Oceanography

‡ Greek word- Oceanus+ graphos means description of oceans. It is scientific investigations, exploration and exploitation of seafood, minerals and energy ‡ Oceanography is the scientific study of the ocean. It is not a single science. There is four parts viz. Chemical, biological, physical and geological. Ocean engineering and marine policy is also included

Oceanography
‡ Chemical oceanography is concerned with chemical reactions that occur both in the ocean and on the sea floor ‡ Bio. Ocean. Involves the study of distribution and environmental aspects of life ‡ Physical reactions, such as changes and motion of sea water are comes under physical oceanography

Oceanography
‡ The marine geologist studies the sediments and topography of the ocean floor. The deeper structure and its physical properties are domain of marine geophysicist ‡ The marine engineer is mainly concerned with the development of technology for oceanographic research and exploitation ‡ The marine policy is application of social and political sciences towards the use and management of the ocean

Why study of ocean
‡ Hostile and not readily accessible environment that does not easily yield its secrets ‡ Ocean is source of many commercially valuable chemicals ‡ Record of geological and biological history ‡ Important food

FATHER OF OCEANOGRAPHY
‡Lt Mathew Fontaine Maury is often called the father of oceanography ‡Maury¶s maps of ocean currents, sea surface temperature and surface winds are among his greatest accomplishments

Ocean basin

Ocean basin
‡ Ocean basins can be described as saucer like depressions of the sea bed ‡ They vary in size from relatively minor features of the continental margin to vast structural divisions of the deep ocean ‡ The largest ocean basins are 3 to 5 km deep and stretch from the outer margins of the continents to the mid ocean ridges ‡ Ocean basins cover approximately 71% of the Earth¶s surface or about 361 m km2

Ocean basin
‡ Their depth is 5000 m and the total volume is about 1.35 billion km3 ‡ There are five major sub divisions of the world ocean: the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian, the Southern and the Arctic ocean ‡ The Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian oceans are conventional ocean basins and are bounded by the continental masses or by ocean ridges and currents; they merge below 400 South latitude in Antarctic circumpolar current, or west wind drift, at the Southern ocean

Pacific ocean basin
‡ The pacific ocean basin is bounded on the east by the North and South American continents; on the north by the Bering Strait; on the west by Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia; and on the south by the Southern ocean ‡ It is by far the largest and deepest of the world¶s oceans and contains more than half of its free water

Pacific ocean basin
‡ The pacific is the oldest of the existing ocean basins, its oldest rocks having been dated at about 200 m years ‡ The major features of the basin have been shaped by the phenomenon associated with plate tectonics ‡ The coastal shelf, which extends to depths of about 180 m, is narrow along North and South America, but is relatively wide along Asia and Australia

Pacific ocean basin
‡ The east Pacific rise, a mid ocean ridge, extends from the Gulf of California to a point west of the southern tip of South America, and rises an average of 2130 m above the ocean floor ‡ Along the East Pacific rise, molten rock up wells from earth¶s mantle, adding crust to the plates on each side of the rise. Due to that the ocean plates forced downward, farming deep trenches called subduction zone ‡ The stresses at these areas of subduction are responsible for the earthquakes and volcanoes that the Pacific basin the name µring of fire¶

Atlantic ocean basin
‡ Second largest ocean basin, the most heavily traveled, and the most intensely studied, principally because of its importance in the ship traffic between Europe and North America ‡ Occupies 20% of Earth¶s surface, representing approximately 75 m km2 , this includes its marginal seas; Baltic, Black, Caribbean, Davis strait, Denmark strait, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean sea, North sea, Norwegian sea, and almost all of the Scotia sea

Atlantic ocean basin
‡ The Atlantic is divided into two nominal sections: North Atlantic and South Atlantic ‡ The ocean is essentially an S- shaped northsouth channel, extending from Arctic ocean in the North to Southern ocean in the south ‡ The Atlantic ocean has an average depth of 3926 m, the deepest point is Milwaukee deep in the Puerto Rico Trench (8605 m below surface ‡ It began to form during the Jurassic period, about 150 m years ago

Atlantic ocean basin
‡ Along the American, African and European coasts, there are the continental shelves of the Atlantic basin

Indian ocean basin
‡ It is third largest of the five oceans ‡ Bounded on west by Africa, on North by Asia, on the east by Australia and the Australian islands, and on the south by the Southern ocean ‡ No natural boundary separates the Indian ocean from the Atlantic ocean, but a line about 4020 km long, connecting Cape Agulhas at the southern end of Africa with Antarctica ‡ Total area is 68 m km2, which includes its marginal seas; Adman sea, Arabian sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red sea and Strait of Malacca

Indian ocean basin
‡ The average depth of the basin is about 4210 m, although the Java trench reaches a depth of over 7258 m ‡ The Indian basin is also divided in half by the mid Indian Ocean ridge

Southern ocean basin
‡ It extends from the coast of Antarctica north to 600 South latitude ‡ It is fourth largest ocean of the world ‡ Its area is 20 m km2 and includes Amundsen sea, Bellingshausen sea, Ross sea, Weddell sea

Arctic ocean basin
‡ The smallest of Earth¶s five ocean basin is the Arctic ‡ It extends from the North pole to the shores of Europe, Asia and North America ‡ The surface waters of the Arctic ocean mingle with those of the Pacific ocean through the Bering strait, by way of a narrow and a shallow channel ‡ The total water area is 14 m km2

