A blanket on earth surface protecting life from hostile environment of the outer space ± Absorbs cosmic rays and damaging UV radiation from sun ± Stabilizes earth¶s temperature and prevents extreme temperatures in the absence of atmosphere, earth¶s temperature might have been -18ºC rather than the 15 ºC Total mass of atmosphere is 5.14x1015 tons Extends even beyond 500 Km altitude, but its density and pressure decreases sharply with altitude ± 99% of the mass within 30 Km altitude ± at 8 Km altitude the pressure is 39% of the sea level pressure Source of CO2 for photosynthesis, O2 for respiration and N2 for nitrogen fixation Medium for transport of water Dumping space for pollutants

Atmosphere (contd..)
Atmosphere is divisible into four layers
1. Troposphere - The first 10-16 Km thick layer ± Has homogenous composition (except for H2O) ± Temperature lapses with altitude (from 15 to -56ºC) ± Water vapour is limited to this layer ± Most environmental problems are limited to this layer 2. Stratosphere - Extends up to 52 Km altitude ± Temperature increases with altitude (from -56 to -2ºC) ± Ozone containing layer (< 10 ppm) ± Prevents or limits vertical circulation of air masses 3. Mesosphere - Extends up to 85Km altitude ± Temperature lapses with altitude (from -2 to -92ºC) ± Contains no radiation absorption species 4. Thermosphere - Extends up to 500 Km ± Absorbs radiation of <200 nm wavelength ± Temp. increases with altitude (from -92 to 1200ºC) ± Mean free path between the particles is 1x106 cm

Chemical Composition of Atmosphere
Major constituents
Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon dioxide Water vapour 78% 21% 1% 0.03% 0.006%

Minor constituents
Neon Helium Methane Krypton Hydrogen Nitrous oxide CO Zenon Ozone 18 ppm 5.2 ppm 1.5 ppm 1.0 ppm 0.5 ppm 0.2 ppm 0.1 ppm 0.08 ppm 0.02 ppm

Trace constituents
Ammonia Nitrogen dioxide Nitric oxide Sulfur dioxide Hydrogen sulfide 6 ppb 1 ppb 0.6 ppb 0.2 ppb 0.2 ppb

Chemical Composition of Atmosphere (contd..)
Atmosphere also contains the following
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ many organic species many unstable and/or reactive species many photo chemically active species acids bases and salts solid and liquid particulate matter

Water vapour
‡ highly variable in the atmosphere (as high as 5%, decreases with altitude and stratosphere has secondary water) ‡ Influences pollution induced fog formation and reduces visibility ‡ Plays a key role in the atmospheric energy transfer ‡ Has synergistic effect on corrosion of metals by acid forming gases ‡ Along with carbon dioxide, absorbs IR radiation (has 7 ± 8.5 µm and 11 ± 14 µm as radiation absorption ranges) ‡ Clouds have either cooling or heating effect on the atmosphere depending on their altitude

Solar Radiation Flux and its Fate
3 1 2 e c d Space Atmosphere Earth

4 5
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. a. b.

* 7 a c d



Solar radiation flux of 1340 Watts/m2 Radiation reflected back into space 322 Watts/m2 Radiation scattered back into space 94 Watts/m2 Radiation absorbed by the atmosphere 234 Watts/m2 Diffused solar radiation received by earth 335 Watts/m2 Direct solar radiation received by earth 355 Watts/m2 IR received from atmosphere 1293 Watts/m2 IR of earth absorbed by atmosphere 1460 Watts/m2 Radiation received as sensible heat and specific heat of water vapour 147 & 248 Watts/m2 c. Radiation reflected by earth into space 54 Watts/m2 d. IR from earth escaping directly into space 74 Watts/m2 e. IR emitted into space by atmosphere 796 Watts/m2

Fate of the Radiation Received by the Atmosphere
Green house effect ± Solar radiation received by atmosphere has 0.2 to 3 µm wavelength range and around 0.5 µm max ± Radiation received from the earth has 2 to 40 µm wavelength range and around 10 µm max ± Green house gases absorb IR from the earth, leading to the atmospheric temperature raise and stabilization at 15ºC Interaction of solar radiation with atmosphere ± Atmosphere beyond 50 Km altitude absorbs most of the UV radiation and produces ions (ionosphere) ± Both oxygen (at 240-260 nm) and ozone (at 220-330 nm) of the stratosphere absorb UV radiation ± Photo chemically active species of the troposphere absorb solar radiation and form free radicals and excited species During nights earth cools faster than the air and this leads to the formation of radiation inversions

