PRESENTATION ON WELDING

BY RISHIKESH KR. KAUSHIK SEM.-VI 32nd BATCH

A Brief History of Welding
‡ Late 19th Century ‡ Scientists/engineers apply advances in electricity to heat and/or join metals (Le Chatelier, Joule, etc.) ‡ Early 20th Century ‡ Prior to WWI welding was not trusted as a method to join two metals due to crack issues ‡ 1930¶s and 40¶s ‡ Industrial welding gains acceptance and is used extensively in the war effort to build tanks, aircraft, ships, etc. ‡ Modern Welding ‡ the nuclear/space age helps bring welding from an art to a science

INTRODUCTION
‡ A welding is a permanent joint which is obtained by the fusion of the edges of the two parts to be joined together, with or without application of pressure and a filler material. ‡ The heat required for the fusion of material may be obtained by burning of gas or by an electrical arc.

Weldability of a Metal
‡ Metallurgical Capacity
‡ Parent metal will join with the weld metal without formation of deleterious constituents or alloys

‡ Mechanical Soundness
‡ Joint will be free from discontinuities, gas porosity, shrinkage, slag, or cracks

‡ Serviceability
‡ Weld is able to perform under varying conditions or service (e.g., extreme temperatures, corrosive environments, fatigue, high pressures, etc.)

Welding Processes

BROAD CLASSIFICATION
‡ Welding processes that use heat alone e.g., fusion welding ‡ Welding processes that use combination of heat and pressure e.g., forge welding

Types of Welding
Fusion Welding Pressure Welding

Homogeneous Thermit Welding Gas welding High Energy Beam Electric Arc

Heterogeneous

Forge welding

Brazing MIG TIG

Soldering

Shielded Metal Arc ± ³Stick´

Fusion Welding Principles
‡ Base metal is melted ‡ Filler metal may be added ‡ Heat is supplied by various means
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Oxyacetylene gas Electric Arc Plasma Arc Laser

Fusion Welding

ELECTRODE COATING CORE WIRE WELDING ATMOSPHERE ARC STREAM ARC POOL SOLIDIFIED SLAG PENETRATION DEPTH WELD

BASE METAL

Types of Fusion Welding
HOMOGENEOUS ‡ Thermit welding ‡ Gas welding ‡ Electrical arc welding (i) Oxyacetylene Cutting/Welding (ii)Shielded Metal Arc (³Stick´) (iii)Metal Inert Gas (MIG) (iv)Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)

THERMIT WELDING
‡ Mixture of iron oxide and aluminium called thermit is used. ‡ Weld section are molten at same time and weld cools uniformly, so minimum problem with residual stresses. ‡ Used in joining iron and steel parts that are too large to be manufactured in one piece. e.g., rails,stern and rudder frames.

GAS WELDING
‡ Made by applying flame of gases like oxy-acetylene or hydrogen from a welding torch. ‡ A flux is being used to remove slag. ‡ Heating is slow so used on thinner materials.

ELECTRICAL ARC WELDING
‡ Work is prepared in same manner as in case of gas welding. ‡ Filler metal is supplied by metal welding electrode. ‡ An arc is strike by touching work of base metal with the electrode. ‡ Slag is brushed off after joint is cooled. ‡ Extensively used due to greater speed of welding. ‡ Protection of eye and face is reqd.

Oxyacetylene Welding
‡ Flame formed by burning a mix of acetylene (C2H2) and oxygen
TORCH TIP Inner Cone: 5000-6300 deg F 2300 deg F

Combustion Envelope 3800 deg F

‡ Fusion of metal is achieved by passing the inner cone of the flame over the metal ‡ Oxyacetylene can also be used for cutting metals

Shielded Metal Arc (Stick)
‡ An electric arc is generated between a coated electrode and the parent metal ‡ The coated electrode carries the electric current to form the arc, produces a gas to control the atmosphere and provides filler metal for the weld bead ‡ Electric current may be AC or DC. ‡ Used for welding of lighter steel structures and Al-alloys.

Shielded Metal Arc (contd.)
‡ Process:
‡ Intense heat at the arc melts the tip of the electrode ‡ Tiny drops of metal enter the arc stream and are deposited on the parent metal ‡ As molten metal is deposited, a slag forms over the bead which serves as an insulation against air contaminants during cooling ‡ After a weld µpass¶ is allowed to cool, the oxide layer is removed by a chipping hammer and then cleaned with a wire brush before the next pass.

Inert Gas Welding
For materials such as Al or Ti which quickly form oxide layers, a method to place an inert atmosphere around the weld puddle had to be developed

Metal Inert Gas (MIG)
‡ Uses a consumable electrode (filler wire made of the base metal) ‡ Inert gas is typically Argon

CONSUMABLE ELECTRODE

DRIVE WHEELS

POWER SOURCE

SHIELDING GAS

ARC COLUMN

BASE METAL

PUDDLE

‡ As argon is very costly, CO2 is used for shielding gas specially for mild steel ‡ Used in AL-deckhouses, liq. Methane gas tanks.

