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÷ Career
÷ A career is a sequence of positions occupied by a person
during the course of his or her life.
÷ Sequence of jobs that make up what a person does for a
living
÷ Career planning
÷ Systematically matching career goals, individual
capabilities and opportunities for fulfillment.
÷ Important because the consequences of career success
or failure are linked closely to each individual's self-
concept, identity, and satisfaction with career and life.

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÷ Sustainable career advantage
÷ Combination of personal attributes, skills and
capabilities that allow a person to consistently
outperform others
÷ Revolves around professionalism, leadership, self-
management, communication, critical thinking,
teamwork and continuous learning

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÷ %   
÷ is the process of career planning and management
succession.
÷ %  

÷ shapes the progression of people in an organization
according to organizational needs and assessments of the
performance, potential and preferences of individual
employees.
÷ 3   
 

÷ takes place to ensure as far as possible that the
organization has the managers it requires to meet future
business needs.

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÷ ao ensure that the organizationǯs needs for
management succession are satisfied.
÷ ao provide men and women of promise with a
sequence of experience, supplemented but never
replaced by training, which will equip them for
whatever level of responsibility they have the ability
to reach.
÷ ao give individuals with potential the guidance and
encouragement they need if they are to fulfill their
promise and achieve a successful career with the
organization in line with their talents and
aspirations.
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÷ Career planning is the process by which one selects
career goals and the path to these goals.
÷ Career planning is a continuous process.
÷ Guidelines to help an individual in planning a career;
÷ Choose a field of employment and focus on career goals.
÷ Assess indicators of job change.
÷ Plan the exit carefully.

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Career planning that focuses on jobs and on
constructing career paths that provide for the logical
progression of people between jobs in an
organization.

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Career development consists of of the personal actions
one undertakes to achieve a career plan.

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ahere are four main theories:

G Roeǯs theory of career choice


G Ginzbergǯs developmental theory
G Superǯs self concept theory
and
G Criteǯs model of career maturity theory.

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Roe explored family influences on career development and developed a
plan for categorizing occupations by type and level.

Ginzberg: and his associates created a developmental theory with


specific sequential periods and stages that describe the process of
career development. Adolescents go through three career choice
stages Ȃ fantasy, tentative, and realistic.

Super: Individualǯs self-concept plays a central role in career choice.


Super stated that the implementation of self-concept is a key factor
that influences career development over the life span.

Crites and others helped to establish that the career maturity of


adolescents and the career adaptability of adults are useful
constructs in identifying who is more likely to experience problems
in completing career development tasks.

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   Ȃ Adolescents with parents who
graduated from college are more likely to pursue higher
education as an immediate career. Where you come from
is where youǯre going.
    Ȃ Parents have a tremendous
influence on career choices both by support and
modeling.
  
   Ȃ aoo few counselors and too little
time for teachers are two factors that inhibit quality
counseling for adolescents making career choices.



    Ȃ Once again, parental
influence is strong in decisions made by the individual
and groups..

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÷   the combination of formal
education, job experiences, relationships, and
assessment of personality and abilities to help
employees prepare for the future of their careers.
÷ Development is about preparing for change in the
form of new jobs, new responsibilities, or new
requirements.

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÷   a career that frequently changes
based on changes in the personǯs interests, abilities,
and values and in the work environment.
÷ ao remain marketable, employees must continually
develop new skills.

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÷ An employee starts out as a sales person, then becomes
an account manager, gets promoted to sales manager,
and is now VP of Sales. Which type of career did this
employee have?
A. Protean
B. araditional
C. Glass ceiling
D. Dead end

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  
÷ ahese may include: ÷ Collecting information
÷ Workshops and providing feedback
÷ Short courses
to employees about their
behavior,
÷ Lectures
communication style, or
÷ Simulations skills.
÷ Business games
÷ Information for
÷ Experiential programs assessment may come
÷ Many companies operate from the employees,
training and their peers, managers,
development centers. and customers.
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£ e ay t evel e l yees is t e i it a
<   { ic ay c sist f assi i  a
activity t a tea a  seei  {  ri s { at s ills
a  stre t s t t e tea .
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Myers-Briggs aype Indicator (MBaI)®

Assessment Centers

Benchmarks Assessment

Performance Appraisal

360-Degree Feedback
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÷ It is a psychological test ÷ ahis is the most popular
that identifies test for employee
individualsǯ preferences development.
for source of energy,
means of information ÷ ahe assessment consists
gathering, way of of more than 100
decision making, and questions about how
lifestyle, providing the person feels or
information for team prefers to behave in
building and leadership different situations.
development.


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  % è  
÷ An assessment process in ÷ A measurement tool that
which multiple raters or gathers ratings of a
evaluators (assessors) managerǯs use of skills
evaluate employeesǯ associated with success
performance on a in managing.
number of exercises,
usually as they work in a
group at an offsite
location.