Winds and Currents ± Movement of Air Masses
Solar radiation flux is most intense at equator and least at the poles. The received radiation is redistributed mostly by winds and currents ± 50% as sensible heat by moving air masses ± 33 % by water vapour in the form of latent Troposphere includes a multitude of air masses that may differ in pressure, temperature and moisture content ‡ Horizontal movement of air masses is winds ± Air moves horizontally from high pressure zone to low pressure zone ‡ vertical movement of the masses is currents ± Warm air rises to the higher altitudes due to the prevailing temperature lapse (Inversion conditions of the stratosphere limits this rising) ± Cold air sinks to the lower altitudes Global circulation of air masses leads to the formation of Hadley cells (trade winds and westerlies; doldrums and horslies)

Winds and Currents ± Movement of Air Masses (contd..)
Geographical features (vegetation, water, land slope, land surface characteristics, land use patterns) strongly affect the global circulation of air masses and lead to ± regional winds such as monsoons ± local winds such as land-water breezes, valley winds ± heat islands ± warmer, foggier and cloud covered Descending air masses, specially at horse latitudes, form semi-permanent elevated inversions known as subsidence inversions Collision of a cold air front with a warm air front also forms elevated inversions ± Associated with the formation of thunder heads (high altitude clouds) and heavy rains Raising air masses lead to the expansion cooling of air masses and precipitation

Weather and Climate
Weather is defined in terms of seven interrelated factors Temperature, Atmospheric pressure, Wind, Humidity, Precipitation, Clouds, Horizontal visibility Long term weather patterns over a large geographical area is known as climate Weather and climate of a region depend on the ± Distribution patterns of solar radiation ± Ultimate re-radiation patterns of solar energy to space Weather and climate is the consequence of interactions between atmospheric components and solar radiation ± Changes in the atmospheric composition can bring in changes in the weather and climate ± Life forms and water have moderating effect on climate Accumulation of green house gases, carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, methane and nitrous oxide is feared to drastically change the climate

Green House Effect
Double glass sheet Solar heater interior

Black surface &

Insulated walls Long wavelength radiation

Short wavelength solar radiation

Green House Gases of the Atmosphere
Gaseous that absorb radiation at > 4 µm, specially in radiative window (7-13 µm ):
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Oxygen and ozone: at < 0.3 µm (ozone at 9.5 to 10.6 µm) Water vapour: at < 8 µm and at > 18 µm Carbon dioxide: at 13-18 µm at 2.7 µm and at 4.3 µm Methane: at 7.66 µm Nitrous oxide: at 4.5,7.8 and 17 µm Chlorofluorocarbons: in the atmospheric radiation window CO2 (57%) Effectiveness as green house gas Concentration (ppm) Rate of in concentration 1 351 0.4% per yr. CFCs (25%) 15000 2.25 ppb 5% per yr. Methane Nitrous (12%) oxide (6%) 25 1.675 12% per yr. 230 0.31 6% per yr.

Carbon Dioxide
CO2 emissions between 1800 and 1980 : ± fossil fuels burning: 162 billion tons ± biospheric carbon release: 90 to 120 billion tons equivalent to 133 ppm increase (assuming 1 ppm rise requiring an addition of 2.12 billion tons of carbon) ± Atmospheric CO2 increase experienced has been from 280 to 355 ppm (58 ppm) Atmospheric CO2 level may double by 2060s ± causing 1.5 to 4.5 ºC temperature rise ± Burning of world oil and gas reserves can lead to 25% increase and that of all the coal reserves to 4 times increase in CO2 level Doubling of CO2 level may increase atmosphere by 3ºC between 1880 and 1990 only 0.5ºC increase has been recorded (less than the expected 0.9ºC ) Carbon emission rates: ± from coal it is 75% more than that from natural gas ± from synthetic oil/gas it is 80% more than that from coal ± from oil it is 44% more than that from natural gas

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Fully halogenated CFCs ± HCFCs ± HFCs: Water insoluble ± inert ± photolysis by short wavelength radiation can break down Use of CFCs:
± ± ± ± as aerosol propellants ± 25% as foaming agents ± 26% as refrigerants ± 20% as solvents ± 19%

In aerosol propellant use
± by isobutane, propane and CO2 can replace the CFC ± need for a propellant can be eliminated by use of application pumps or roll on systems