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG)

‡ Tungsten electrode acts as a cathode which is non consumable ‡ A plasma is produced between the tungsten cathode and the base metal which heats the base metal to its melting point ‡ Filler metal can be added to the weld pool
TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE TUNGSTEN ELECTRODE POWER SOURCE (CATHODE)

++
SHIELDING GAS ARC COLUMN

++

--BASE METAL (ANODE)

BASE METAL

PUDDLE

‡ Plate(generally of Al) of thickness less than 6mm is welded by this process

Types of Fusion Welding
HETEROGENEOUS ‡ Soldering ‡ Brazing

SOLDERING
‡ Produces coalescence of materials by heating them to a suitable temperature. ‡ Uses a filler metal having a liquidus not exceeding 450oC (840oF) and below the solidus of the base materials. ‡ The filler metal is distributed between the closely fitted surfaces of the joint by capillary action.

BRAZING
‡ Same as soldering only difference is that it uses a filler metal, having a liquidus above 450oC and below the solidus of the base materials. ‡ A braze is a very special form of weld, the base metal is theoretically not melted. ‡ Relates to welding processes using brass or bronze filler metal, where the filler metal is not distributed by capillary action.

Weld Metal Protection
‡ During fusion welding, the molten metal in the weld ³puddle´ is susceptible to oxidation ‡ Must protect weld puddle (arc pool) from the atmosphere ‡ Methods
‡ Weld Fluxes ‡ Inert Gases ‡ Vacuum

Weld Fluxes
‡ Typical fluxes
‡ SiO2, TiO2, FeO, Go, Al2O3 ‡ Produces a gaseous shield to prevent contamination ‡ Act as scavengers to reduce oxides ‡ Add alloying elements to the weld ‡ Influence shape of weld bead during solidification

Inert Gases
‡ Argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide ‡ Form a protective envelope around the weld area ‡ Used in
‡ MIG ‡ TIG ‡ Shield Metal Arc

Vacuum
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Produce high-quality welds Used in electron beam welding Nuclear/special metal applications Reduces impurities by a factor of 20 versus other methods ‡ Expensive and time-consuming

Welding Positions
INCREASING DIFFICULTY

FLAT HORIZONTAL

OVERHEAD

VERTICAL

Weld Defects
‡ Undercuts/Overlaps

‡ Grain Growth
‡ A wide (T will exist between base metal and HAZ. Preheating and cooling methods will affect the brittleness of the metal in this region

‡ Blowholes
‡ Are cavities caused by gas entrapment during the solidification of the weld puddle. Prevented by proper weld technique (even temperature and speed)

‡

HAZ is transition between liquid recrystalisation and base (usually cold-worked) metal most shrinkage occurs here, so

Weld Defects(contd.)
‡ Inclusions
‡ Impurities or foreign substances which are forced into the weld puddle during the welding process. Has the same effect as a crack. Prevented by proper technique/cleanliness.

‡ Segregation
‡ Condition where some regions of the metal are enriched with an alloy ingredient and others aren¶t. Can be prevented by proper heat treatment and cooling.

‡ Porosity
‡ The formation of tiny pinholes generated by atmospheric contamination. Prevented by keeping a protective shield over the molten weld puddle.

Residual Stresses
‡ Rapid heating and cooling results in thermal stresses detrimental to joint strength. ‡ Prevention
‡ Edge Preparation/Alignment ± beveled edges and space between components to allow movement ‡ Control of heat input ± skip or intermittent weld technique ‡ Preheating ± reduces expansion/contraction forces (alloys) and removes moisture from the surface ‡ Peening ± help metal stretch as it cools by hitting with a hammer. Use with care since it may work harden the metal ‡ Heat Treatment ± ³soak´ the metal at a high temperature to relieve stresses ‡ Jigs and Fixtures ± prevent distortion by holding metal fixed ‡ Number of Passes ± the fewer the better.

Joint Design

BUTT JOINT FILLET JOINT STRAP JOINT

LAP JOINT

CORNER JOINT

Generalized Welding Symbol

FAR SIDE DETAILS
Weld Geometry

Field weld symbol

Electrode Material

D D

L1-L2 L1-L2

Weld all-around for pipes, etc.

ARROW SIDE DETAILS

D = Weld Depth (usually equal to plate thickness) L1 = Weld Length L2 = Distance between centers for stitched welds

The Field Weld Symbol is a guide for installation. Shipyards normally do not use it, except in modular construction.

Example of Welding Symbol

Geometry symbol for V-groove One-sided welds are max 80% efficient Two sided are 100% efficient
1/2

1/2

1/2´

1/2´

Weld Symbols (Butt Joints)

Backing

Weld Symbol (Fillet Joints)

Weld Symbol (Corner Joints)

WELD TESTING
‡ For economic reasons much of the weld testing in shipbuilding is carried out visually by trained inspectors. ‡ For important welds radiographic equipment is used for spot check in merchant ships. ‡ Welding material undergoes coprehensive tests by classification society before approval. ‡ But for accuracy in the test NDT is used.

ADVANTAGES OF WELDING
FOR SHIPBUILDER  Welding lends itself to the prefabrication techniques.  Easier to obtain water tightness and oil tightness.  Joints produced more quickly.  Less skilled labor is required.

ADVANTAGES OF WELDING(contd.)
FOR SHIPOWNER  Reduced hull steel weight ;so more deadweight.  Less maintenance.  Smoother hull reduced skin friction resistance which reduces fuel costs.

THANK YOU!!!!!

QUESTIONS???

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful