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‡ Process of seeking and attracting a pool of people from which
qualified candidates for job vacancies can be chosen
‡ Magnitude of organization¶s recruiting effort and methods to
be used are determined from the human resource planning
process and the requirements of specific jobs
‡ Successful recruiting is difficult if jobs to be filled are vaguely
‡ Organizations have options other than recruiting new
‡ Temporary workers
‡ Offering overtime to existing employees
‡ Subcontracting the work to another organization
‡ Leasing employees
‡ Outsourcing work





‡ Questions that recruitment process addresses

‡ What are sources of qualified personnel?
‡ How are these qualified personnel to be recruited?
‡ Who is to be involved in recruiting process?
‡ What inducements does organization have to
attract qualified personnel?
‡ Personnel requisition form
‡ Describes reason for need to hire a new person
and requirements of the job



‡ Recruiting
‡ The process of generating a pool of qualified
applicants for organizational jobs
‡ Labor Markets
‡ The external supply pool from which
organizations attract their employees


‡ Labor Force Population

‡ All individuals who are available for selection if all
possible recruitment strategies are used.
‡ Applicant Population
‡ A subset of the labor force that is available for
selection using a particular recruiting approach.
‡ Applicant Pool
‡ All persons who are actually evaluated for
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‡ The process of attracting the best qualified individuals to
apply for a given job.
‡ Typical recruitment steps.
‡ Advertisement of a position vacancy.
‡ Preliminary contact with potential job candidates.
‡ Preliminary screening to obtain a pool of candidates.

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‡ External recruitment.

‡ Internal recruitment.

‡ Realistic job previews.




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‡ External recruitment ² candidates are
sought from outside the hiring
‡ Internal recruitment ² candidates are
sought from within the organization
‡ Realistic job previews ² candidates
receive all pertinent information.










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‡ Advantages
‡ Organization has a good idea of strengths and
weaknesses of its employees
‡ Performance evaluations of employees are available
‡ More accurate data are available concerning current
employees, thus reducing chance of making a wrong
‡ Employees know more about organization and how it
‡ Recruitment from within can have a significant, positive
effect on employee motivation and morale when it
creates promotion opportunities or prevents layoffs
‡ Most organizations have a sizable investment in their

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‡ Disadvantages
‡ Intense infighting for promotions can have a negative
effect on morale and performance of employees not
‡ Inbreeding of ideas
‡ Issues involved include
‡ Organization needs a strong employee and
management development program to ensure that its
people can handle larger responsibilities
‡ Desirability of using seniority as basis for promotions
‡ Unions generally prefer promotions based on
seniority for unionized jobs
‡ Many organizations prefer promotions based on
prior performance and potential to do the new job


‡ Method of informing employees of job vacancies by
posting a notice in central locations and giving a specified
period to apply
‡ Other methods used in publicizing jobs include memos
to supervisors and listings in employee publications
‡ Normally the job notice specifies
‡ Job title
‡ Rate of pay
‡ Necessary qualifications


‡ Procedure involves
‡ All applications are sent to HR department for an
initial review
‡ An interview by prospective manager follows
‡ Decision is based on qualifications, performance,
length of service, and other pertinent criteria
‡ In unionized organizations, procedures are usually
spelled out in collective bargaining agreement
‡ Seniority is considered to be one of the primary
determinants since they are concerned about
subjective judgments of managers


‡ Suggestions for development of specific implementation
‡ Both promotions and transfers should be posted
‡ Openings should be posted for specified time period
before external recruitment begins
‡ Eligibility rules for job posting system need to be
developed and communicated
‡ Specific standards for selection should be included in
‡ Job bidders should be required to list their
qualifications and reasons for requesting a transfer or
‡ Unsuccessful bidders should be notified by human
resource department and advised as to why they were
not accepted