In the use as foaming agents
± rigid foams can be replaced by fiber glass insulation ± CFC can be replaced by HCFC ± methyl chloride can replace CFC used in the manufacture of flexible foams

In refrigeration and air conditioning use of CFC can be replaced by HFC The CFC widely used as solvent (CFC-113) is uncertain to have green house effect

Other Green House Gases
± Bacterial fermentation from swamps, marshes, rice fields and digestive systems of ruminants and termites ± Increased cattle production and increased areas of paddy cultivation ± Production, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels and biomass fuels ± Doubling of methane concentration can lead to 0.2 to 0.3ºC temperature rise

Nitrous oxide
± ± ± ± Atmospheric nitrification Combustion of fossil fuels Consumption of nitrogen fertilizers Stable in the atmosphere ± can be degraded by the photolysis in stratosphere

± Component photochemical smog ± irregularly distributed ± Absorbs radiation at 9.5 to 10.6µm wavelength

Consequences of Global Warming
Consequences (Primary)
± Thermal expansion leading to sea level rise (0.25m/ºC) ± Sliding of Antarctic ice sheets leading to another 5 to 6 m sea level rise ± Amount, location and timing of precipitation may be changed (7 to 14% more rain fall) ± Shift of isotherms towards poles ± Recession of inland glaciers, decline of sea ice cover in the arctic sea and around Antarctic ocean

Consequences (Secondary) and feedback effects
± Feedback effects of photosynthesis-respiration; ice cover; water vapour/clouds; and aerosols ± Submergence of coastal areas ± Impacts on coastal ecosystems and estuaries ± Altered patterns of ocean currents ± Increased evaporation decreased soil moisture content and increased cloud formation ± Impacts on forests and bio-diversity ± Impacts on agriculture (frost cover and length of growth season, water availability, pests and diseases, land suitability)

Global Efforts to tackle the Global Warming Problems
Insurance policy approach Prevention and adaptation strategies June, 1988 Toronto meet
± Cutting carbon emissions by 50% by 2005

Montreal protocol, 1987
± Immediate freeze on CFC production ± Reducing production by 50% by 2000 AD

Helsinki declaration, 1989
± pledge to phase out most of the CFCs by 2000 AD

Climate convention of 1992, Earth Summit
± Stabilizing atmospheric CO2 by 2050 AD through brining down carbon emissions to 2 billion tons per year and ending CFC production ± Higher emitters to reduce carbon emission at rapid rate, medium emitters at slower rate, and a provision for low emitters to increase emissions

Strategies for Facing the Global Warming Problem
Prevention strategy (an insurance policy approach)
± ± ± ± ± ± ± Slowing population growth Scrubbing of carbon before or during combustion Efficient use of energy Levying carbon tax on fossil fuels Shifts to non-carbon fuels and renewable energy resources Reversal of deforestation and reforestation Reduction in CFC production

Adaptation strategy (protecting from consequences)
± Construction of conveyance systems to redistribute water ± Fortification of sensitive coastal areas ± Population migration to safer areas

Strategies for Facing Global Warming Problem (Contd..)
Using energy efficiently
± Possible to decrease annual fossil fuel consumption by 3% (in the developed countries) and to brining down carbon emissions by 3 billion ton by 2010 AD ± Imposing appliances standards ± Energy efficiency in the areas of lighting transportation

Levying carbon tax on fossil fuels
± Forces use of favourable mix of fossil fuels ± Can spur a surge in energy efficiency ± Revenue will become available for improving energy efficiency and for developing renewable sources of energy

Institutional support for demand side management
± Electrical utilities getting involved in both supply and demand side management of energy (possible for financing energy conservation programs)

Strategies for Facing Global Warming Problem (Contd..)
Using non-carbon based energy sources
± Nuclear energy ± not favoured due to serious accident potential, high cost and inability to satisfactorily handle the waste ± Use of wind, geothermal and solar energy sources ± Use of biomass energy (wood, agric. residues and wastes, garbage, landfill gas, alcohol fuels, etc.) provided the use is sustainable

Deforestation and reforestation
± Minimizing encroachments on forest land (for agricultural and industrial/urbanization purposes) ± Minimizing forest harvesting for timber, firewood and industrial fiber ± Reforestation to create carbon sink (a hectare to provide 5.5 ton/year sink for 30 years, - availability of land and finances and mobilization of social organizations) ± Conservation of the carbon sink of agricultural land

Reactions of Stratospheric Ozone Layer
Reactions producing ozone
O2 + hR p O + O O + O2 + M p O3 + M (P < 242.4 nm) (M is N2 or O2)

