new business
knowledge, disseminating it widely
throughout the company, and quickly
building the new knowledge into their
products and services.
MIS RISS
The Security Issues that emerge Irom MISs are as:
. Secrecy
2. Privacy
3. Confidentiality
4. Destruction
5. Theft of Information
6. Computer Wastages
The Reasons that aIIect the security threats
to MIS are as:
·Destruction
·Deletion
·Bugs Infection
·Theft
·Corruption
Sources of MIS %hreats
Threats to MIS can be caused by diIIerent sources
and these are
ailure of System:
Hardware
SoItware
Network
Telecommunication
uman ctions:
Illegal access
TheIt
User Errors
Program changes
Natural Calamities
Fire
Earthquakes
Floods & rains
Sources of MIS Threats
Security ControIs
Security Controls that can be used by the
organizations to counter the security threats.These
may be the combination oI below:
·Access Controls Systems
·Hardware & SoItware Controls
·Fault Tolerant Computer Systems
( Mirroring/ Clustering)
·Monitoring the Usage/Security Monitors
·Biometrics
·Anti Virus Protection tools
·Firewalls
·Cryptography
·Disaster management Plan
·Employees` Conduct & PerIormance Audit
MIS Security PIan
MIS Security Management system is designed to
meet security threats and involves:
·Identification of threat sources & possibilities
of its occurrence.
·Protecting the Information and MIS from
unauthorized access
·Ensure the privacy of individual & personal
information
·Check the misuse of information and MIS
·Provide methods and systems to recover from
damage and to put the MIS on normal track
How Much Security Is Enough Security?
Two costs to consider
÷Cost of potential damage
÷Cost of implementing preventative measure
Software Procurement
SoItware can be acquired in diIIerent ways.
These are
. Make the Software
2. Buy the Off-the -Shelf software
3. Combination of the above
4. Outsourcing
5. SP ( pplication Service Providers)
Buy the Software
The company buys the soItware developed by
vendors in that application area. These are also
reIerred to as oII- the -shelI soItware products.
Reasons/ Advantages Ior this type oI procurement:
· Lower cost oI development
· Faster acquisition
· Tested product
· Known Costs
· Doest not require IT development skills
· Upgradations available Irom vendors
Steps in Procurement thru Buy Option:
1. Review Needs, Requirements, and Costs
2. Negotiate & Acquire the SoItware
3. ModiIy or Customize SoItware
4. Acquire soItware interIaces
5. Test the SoItware
6. Monitor and Maintain the SoItware
Disadvantages of Buy Option:
1. Dependence on Vendor
2. High cost oI maintenance
3. Fit with the Company`s Requirements
4. Employee learning & Motivation
Make the Software
In this option company perIorms all the activities
oI system analysis to system development and
maintenance.
Reasons / Advantages:
1. SoItware meets the speciIic requirements.
2. Customized Changes in the soItware possible
3. SoItware acts as core competence
4. Potential Ior commercialization oI the developed
soItware product
5. Higher learning environment in the company
Business
Process
IT
Technology
Customer
Purchases
Deal
Structure
Fixed Cost
Product
40s-50s
60s-70s
80s-90s
00s
15-20
10-12
5-8
10-20
8-10
3-5
Application
IT Solution
Business
Outcomes
Variable
costs
IT
Outsourcing
BPO Continuous
1 - 3
IT & Business Process LiIe
IS Outsourcing
IDC DeIines IS Outsourcing as a long term
contractual arrangement in which the service
provider takes ownership oI and responsibility Ior
managing all or part oI a client`s IS operations or
department based on a service level agreement
IS O&TSO&RCING DEINED
Information System Outsourcing
services
· System integration
· Facility management
· Contract programming
· Software support
· Network maintenance
· inicomputer/ainframe/ orkstation/PC
maintenance
· Total outsourcing
· Total insourcing
·Selective SourcingSmart
TYPES O SO&RCING
WT TO O&TSO&RCE
Non-Core. Non Critical
·Security
·CaIeteria
·Laundry
elood to OutsourceH
Core Business
·Managing marketing
Image/Trademark
·Canning Ior patents
·Find/Sell new products
·ManuIacture products
·IS
elood to Outsource . OW
Non-core. Yet Critical
· Accounting
·Supply chain Management
·HR Administration
·Claims Administration
·IS
elood to
Outsource.Medum -H
DRIVERS OR O&TSO&RCING
Outsourcing IT leads to low running costs
Outsourcing IT has low setup cost.
Outsourcing IT has low set-up time
Shortage oI skilled manpower
Expertise oI outsourcer
Organisation needs to Iocus on core Iunction rather that
IT activities
Low Down time
Improved output/perIormance oI InI. System
Better service to users
High cost oI maintaining and updating IT employees
Availability oI network bandwidth and technology
AppIication Service Providers
An ASP provides contract-based service to supply
and host soItware and computing applications,
data storage, reporting tools, upgrades, and
technical support to its clients using a web
platIorm via the Internet or an extranet.
Applications are generally leased on need basis
with Ilexible monthly Iixed rates ranging
anywhere Irom $ 10 to $ 10,000 per month and
variable according to usage.
dvantages:
·Faster adoption oI the soItware
·No hassles in system development & Maintenance
·Companies can Iocus on their core Iunctions
Disadvantages:
·Dependence on ASP vendors.
