Welding Metallurgy

to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface . with or without the addition of filler metal. . or both.Welding Metallurgy Welding is the joining of two or more pieces of metal by applying heat or pressure.

4. The zone containing the weld metal and the HAZ. 3. . Weld Metal Weld Zone Parent Metal Fusion Penetration All metal melted during the making of a weld and retained in the weld.Welding Metallurgy 1. The depth to which the parent metal has been fused. 2. Metal to be joined or surfaced by welding.

8. . The zone on the side of the first run farthest from the welder. 6. Weld Junction Root (of Weld) The boundary between the fusion zone and the HAZ. Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) The HAZ is the subject of continuing interest since it involves a wide range of temperatures from the welding operation that can significantly alter the base metal's metallurgy and associated mechanical and physical properties. 7.Welding Metallurgy 6 6 5. Fusion Zone The part of the parent metal that is melted into the weld.

Heat Affected Zone Heat Affected Zone HAZ Grain Coarsened HAZ Weld Metal Unaffected Base Metal Unaffected Base Metal Subcritical HAZ Intercritical HAZ Grain Refinement HAZ .

depending on the carbon content. is that it extends from much above the upper critical transformation temperature to just below the solidifying temperature. Another way to describe this temperature range in metallurgical terms. Grain Coarsened HAZ Weld Metal Unaffected Base Metal Unaffected Base Metal .Grain Coarsened HAZ The peak temperatures reached in the Grain Coarsened HAZ region range from 1090°C to 1480oC.

These temperatures are within the normalizing heat treatment range and are very conducive to austenitic grain refinement Weld Metal Unaffected Base Metal Unaffected Base Metal Grain Refinement HAZ .Grain Refinement HAZ This region comprises temperature from just above the lower critical transformation temperature and up to 816oC.

Intercritical HAZ The temperatures in this region includes the intercritical ranges. between the lower and upper critical temperatures. Weld Metal Unaffected Base Metal Unaffected Base Metal Intercritical HAZ .

Subcritical HAZ The subcritical-HAZ includes the tempered area of the Fe-Fe3C phase diagram. There are no phase transformations which take place in the tempered area since the lower critical transformation temperature is not exceeded.e. quenched and tempered) the heat of welding may be sufficient for further tempering. thereby reducing the tensile strength and hardness in this region. Should the base metal be in the tempered condition (i. Weld Metal Unaffected Base Metal Unaffected Base Metal Subcritical HAZ .

Single-Run V Butt Weld .

overheated zone. refining zone. refining zone. unaffected structure . columnar crystal formation Parent metal. grain growth. partial recrystalization. Parent metal. Parent metal. Equiaxed structure Parent metal. complete recrystalization.Single-Run V Butt Weld (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Weld Metal.

Single-Run T Fillet Weld .

complete recrystalization. grain growth. Parent metal. overheated zone. columnar crystal formation Parent metal. Parent metal. partial recrystalization. refining zone. unaffected structure . refining zone.Single-Run T Fillet Weld (1) (2) (3) (4) Weld Metal. Equiaxed structure (5) Parent metal.

Multi-Run V Butt Weld .

6. Cold worked fibrous crystals New crystals begin to form Recrystallisation in progress Recrystallisation nearly complete Equiaxed crystal grains Grain growth . this is the effect heat has on a peice of Low Carbon Steel grain structure. 3. 2. 4.Grain Growth By using a microscope. 1. 5.

The Effect On Materials When Subjected To A Heat Source Heat Affected Zone NOTE .flame in static position .

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