Reactions destroying ozone in the unpolluted atmosphere
O3 + hR p O2 + O O +O3 p 2O2 N2O + O p 2NO NO + O3 p NO2 + O2 NO2 + O p NO + O2 CF2Cl2 + hR p Cl + CClF2 Cl + O3 p ClO + O2 ClO + O p Cl + O2 (P < 325 nm)

CFCs and ozone destruction

Reactions of Stratospheric Ozone Layer (contd..)
Reactions related to NOX and CFCs removal
Removal of nitrogen dioxide along with water by freezing in the polar stratospheric clouds at < -70ºC may be as HNO3.3H2O ClO + NO2 p ClONO2 (a stable compound)

Reactions liberating chlorine
ClONO2 + H2O p HOCl + HNO3 ClONO2 + HCl p Cl2 + HNO3 HOCl + hR p HO +Cl Cl2 + hR p Cl + Cl

Reactions related to HFCs
Reactions producing CF3O and CF3 radicals CF3O + O3 p CF3OO + O2 CF3OO + O3 p CF3O + 2O2

Reactions removing CF3O and CF3 radicals
CF3O + NO p CF2O + FNO CF3O + CH4 p CF3OH + CH3

Polar Ozone Hole and Ozone Depleting Substances
Why ozone depletion at poles ± Isolation of air mass in the swirling polar vortex ± Drop of temperature to < -90ºC during winter and formation of stratospheric clouds ± Conversion of non-reactive chlorine into photosensitive molecules ± Freeze removal of nitrogen oxides as nitric acid Sulfate aerosols are also believed to provide surfaces similar to the ice crystals of stratospheric clouds Concentration of ozone depleting substances ± Chlorine ± in 25 years increased from 0.6 to 2.7 ppb (in 1987), and by 2075 the concentration may triple ± Bromine ± 1 ppb in 1987, may be 10 ppb by 2075 Ozone depletion levels ± 1.2% depletion over all the areas of the globe ± 1.7 to 3% depletion between 30 - 60ºN latitudes during 1969-86 (2.3 to 6.2% in winters) ± 5% depletion beyond 60ºS latitude 5 to 20% less UV radiation may be received by the earth due to ozone depletion by 2030s

Ozone Depleting Substances & Their Potential
Annual Atmos. Annual Contribution emission life time growth to ozone (,000 tons) (years) rate depletion 238 76 5% 26% (100) 412 72 138 3 3 474 66 139 22 92 12 101 8 67 5% 11% 10% 23% NA 7% 1% 45% (100) 0% (0) 12% (80) 1% (305) 4% (1220) 3% (6) 8% (110) Remarks (use) As foaming agent, aerosol propellant & as refrigerant Same as above As foaming agent and as refrigerant As solvent In fire extinguishers In fire extinguishers As solvent As solvent

CFC-11 CFC-12 HCFC-22 CFC-13 Halon1211 Halon1301 Methyl chloroform Carbon tetrachloride

Consequences of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
Stratospheric ozone layer is the key life support system
± Absorbs UV radiation very strongly in 220-330 nm wavelength ± DNA absorbs UV radiation of 290-320 nm ± leads to improper translation of genetic code ± Promotes skin cancer (squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma) and cataracts and depresses immune system (ability to fight tumors) ‡ 1% drop in ozone can lead to 4 to 6% raise in the number of skin cancer cases ( 5 fold increase in Australia during the last 50 years) ± Reduces crop yields and depletes marine fisheries (drop in plankton productivity altered species composition) ‡ 25% drop in ozone leads to 35% drop in plankton productivity and 25% drop in soybean yield

Causes damage to materials (brittle plastics) and increases smog problem

Montreal Protocol, 1987
‡ Signed by 35 countries ‡ Proposes freezing CFCs production by 1989 and halons by 1992; reducing CFCs production by 20% by 1993, and by another 30 % by 1998 ‡ Developing countries given 10 year grace period during which consumption can increase up to 0.3 kg per capita ‡ UK allowed to expand consumption up to 0.5 kg per capita during the then 5 year plan ‡ Provision for scientific assessment of ozone depletion in 1989 for review in 1990 ‡ Allowing import from non-signatory countries for one year ‡ Allowing trade up to mid 1990s ‡ Protocol assumes up to 2% ozone depletion by 2075 ‡ According to an EPA report atmospheric chlorine concentration may triple by 2075 ± 45% of it from the controlled use of CFCs ± 40% from compounds not covered by the protocol (methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) ± 15% by the non-participatory countries