‡ Needed in
‡ Rapidly growing organizations
‡ Organizations with a large demand for technical, skilled, or
managerial employees
‡ Advantages
‡ Pool of talent much larger in comparison to internal sources
‡ External hires may bring new insights and perspectives
‡ Often cheaper and easier to hire technical, skilled, or managerial
people from outside than to train and develop internally
‡ Disadvantages
‡ Attracting, contacting, and evaluating potential employees is
more difficult
‡ Employees hired from outside need a longer adjustment or
orientation period
‡ Recruiting from outside may cause morale problems among
current employees
‡ Job advertising
‡ Placement advertisements in daily newspapers,
trade and professional publications, and radio
and television
‡ Ads need to accurately describe job opening and
requirements or qualifications needed to secure
‡ People respond more frequently to ads from
companies with a positive corporate image
‡ If advertising is used as a primary source of
recruitment, planning and evaluating advertising
program should be a primary concern of human
resource personnel
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‡ Employment agencies or Executive search firm
(or headhunter) that recruit
‡ Candidates for high-level and lower ±level
‡ Fees of private employment agencies are paid
by individual or employing organization
‡ If fees are paid by the employing
organization, private employment agency will
likely advertise the job as a ³fee paid´ position
‡ Temporary help ± People working for employment
agencies who are subcontracted out to businesses at an
hourly rate for a period of time specified by the businesses
‡ Organization pays employment agency an agreed-upon
figure for services of temporary help
‡ Advantages
‡ Not dependent on economic conditions
‡ Used to supplement current staff when organization is
‡ If organization is downsizing, they create a flexible staff
that can be laid off easily and recalled when necessary
‡ Disadvantages
‡ Lack of commitment to organization
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‡ Recruiting systems using employees may be
‡ Informal, operate by word-of-mouth or be structured
with definite guidelines to be followed
‡ Incentives and bonuses sometimes given to employees
who refer subsequently hired people
‡ Walk-ins and unsolicited applications
‡ Corporate image has significant impact on number and
quality of people who apply
‡ Factors influencing organization¶s image include
‡ Compensation policies
‡ Working conditions
‡ Relationships with labor
‡ Recruitment activities of employers on college and
university campuses
‡ HR department should take steps to ensure recruiters
‡ Are knowledgeable concerning organization and jobs
to be filled
‡ Understand and use effective interviewing skills
‡ Generally review an applicant¶s résumé before
conducting interview
‡ Cooperative work programs
‡ colleges, universities, technical/vocational schools, and
high schools
‡ Through these programs students may
‡ Work part-time and go to school part-time
‡ Go to school and work at different times of the year
‡ Attract people as they offer an opportunity for both a formal
education and work experience
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‡ Continues to be popular and rapidly growing means of
‡ Disadvantages
‡ Unsuitable job candidates
‡ Poor quality job applications
‡ Advantages
‡ Speed and time
‡ Examples of recruiting on the Internet:
‡ IBM¶s CyberBlue Web site (
‡ Job Options (
‡ Career Builder (
‡ Vault (
‡ (
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‡ Method of providing complete information, both positive and
negative, to job applicant
‡ Providing an honest assessment of the advantage and
disadvantages of a job and organization.
‡ Avoids hiring, training and then losing an employee
because as applicants, they misperceived the job before
agreeing to come to work.
‡ Traditional methods of presenting the organization and the job
to obtain a favorable selection ratio
‡ Sets very high initial job expectations, resulting in
dissatisfaction and high turnover
RJP enables job candidates to self-select out of jobs that do not meet
their expectations
‡ Usually, job applicants recruited using RJP, who accepted the
job, have more job satisfaction






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‡ Organizations need to take steps to identify its
most effective recruitment sources
‡ HR departments could monitor effectiveness
of recent hires in terms of turnover,
absenteeism, and job performance
‡ Might contrast different recruitment sources
with respect to employee effectiveness
‡ May identify which of the specific recruitment
sources produces the best employees


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‡ Most large and middle-size organizations normally
have an employment office within human resource
‡ Employment office consist of recruiters,
interviewers, and clerical personnel
‡ They handle recruitment activities both at the
organization¶s offices and elsewhere
‡ Role of personnel in the employment office is crucial
‡ Walk-ins/write-ins and respondents to advertising
develop an impression through their contacts with
employment office
‡ Having employees trained in effective
communication and interpersonal skills is



‡ When recruiting is done away from

organization¶s offices, role of the recruiter is
equally critical
‡ Job applicants¶ impressions about
organizations are significantly influenced by
knowledge and expertise of recruiter
‡ In small organizations, the recruitment function,
and many other responsibilities, is normally
handled by one person, frequently the office
‡ Line managers in small organizations often
recruit and interview job applicants

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‡ Organizational inducements ± All positive features and
benefits offered by an organization to attract job applicants
‡ Three of the more important organizational inducements:
‡ Organizational compensation systems
‡ Career opportunities
‡ Organizational reputation
‡ Factors influencing number of people attracted through
recruitment process
‡ Starting salaries
‡ Frequency of pay raises
‡ Incentives
‡ Nature of the organization¶s fringe benefits

