EARLY INDIAN FICTION

Kanthapura . Rajmohan s Wife . Untouchable

S H I S H I R

K U M A R

C H A U D H A R Y - 2 0 0 6 C S 5 0 2 2 2

Texts Referred
‡ Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Rajmohan s Wife ‡ Mulk Raj Anand Untouchable ‡ Raja Rao Kanthapura

Calcutta.Brief History ‡ 1930s is generally seen as the decade when Indian English Novel took off ‡ The early novels were published from a variety of places not only metros like London. Bombay. Bangalore. Bhagalpur. etc but also small places like Calicut. etc .

Brief History ‡ The titles showcased some sort of expectancy or titillations ± A Peep into ± Glimpses of ± Revelations ‡ These seem to promise the unveiling of some mystery the east or India .

Language vs. . the Alps of the European tradition and the Himalayas of my Indian past ‡ English may be the language of our intellectual make-up but not of our emotional make-up. ‡ Need of a dialect as a method of expression much like the Irish or the American English. Identity ‡ Raja Rao One has to convey in a language that is not one s own the spirit that is one s own ‡ Mulk Raj Anand the double burden on my shoulders.

Potential Readership ‡ Authors confusion about their potential readership ‡ The implicit target readers were British ± Texts have ethnographic details or lexical and semantic emphases ‡ Rajmohan s Wife Local Bengali Vegetables called Salad ‡ Rajmohan s Wife / Kanthapura Extended description of typical Indian household / society ± Author Lal Behari Day announces in his Govinda Samanta that there are no taverns for the young peasants to spend their evenings in and that there is no concept of courtship or making love .

Conditions and Issues ‡ Social and political upheavals of nationalism ‡ Social and political issues dominated ‡ Upliftment of women. untouchables and peasants ‡ Rift between Nehruvian and Gandhian ideals .

RAJMOHAN S WIFE .

‡ Arguably the first novel by an Indian in English Language ‡ Appeared as episodes in Indian Field. Brajendra Nath Banerji ‡ Narrative Style Third Person.Introduction ‡ Written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1864. uses Westernized English . Published as a novel in 1935 ‡ Bengali Version Vari-Vahini ‡ First three chapters are translations of this Bengali version by Mr.

Women ‡ The carefully drawn portrait of Mantangini is a unique contribution of the traditional and the radically new ± the heroine is always shown with a companion who serves to highlight the former s beauty ± several of the images used are taken from longstanding literary conventions ‡ Images of women ± timid and weak ± strong and spirited .

hesitant. yet strong-willed and attractive India. but the spirit or personification of modern India itself.An Image of Modern India ‡ No description of the rural or feudal India ± Set up near Calcutta ‡ No exclusive comment on the British Raj ± Benign image of the colonial rule ‡ Mantangini . .not just a character. This is an emergent.

Other Imageries ‡ Rajmohan Lumpenised proletariat under colonialism. alienated from its own people and country ‡ Madhav The sensible. learned and elite class that is concerned for the rise of a modern India ‡ Mathur The elite class that is both corrupt and unscrupulous .

UNTOUCHABLE .

He was involved in Indian Non Co-operation Movement ‡ Considered his finest and most controversial novel ‡ Story A day in the life of an untouchable named Bakha ‡ Conveys with urgency and barely disguised fury what it might feel like to be one of India s untouchables ‡ Confused about the targeted readership uses Pidgin English and explanatory footnotes .Introduction ‡ Written by Mulk Raj Anand in 1935 .

‡ Increasing awareness in the society ± The characters of Havildar Charat Singh and Iqbal Nath Sarshar ‡ Reformist Solutions ± Philosophic resignation ± Conversion to Christianity ± Gandhi vs. afraid of receiving a favor. sequence of contemplation on fields etc. Nehru . self-pity.Main Themes ‡ Atrocities of Untouchability ± Author constructs events to vent out the feelings of the sufferer ± Feelings that follow Why was I even born.

KANTHAPURA .

Introduction ‡ Written by Raja Rao in 1938 ‡ Gandhian Novel It portrays the participation of a small village of South India in the national struggle called for by Gandhi. ‡ A fictional but realistic account of how people in India lived their lives under British rule and how they responded to the ideas and ideals of Indian nationalism .

Narrative Style ‡ Omniscient First Person Narrator An old woman ‡ Rao makes a deliberate attempt to follow the traditional Indian narrative style ‡ Describes at the onset sthala-purana ‡ Use of the English language to make it conform to the local rhythm ‡ Various emotional sequences are expressed by breaking the formal English syntax to suit the sudden changes of mood and sharp contrasts in tone .

Main Features ‡ Village as the microcosm of the nation . etc ‡ Chronicles the formation of a national identity within a village affected by events occuring outside the geographical limits ‡ Underlines the homogenising tendency of nationalism ± Swadeshi congressmen adopt the European model of nation ± Sankaru insists on speaking Hindi even to his mother instead of the local language Kannada ± The Hindi teacher is not from any Hindi speaking region but a Malayali ‡ Any pure form of nationhood untouched by colonialism is seriously questioned .Entrenched with caste hierarchies. religious beliefs.

mythicizing of nationalist figures. etc ‡ When colonialism disrupts narratives of the community. history of Goddess Kenchamma. it introduces history ‡ Importance of colonialization in helping to come out of the mythical mentality and realize the factual truths .Main Features ‡ Tension between Brahmanism and Nationalism and collusion between the former and colonialism ‡ Paradoxical Treatment of the lower castes ‡ Narrative exhibits a non-historic consciousness in the beginning Kanthapura as Sthalapurana.

Conclusion ‡ Indian authors began to write in English to supposedly target the British Readers ‡ Conscious of the National Identity ‡ National and Social Reforms were the driving force behind the literary works ‡ Difficulty of Language .

http://sotosay.com/ ‡ The Allegory of Rajmohan s Wife. Makarand R.wordpress.References ‡ Blog . Paranjape ‡ Wikipedia .

thank you .

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