Strategies for Protecting the Stratospheric Ozone Layer
If all known technical control measures are used, emissions of CFCs and Halons can be reduced by 90%

Banning CFCs
± Banning CFC propellants in Canada, Norway, Sweden and USA ± Banning land disposal of chlorinated solvents (incineration as disposal and recovery and recycling of the solvents as alternatives) ± Prohibition of venting of refrigerants

Development of chemical substitutes
± BioAct AC-7 for CFC-113 ± HFC-134 for replacing CFC-12 in air conditioners and re3frigenrants ± Ultracel to replace CFCs used in flexible foam manufacturing ± HCFCs to replace CFCs ± Methyl chloride, pentane and CO2 for replacing the CFCs

Strategies for Protecting the Stratospheric Ozone Layer (contd..)
CFC recovery
± Capturing CFC emissions from flexible foam manufacturing ± CFC recovery from rigid foams through using suction systems coupled with carbon adsorption ± Recovering CFCs from junked automobiles and other appliances

Halons emission
± ± ± ± Alternate testing procedures for fire extinguishers Use of simulators for fire fighter training Preventing accidental discharge Recycling service for halons

± Incineration disposal of insulating foam ± Improved design, operation and maintenance of refrigerators and air conditioners ± Helium, ammonia, etc., as alternate refrigerants ± Vacuum insulation in place of rigid foam insulation

Acid Rain
Involves deposition of aqueous acids, acidic gases and acidic salts as precipitation (rain, fog and snow) and as dry deposition Acid rain is a regional air pollution problem ± areas affected depend on geographical features ± Scandinavian countries, Canada and Northwestern USA are worst affected Lowest annual average pH recorded is 3.78 at De Bilt, the Netherlands during 1967 ± lowest pH recorded for an individual rain was 2.4 at Pittochry, 10th April, 1974 Main contributors to acid rains are (SO2 and NO2) ± Precipitation of clean atmosphere may have 5.6 pH ± Secondary pollutants formed from the oxidation of acid forming gases ± Emissions of strong acids like HCl gas and H2SO4 mist Acid precipitation of 4.25 pH has shown to have the following composition H+ - 0.056; NH4+ - 0.010; Ca2+ - 0.007; Na+ - 0.005; Mg2+ - 0.003; K+ - 0.002 Cl- 0.012 NO3- 0.020 SO4-2 0.051;

Impacts of Acid Rain
Respiratory effects on humans and animals (acid fog is more damaging - high penetrating ability and relatively low pH, as low as 1.7) Acidification of soils ± Lower pH can mobilize or leach out important minerals and release Al3+ like toxic species into the soil solution ± Sensitivity depends on cation exchange capacity and thickness of the top soil ± Frequent flooding and availability of carbonates make soil insensitive Phyto-toxicity ± Directly from excessive concentration of acids and acid forming gases ± Indirectly from Al3+ liberated from soil Corrosion to exposed structures, electrical relays, equipment and ornamental materials, Reduction of visibility by sulfate aerosols and aerosol effects on physical and optical properties of clouds

Atmospheric Reactions Related to the Acid Rain Problem
Reactions forming NO2 from NO NO+ HOO p NO2 + HO NO + HOO p NO2 + RO NO +O3 p NO2 + O2 Reactions forming HNO3 from NO2 NO2 + HO p HNO3 NO2 + O3 p NO3 + O2 O + NO2 + M p NO3 + M NO2 + NO3 p N2O5 N2O5 + H2O p 2HNO3 Oxidation of SO2 to H2SO4 and Sulfate Gas phase oxidation HO + SO2 p HOSO2 It is eventually converted into sulfate Oxidation in water aerosol droplets H2O + O + S(VI) p H2SO4 SO2 + H2O2 p H2SO4 S(IV) + O3 + H2O p H2SO4 + O2 Oxidation on solid particles producing sulfate aerosols Metals of the solid particles may act as catalysts

Strategies for Tackling Acid Rain Problem
Emission sources for SO2 and NOx
SO2 NOx Transportation 4% 44% Power plants 81% 52% Industrial processes 15% 3% Solid waste disposal ----o.5% Miscellaneous activities ----0.5% Emission of SO2 and aerosol mists containing SO3 and H2SO4 from sulfuric acid plant Natural sources ± Volcanic eruption releases SO2 and H2S ± Accidental forest fires releases NOx

