# Motion of a Point

Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
 Average Velocity

T T (r v | (t

 Instantaneous Velocity

dr  v| |r dt

Acceleration
 Average Acceleration

T T (v a | (t

 Instantaneous Acceleration

T 2T T dv d r  T  a| ! 2 |r dt dt

Uniform Rectilinear Motion

v ! v0 x ! x0  v0t s ! s0  v0t

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

v ! v0  a  t 1 2 x ! x0  v0  t  a  t 2 2 2 v ! v0  2a( x  x0 )

Other Equations .

Acceleration dv a!v dx .

Acceleration as a function of velocity dv ! a (v ) dt dv ! dt a (v ) dv ´ a(v) ! t´ dt v0 0 v t .

dv dv dx dv ! ! v a (v ) ! dt dx dt dx dv v ! a (v ) ds vdv ! ds a (v ) vdv ! ´ ds ´ a (v ) s v0 0 v s .

Acceleration as a function of Position dv ! a(s) dt dv dv ds dv ! ! v dt ds dt ds dv v ! a(s) ds vdv ! a ( s )ds v s ´ vdv ! ´ a(s)ds v0 so .

The last integral yields velocity as a function of position. ds v( s) ! dt s t ds ! ´ dt ´ v( s) t s0 0 .

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v.Erratic Motion  Motion described by a piecewise function. and t.  Graph of s.  Motion Sensor . a.

Position vs. Time  Slope is velocity  Second derivative is acceleration .

Velocity vs. Time  Slope is acceleration  Area is displacement .

Time  Area is change in velocity. .Acceleration vs.

Acceleration vs. Position 1 2 2 v1  v0 ! ´ ads 2 s0 .

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Velocity vs. Position ¨ dv ¸ a ! v© ¹ ª ds º .

Curvilinear Motion of Particles .

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and Acceleration T T dr T  v| |r dt T T dv T  T | r a| |v dt . Velocity.Position Vector.

Derivatives of Vector Functions  Summation Rule  Product Rule ± Dot Product ± Cross Product .

.Rectangular Components of Velocity and Acceleration  Basically a summation rule.

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Angular Motion dU  [| |U dt d[   E| | [ | U dt .

Tangential and Normal Components  Coordinate system .

Unit vector Ö det Ö en ! dU T ds Ö Ö v ! et ! vet dt .

T Ö det T dv dv Ö a| ! et  v dt dt dt Ö det dU ds dv Ö ! et  v dt dU ds dt 2 dv v Ö Ö ! et  en V dt .

Ö Ö et ! cos Ui  sin UÖ j Ö Ö en !  sin Ui  cos UÖ j « ¨ dy ¸ 2 » ¬1  © ¹ ¼ ¬ ª dx º ¼ ½ ­ y ! y ( x)   V ! d2y 2 dx 3 2 .

At a given instant in an airplane race. Airplane B is flying at the same altitude as airplane A and. (a) the velocity of B relative to A. . airplane A is flying horizontally in a straight line. as it rounds a pylon. (b) the acceleration of B relative to A. is following a circular path of 2000-m radius. Knowing that at the given instant the speed of B is being decreased at the rate of 2 m/s2 determine. for the positions shown. and its speed is being increased at a rate of 6 m/s2.

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When the car¶s horizontal coordinate is x = 400 m. what are the tangential and normal components of the car¶s acceleration? .A car travels at 100 km/h on a straight road of increasing grade whose vertical profile can be approximated by the equation shown.

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Polar and Cylindrical ± Radial and Transverse T  Ö Ö  v ! rer  rUeU T   Ö  rU 2 er  rU 2rU eU a ! r  Ö .

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U ! Bt . and z ! t 1 t 1 Determine the magnitudes of the velocity and acceleration when (a) t = 0 and (b) t = infinity .The three-dimensional motion of a particle is defined by the cylindrical coordinates A Ct r! .

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 There will generally be a physical constraint.Dependent Motion  Measure positions with respect to a fixed point. often a rope or cable. .

and its speed is 6 in. . to the right its velocity is 2. Knowing that after slider block A has moved 10 in. determine the accelerations of A and B.4 in. slider block B is moving to the right with a constant acceleration.At the instant shown./s./s.

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Slider block B starts from rest and moves to the right with a constant acceleration of 1 ft/s/s. . Determine the relative acceleration of portion C of the cable with respect to slider block A.

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Relative Motion  Notation ± the position of B relative to A T rB A .

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. At the instant shown.Racing cars A and B are traveling on circular portions of a race track. For the positions shown. the speed of A is decreasing at the rate of 8 m/s2 and the speed of B is increasing at the rate of 3 m/s2 . determine a) the velocity of B relative to A b) the acceleration of B relative to A.