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‡ Other factors influencing recruitment process
‡ Reputation for providing employees with
career opportunities may result in attracting a
larger pool of qualified candidates
‡ Employee and management development
‡ Assisting present employees in career

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‡ Organization¶s overall reputation, or image,
serves as an inducement to potential employees
‡ Factors that affect an organization¶s reputation:
‡ General treatment of employees
‡ Nature and quality of its products and
‡ Participation in worthwhile social endeavors
‡ Organizations accepting a poor image as ³part of
our industry and business,´ must strive for a
positive image

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‡ Equal opportunity legislation has significantly influenced
recruitment activities
‡ All recruitment procedures for each job category should be
analyzed and reviewed to identify and eliminate
discriminatory barriers
‡ Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
encourages organizations to avoid recruiting primarily
‡ Employee referral
‡ Walk-ins
‡ These practices tend to perpetuate the present
composition of an organization¶s workforce
‡ If minorities and females are not well represented at all
levels of the organization, reliance on such recruitment
procedures is a discriminatory practice

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‡ Suggestions about recruiting practices by EEOC:
‡ Content of help-wanted ads should not indicate any race,
sex, or age preference for the job unless age or sex is a
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
‡ Advertise in media directed toward minorities and women
‡ Advertising should indicate that the organization is an
equal opportunity employer and does not discriminate
‡ Campus recruiting visits should be scheduled at colleges
and universities with large minority and female enrollment
‡ Employers develop and maintain contacts with minority,
female, and community organizations as sources of
‡ Contact nontraditional recruitment sources, such as
organizations that place physically and mentally
handicapped persons
‡ Pay more attention to spouse, male or female, of person
being recruited
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Which predicts«
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‡ Offer: Acceptance Ratio

‡ arguably the most important yield ratio
‡ Yield ratios
‡ A comparison of the number of applicants at one stage of the
recruiting process to the number at the next stage.
‡ Selection rate
‡ The percentage hired from a given group of candidates.
‡ Acceptance Rate
‡ The percent of applicants hired divided by total number of
‡ Success Base Rate
‡ Comparing the percentage rate of past applicants who were good
employees to that of current employees.


‡ A series of steps from initial applicant

screening to final hiring of the new
‡ Selection process.
†Completing application materials.
†Conducting an interview.
†Completing any necessary tests.
†Doing a background investigation.
†Deciding to hire or not to hire.
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‡ Selection tools must be reliable and valid.
‡ Reliability is the degree to which the tool
measures the same thing each time it is used.
‡ Example: scores should be similar for the same
person taking the same test over time.
‡ Validity is the degree to which the test
measures what it is supposed to measure
‡ Example: how well a physical ability test predicts
the job performance of a firefighter.
‡ Eg: keyboarding skills for data entry clerk.

‡ Managers have both an ethical obligation

and a legal duty to develop good
selection tools.
V Completing application materials.
‡ Gathering information regarding an
applicant¶s background and
‡ Typical application materials.
‡ Traditional application forms.
‡ Résumés.
‡ Sometimes tests may be included
with application materials.
V Conducting an interview.

‡ Exchange of information between job

candidate and key members of the
‡ Opportunity for job candidate and
organizational members to learn more
about each other.
V Completing any necessary Tests.
‡ Used to further screen applicants by
gathering additional job-relevant
‡ Common examples of employment tests.
‡ Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical
aptitudes or abilities.
‡ Personality.
‡ Drug use.
‡ Performance.
‡ Assessment centers.
V Doing a background investigation.
‡ Inquiries to previous employers,
academic advisors, coworkers and/or
acquaintances regarding applicant¶s:
‡ Qualifications.
‡ Experience.
‡ Past work records.
‡ Can better inform potential employer.
‡ Can enhance candidate¶s credibility.
V Physical examinations

‡ Ensure applicant¶s physical capability to

fulfill job requirements.
‡ Basis for enrolling applicant in life, health,
and disability insurance programs.
‡ Drug testing is done at this step.
V Deciding to hire or not to hire.
‡ Draws on information produced in
preceding selection steps.
‡ Selection decision should focus on all
aspects of the candidate¶s capacity to
perform the designated job.
‡ A job offer is made.
‡ Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for
some jobs.
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‡ Prior knowledge about an applicant

‡ Attitude of the interviewer
‡ The order of the interview
‡ Negative information
‡ The content of the interview
‡ The validity of the interview
‡ Structured versus unstructured interviews