Emission rates for fuel consumption in power plants and in automobiles
NOx SO2 Power plants (gr./Kg) Automobiles coal oil gas petrol diesel 0.43 0.68 0.16 16.5 16.5 20x 20x 16x 0.8 7.5

Strategies for Tackling Acid Rain Problem (contd..)
Prevention of acid rain problem through minimizing SO2 and NOx emissions Minimization SO2 emissions
± ± ± ± Desulfurization of fuels ± removal of piretic sulfur Using low sulfur fuels Use of fluidized bed technology Scrubbing of the flue gases and wherever feasible recovering sulfur or sulfuric acid

Minimization of NOx emissions
± Reduction of flame temperature ± fluidized bed technology ± Low excess air firing (associated with hydrocarbons, soot and CO emissions) ± Two stage combustion process (first stage with less air and second with less temperature) ± Catalytic reduction of NO CH4 + 4NO p 2N2 + CO2 + H2O

Photochemical Smog Reactions
Formation of undesirable mixture of gases and particulate matter photochemical reactions involving nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons 2NO + O2 p 2NO2 NO2 + radiation (<0.38µm) p NO + O O + O2 + M p O3 + M O3 + NO p NO2 + O2 RH + HO p R + H2O R + O2 p RO2 RO2 + NO p RO + NO2 RO + O2 p HO2 + RCHO HO2 + NO p NO2 +HO HO +CO p CO2 + H H + O2 p HO2 HO2 + NO p NO2 + HO Aldehydes + O2 + HO p alkyl peroxides Alkyl peroxides + NO2 p PAN, PBzN, etc.

Solar radiation NO2pNO+O NO+O3 or RO2 q NO2 O+O2 pO3 NO PAN, Aldehydes, etc., smog products oxygen O/HO/O2+HC q HC free radicals


Photochemical Smog Reactions

Air Pollutants
Priority pollutants
± ± ± ± ± ± ± Particulates (PM10) Sulfur oxides Nitrogen oxides Volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons!) Carbon monoxide Lead Ozone (photochemical oxidants)

Hazardous pollutants (toxic emissions)
± (chlorine, ammonia, etc.)

Sources for air pollution (point, line and area sources)
± ± ± ± ± Transportation activities (CO, NOx, VOC, lead, particulates) Thermal power plants (particulates, SOx, NOx) Industrial activities (SOx, CFCs, lead and other toxic metals) Biomass burning (particulates, CO, HC, NOx) Solid waste disposal (VOC, NOx, particulates, CO)

Air Pollution Effects
Health effects (human beings & livestock)
± Respiratory diseases (photo-chemical smog and sulfurous smog) ± Contamination of food chains and drinking water with toxic metals (acid rains) ± Impacts on the circulatory, reproductive, nervous and kidney systems

Environmental effects
± ± ± ± ± ± ± Soil pollution from rain out, washout & dry fall out of pollutants Damage to the aquatic ecosystems Damage to the forest ecosystems Threat to crops Damage to built environment (corrosion) Loss of visibility (smog) Loss of self cleaning capacity (CO through removing HO)

Tall stacks may minimize local effects but can cause regional effects

Air Pollution Control Strategies
Inappropriate energy, transportation and industrial systems are major culprits

Strategies for air pollution control (for the control of SPM, SO2, NOx, HC, etc.)
‡ Fluidized bed technology ‡ Integrated gasification and combined cycles, and cogeneration, fuel cell technology ‡ Combustion modifications for controlling NOx emission (air fuel ratio, two-stage combustion, etc.) ‡ ESPs and filter bag houses for SPM control ‡ Flue gas scrubbing for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides removal ‡ Selective catalytic reduction ‡ Ensuring proper functioning of emission control systems ‡ Incorporation of environmental costs into energy costs ‡ Energy efficient societies ‡ Material recycling for energy saving

Air Pollution Control Strategies (contd..)
Strategies for air pollution control from transportation systems
‡ Encouraging manufacture and purchase of energy efficient and low emission vehicles ‡ Subsidizing fuel efficient, low emission vehicles, and taxing inefficient, high emission vehicles ‡ Introducing vehicles powered by alternative fuels

‡ Reducing volatility of petrol ‡ Engine modifications and catalytic converters ‡ Ensuring proper functioning of emission control systems
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Car pooling ± mass transit ± Driving restrictions Shifting away from automobiles ± Bicycles and rail Making public transport inexpensive and convenient Eliminating free parking benefits Collecting hefty bills for road use and parking Introducing right to know legislation

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