·High Costs
·Customized application may not be possible
·Changes in soItware diIIicult
System ImpIementation
Implementation is the process oI installing a newly
developed MIS at the organization`s site. This may
involve either installing new system in case there
is no earlier system OR installing modiIied system..
Implementing the MIS means putting the new
system into operation.
The various stages in MIS Implementation are as:
. Planning the Implementation
2. cquisition of acilities and Space Planning
3. cquisition of ardware & Software
4. &ser Training & iring
5. Data Preparation
6. Installation
7. Testing
8. Changeover
9. &ser cceptance
System Implementation Stages
ImpIementation PIanning
It is the blue print oI the MIS Implementation and
is the detailed plan oI implementing the MIS
in the organization. The pre-implementation
activities as:
·IdentiIying MIS team and managing the proiect team,
·Scheduling the implementation activities,
·Control mechanism, etc
Gantt Charts and Network diagrams are used to
monitor/schedule the implementation activities.
Acquisition of FaciIities and Space
Acquisition oI Iacilities as computer room, oIIice, etc.
Space planning and Layout oI Iollowing required as:
· Computer centres,
· Printers,
· Network Cabling
· People and their movement,
· No. & Type oI exits,
· Storage areas,
· Airconditioning,
· SaIety equipments & Measures, etc
Acquisition of Hardware & Software
Hardware & SoItware procurement is a detailed and
exhaustive exercise and involves
· Requirement Analysis,
· Procurement mode (Inhouse OR oII-the-shelI OR
thru ASP)
· Inviting vendor quotations ( Tender process in
public / large contracts)
· Comparison oI DiIIerent oIIerings( Technical &
Financial aspects)
· Negotiations
· Delivery & Installation
· Post installation review
&ser %raining & Hiring
User training is very important Ior the success oI MIS
implementation. Training oI varying nature
is to be given to diIIerent levels oI employees:
data entry operators/clerks, supervisors, managers /
senior management in the use oI MIS. Technical
training is given to IT employees Ior maintenance etc.
People with skills not in the organization may be
hired, These may be Irom management as well as
technical background in the new set up.
Data Preparation
Data Preparation reIers to the activity oI converting
data that have been earlier in the manual processes
into computer Iorm according to the designed
structure oI MIS.
Normally outsourced or made by temporary staII.
Once old data turned into MIS system, new data is
handled by the new computerized MIS system.
InstaIIation
Installation is the process oI physically placing the
computer equipment on the site, install & conIigure
the soItware so as to make it operational.
IS manager is generally responsible Ior the
installation, though some oI the installation
activities are perIormed by vendors.
%esting
Testing is perIormed at system construction stage.
However testing is perIormed at implementation
with actual data.Testing is perIormed on individual
components oI the MIS as well as whole system.
·Equipment
·Forms
·Programs
·Work procedures
·Out puts & Reports
Testing is done Irom the perspectives oI:
·Accuracy
·Range oI inputs
·Frequency oI inputs
·Operating conditions
·reliability
Testing
Changeover to New MIS
Chageover is the event oI switching to new MIS
Irom the current system.
II there is no existing old system, then there is
straight-over implementation in one go.
However iI there is existing system, there are Iour
approaches Ior changeover:
1.Direct Conversion
2. Phase-in-approach
3. Pilot start-up
4. Parallel start-up
&ser Acceptance
The stage at which, user takes the Iinal ownership
Irom the vendor and subsequently vendor is not
responsible Ior the problems in the MIS.
This is done in the Iorm oI user- acceptance
document.
System Maintenance
System Maintenance reIers to the stage that
involves checking, changing, and enhancing the
system to make it more useIul in achieving user
and organizational goals.
System Maintenance
Reasons for Maintenance:
·Changes in business processes
·New requests Irom stakeholders,customers,
users, and managers
·Bugs or errors in the program
·Technical and hardware problems
·Corporate mergers and acquisitions
·Government regulations
·Changes in the operating system or hardware
on which the application runs.
%ypes of Maintenance
. Corrective Maintenance
This type oI maintenance involves removal oI errors in the
program that may have creped into the system because oI Iaulty
design or wrong assumption. In this processing or perIormance
Iailures are repaired.
2. daptive Maintenance
In Adaptive maintenance, program Iunctions
are changed to enable the inIormation system to
satisIy the inIormation needs oI the users.
For example
·Changes in organization`s procedures.
objectives. goals. policies
·Change in information needs of managers
·Change in system controls and security needs.
3. Perfective Maintenance
This maintenance involves adding new programs or
modiIying the existing programs to enhance the
perIormance oI the inIormation system.
Reasons Ior PerIective maintenance may be :
·Changes in economic and competitive conditions;
·New technology
System maintenance can be understood under Iour
categories depending upon the change in the systems.
. Slipstream &pgrade
2. Patch
3. Release
4. Version
CIassification of Maintenance
. Slipstream &pgrade
A minor upgrade typically a code adiustment or
minor bug Iix, which may not be announced.
2. Patch
A minor change to correct a problem or make a
small enhancement. It is usually an addition to an
existing program.
3. Release
A Release is a signiIicant change in the program
which may involve change in design and
documentation.
4. Version
A Version involves maior changes, usually
encompassing new Ieatures.

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