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÷ Ô   
 can be useful for
employee development under certain conditions:
1. ahe appraisal system must tell employees
specifically about their performance problems and
ways to improve their performance.
2. Employees must gain a clear understanding of the
differences between current performance and
expected performance.
3. ahe appraisal process must identify causes of the
performance discrepancy and develop plans for
improving performance.

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÷ ]    can be used for
development purposes:
1. ahe rater would identify an area of behavior as a
strength of the employee or an area requiring
further development.
2. ahe results presented to the employee show how he
or she was rated on each item and how self-
evaluations differ from other ratersǯ evaluations.
3. ahe individual reviews the results, seeks
clarification from the raters, and sets specific
development goals based on the strengths and
weaknesses identified.
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÷ Ram participated in leaderless group discussions and
in-basket exercises and was observed by a number of
raters. Which assessment method was used for Ram?
A. Interview
B. Performance appraisal
C. Assessment Center
D. Coaching

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÷ ‰
  the ÷ Îey job experience
combination of events include:
÷ Job assignments
relationships, problems,
÷ Interpersonal
demands, tasks, and relationships
other features of an ÷ aypes of transitions
employeeǯs jobs. ÷ ahrough these
÷ Most employee experiences, managers
development occurs learn how to handle
through 6    . common challenges,
and prove themselves.

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Working outside oneǯs home country is the most
important 6  that can develop an
employee for a career in the global economy.

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÷ À   
 
 employees can also
develop skills and increase their knowledge about the
organization and its customers by interacting with a
more experienced member:
÷ Mentoring
÷ Coaching

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÷ Geeta is in the process of understanding what
possibilities exist for her within the organization based
on her strengths and developmental areas. Which
phase of the career management process is she in?
A. Self Assessment
B. Reality Check
C. Goal Setting
D. Action Planning


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Ñ   


   
÷ Information employers
÷ ahe use of information by
employees to determine give employees about
their career interests, their skills and
values, aptitudes, knowledge and where
behavioral tendencies, and these assets fit into the
development needs. organizationǯs plans.
÷ MBaI
÷ Strong-Campbell Interest
Inventory
÷ Self-Directed Search
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 
 

¦  
  
÷ Based on the ÷ Employees prepare an
information from the action plan for how they
self-assessment and will achieve their short-
reality check, the and long-term career goals.
employee sets short- and ÷ Any one or a combination
long-term career of development methods
objectives. may be used.
÷ Desired positions ÷ Approach used depends on
÷ Level of skill to apply the particular development
need and career objectives.
÷ Work setting
÷ Skill acquisition

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Career Development Plan

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 3  
  Circumstances   ahe process of   A manager who
resembling an identifying and is otherwise
invisible barrier tracking high- competent may
that keep most potential engage in some
women and employees who behaviors that
minorities from will be able to make him or her
attaining the top fill top ineffective or
jobs in management even Dztoxicdz Ȃ
organizations. positions when stifles ideas and
they become drives away
vacant. good employees.

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- Indra Nooyi became the first woman CEO of PepsiCo in
2006.

- Her success at the company gives her the distinction of


being one of the women to break through the à  
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aechnique that identifies specific people to fill future openings in key positions throughout the organization.

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Process for
Developing a
Succession
Plan

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÷ A manager who is ÷ ahese dysfunctional
otherwise competent behaviors include:
may engage in some ÷ insensitivity to others
behaviors that make him ÷ inability to be a team
or her ineffective Ȃ player
someone who stifles ÷ arrogance
ideas and drives away ÷ poor conflict management
skills
employees.
÷ inability to meet business
objectives
÷ inability to adapt to
change

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÷ When a manager is an otherwise valuable
employee and is willing to improve, the
organization may try to help him or her change the
dysfunctional behavior:
÷ Assessment
÷ araining
÷ Counseling
÷ Specialized programs include À 
    Ã
  
  À
÷ ahis includes diagnosis, coaching, and support activities
tailored to each managerǯs needs.
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÷ Employee development is the combination of
formal education, job experiences, relationships,
and assessment of personality and abilities to help
employees prepare for the future of their careers.
÷ araining is more focused on improving
performance in the current job, but training
programs may support employee development.

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÷ In modern organizations, the concept of a career is
fluid Ȃ a protean career that changes along with
changes in a personǯs interests, abilities, and values
and changes in the work environment.
÷ ao plan and prepare for a protean career requires
active career management, which includes
planning for employee development.
÷ Assessment can help the organization identify
employees with managerial potential or identify
areas in which teams need to develop.

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÷ Assessment centers combine a variety of methods
to provide assessment information. Managers
must share the assessments, along with
suggestions for improvement.
÷ Job experiences contribute to development
through a combination of relationships, problems,
demands, tasks, and other features of an
employeeǯs jobs.
÷ Organizations can ensure that women and
minority employees receive access to development
resources such as coaches and mentors.

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÷ Effective succession planning includes methods for
selecting high-potential employees, providing
them with developmental experiences, and getting
the CEO actively involved with these employees.
÷ For dysfunctional managers who have the
potential to contribute to the organization, the
organization may offer development targeted at
correcting the areas of dysfunction.

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