‡ 6400 5800 B.C. Early neolithic monocrom Star evo ‡ 5800 5250 B.C.

Middle Neolithic Star evo painted pottery ‡ 5250 4500 B.C. Late Neolithic Vin a culture

Defining the Vin a
Problems: ‡ Insuficient number of excavated sites ‡ Insuficient number of publicated excavations ‡ Selective publication of excavated material in the past ‡ False methodology of researches ‡ Over-attention devoted to typological analyses ‡ Lack of closely-spaced absolute datas and detailed stratigrafic evidence

The Star evo culture

‡ Two main ceramic styles: coarse ceramics with impressed, incised or barbotine decoration, and fine painted wares

‡ multi-level occupations are rare, settlements are small and temporary

Chronology of Vin a culture
M. Gara anin (1949) Vin a-Tordo I Vin a-Tordo II Gradac phase Vin a-Plo nik I Vin a-Plo nik IIa Vin a-Plo nik IIb V. Miloj i (1950) Vin a A1-2 Vin a B1 Vin a B2 Vin a B2/C Vin a C/D Vin a D1/2

Absolute cronological dates (Bori , 2009) Vin Vin Vin Vin a A: 5400/5300 5200 cal. BC a B: 5200 5000/4950 cal. BC a C: 5000/4950 4850 cal. BC a D: 4850 4650/4600 cal.BC

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Territory
‡ Area of the Vin a culture approximately corresponds with the extension of previous Star evo culture

Pottery
‡ The fundamental Vin a pottery are dark monochrome ceramics - different preparation and the reduced technique of pottery firing controling of temperature and atmosphere technological innovation ‡ Very fine and lustrousblack polishing, red crusted painting and a pattern burnishing ‡ The shape that marks Vin a pottery is byconic vessel ‡ Combination of northern Linearbandkeramik, and southern black burnished elements over a substrate of coarse wares derived from Early Neolithic

The comparison between Star evo and Vin a pottery
spherical shapes rough fracture predominantly red tones and their variants plastic ornament Painting (only on fine pottery) biconical forms fine fracture dark and black tones pattern-burnished ornaments (Politurmuster) incision, puncturing

‡ Late Star evo II-b - new technique of preparing clay using of mica, biconic shapes, linear barbotine- an announcement of the comming Vin a chanelling arnament

‡ General trend during the Balkans middle neolithic: disappearance of the painted and the emergence of black burnished wares

Vin a A

Vin a B 1

Vin a B 2

Vin a C

Vin a D

Oltenian variant

Settlements
‡ Increasing in settlement size ‡ Appearance of multi-layer settlements ‡ There isn t any tell, stratification is more horizontal then vertical ‡ Situated on river terraces, on elevated terrains in plains or on hill slopes certain number of them on the same sites as previous Star evo settlements ‡ During the Vin a Plo nik phase appearance of settlements on the hard accessible tops of the hills

‡ Many Vin a settlements were founded on the same places as previous Star evo sites ‡ But on the most sites with Late Star evo material, Vin a layer belongs to late Vin a, and on sites with early Star evo material, Vin a layer to early Vin a culture ‡ ljivik- Stragari 3 layers (Vin a-Tordo I,II) and all of them containing pottery from final phases of Star evo culture) coexistence?

‡ Dwelings are rectangular in plan, with walls of postholes and wattle covered with a daub, floors of a soil or a coated floor beams ‡ During the existence of Vin a culture, size of houses increases with subdivisions of interiors

‡ But also during the Late Star evo appearance of rectangular houses ‡ Contrary, during the Inital Vin a phase, existence of digouts

‡ Changes in settlement pattern: Setting of houses in parallel rows organization of settlement space

Figural plastic
‡ Found in all parts of settlements, but never in graves ‡ Early Vin a clay figurines follow that of Star evo in development line. Also the same is with so called amulets, 3,4 legged tables...

‡ By the time, evolution of figurines, emphasising of details

‡ Lady of Vin a

Burials
‡ Mortuary practices are the same as in Stra evo culture inhumation in hocker position

‡ Appearance of cemeteries - in Boto and Gomolava intramural, in unocupied part of village

‡ Grave 12 traces of powdered malachite, stone axe, two ceramic vessels, amuleth - a distinctive status marks in comparison to all other individuals buried at this necropolis.

‡ Ritual is Institutionalised the appearance of ritual centres documented by a big number of figurines and bucranium shrines (Parta, Jakovo-Kormadin) For the first time indications of buildings for ritual prurposes

Ore mining and metal processing
‡ Rudna Glava an evidence of the exploitation of ore ‡ final phase represents the earliest signs of the process that would be traditionally called Eneolithic.

‡ Copper beads at Vin a and Gomolava, 4 hoards with copper and stone tools at Plo nik ‡ Vin a house with three metallurgical furnaces ‡ Copper has certainly been used since Gradac phase and throughout the Vin a-Plo nik phase, but any significant changes in culture and life hadn t appear.

Agriculture and animal hearding
‡ In crop cultivation there re no changes comparing to Star evo period, except intensification of agriculture ‡ Exception increasing in the number of cattle consisting about 80% of faunal remains on Vin a

Chipped stone industry
‡ Two main processes: - specialization of production separation of production areas from settlements - Malo Brdo covered in a dense scatter od axe blanks and vaste fakes tool preparation site - progressing standardization of lithic tools - characterized a strong microlithic componentbladalets and flakes ‡ But in sense of tool types, there are not significant changes comparing to STra evo ‡ Using of opsidian in a large amounts

The origins of Vin a culture
Three ways of Balkans neolithic origins: ‡ Endemic development ‡ Acculturation by excanging of ideas or/and commodities ‡ Migration organized colonization or sporadic population movement

Larissa culture

Karanovo IV

A ag p nar
Level 5 5480 5300 cal. BC

Level 4/5 5310 5260 cal. BC

Level 4 5280 5000 cal. BC

Level 3/4 5000 4850 cal BC

Level 3

‡ With the begining of Late Neolithic, important series of internal social, economic and cultural changes, caused by various innovations, transformed the early agriculturists into fully sedentary societies irreversibly commited to a new way of life

The end of Vin a culture
‡ The Vin a culture in its core region was ended violently by the Bodrogkersztur culture at about 3500 B.C. the number of settlements have been destroyed in fire

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