Arctic ocean basin
‡ Approximately one third of the Arctic ocean is underlain by continental shelf, which includes a broad shelf north of Eurasia and the narrower shelves of North America and Greenland ‡ The average depth of the Arctic ocean is only about 1500 m ‡ The deepest point in the Arctic ocean is 5450 m

Distribution of water and land
‡ Area of earth surface is 510.1 m km2
‡ Land area- 148.8 m km2 (29.2%) ‡ Ocean area- 361.3 m km2 (70.8%)

‡ The world ocean is a continuous water blanket over the earth adjacent to all of the continents and islands and possesses a generally salty structure ‡ In the Northern Hemisphere, the world ocean occupies 61% of the area and in the Southern Hemisphere, 81%

Distribution of water and land
‡ In one hemisphere the land dominated and in one the water is dominated, water will appear to cover more than half of the area (53%) ‡ The oceanic hemisphere takes up about 91% of the area ‡ The land predominates only between latitudes of 450 N and 700 N, and to the south from latitudes 700 to south pole. Water predominates the remaining part of the Globe

Distribution of water and land
‡ The shapes of the shorelines, bottom, relief, systems of oceanic currents, tides, atmospheric circulation and a number of other criteria subdivide the world ocean into Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern ocean ‡ On the surface of the earth, altitudes less than 1000 m and depths from 3000 up to 6000 m are predominate

Distribution of water and land
‡ The water cover of the earth has volume of 1389.5 m km3 and 97.4% of this consists salt water. Of this volume, 96.5% is in the world ocean and 0.9% is in salty underground and lake waters ‡ Freshwater comprises only of 2.6% of the total volume of the hydrosphere ‡ World ocean contain s 1340.7 m km3 of water, making up 1/ 800th of the total volume of the earth ‡ In the process of exchanging water with the atmosphere and continents, world ocean annually produces atmospheric precipitation of about 458000 km3, both rivers and ground water produce 48000 km3 of water ‡ Evaporation from the surface of the ocean produces 506000 km3

Temperature as a physical environmental factor
‡ Temp. is one of the most important factors in an aquatic environment ‡ Radiation from the sun striking the earth¶s surface of virtually all the energy that heats the ocean surface and warms the lower portion of the atmosphere ‡ Part of this incoming solar radiation is within the visible part of the spectrum and provides the energy to the plants on land and in the ocean ‡ After passing into the surface of ocean, most of this energy is converted into heat, either raising water temperature or causing evaporation

Temperature as a physical environmental factor
‡ The spectrum of radiant energy from the sun is filtered once as it passes through the atmosphere and further filtered in the surface ocean ‡ Within first 10 cm of even pure water, virtually all the infrared portion of the spectrum is absorbed and changed into heat ‡ Within the first meter, about 60% of the entering radiation is absorbed, about 80% is absorbed in the first 10 m, only 10% remains at 140 m in clearest subtropical ocean waters

Heat budget in ocean
‡ Less than 20% of the solar radiation reaching Earth is absorbed by atmospheric gases and clouds, 50% is absorbed by earth¶s surface mostly the ocean and 31% is reflected back to the space ‡ The oceans effectively capture a major portion (about 50%) of the sun¶s radiated energy and transfer much of it to the atmosphere as latent heat of vaporization and as radiation

Sources of heat in ocean
‡ Solar energy- it is about 300 watt/m2 ‡ Geologic source
± Heat generated by the radioactive decay of elements within earth (about 0.1 micro watt/ m 2) ± Heat left over from earth¶s formation

‡ Human induced through burning of fossil fuels (3 milli watt/ m2)

Output of heat
‡ The evaporation/ precipitation cycle is an important part of the heat energy released into the atmosphere ‡ About 2/3 is evaporated and 1/3 is radiated

Temperature distribution in ocean
‡ Max. amount of incoming solar radiation is received in low latitudes (the earth receives most of its heat between 400 N & 400 S, where as there is a net loss to space in the high latitudes between 400 & 900 in both the hemispheres ‡ The temperature difference between warmest and coldest month of the year is small < 30C in low latitudes (100 N to 100 S) ‡ When sun is over head only 2% of incoming radiation is reflected

Temperature distribution in ocean
‡ The fall in temperature with increase in depth, results into the increase of density, which gives vital vertical stability to maintain water masses in the ocean ‡ Temperature difference is very limited since there is continuous circulation of the water ‡ Surface water has some effect of atmosphere and reduce with the depth in deep sea temp. constant at 40 C. Deep water temp. is 00 C near Antarctic and 2- 4 0 C towards the equator

Temperature distribution in ocean
‡ The surface water of low latitudes, the temperature is mostly ranging between 26 to 300 C. Surface temperature may become as high as 350 C in the Persian gulf. In some of the tropical lagoons and intertidal rock pools the temperature may rise to even 500 C in summers

Vertical temperature distribution
‡ Not uniform ‡ In middle and low latitudes below the isothermal area, there is strikingly the difference exist between the isothermal water and the deep water ‡ A layer between sudden and max. temp. decrease per unit depth. Change in vertical temp. gradient is known as thermocline

Thermocline

Thermocline
‡ The thermocline (sometimes metalimnion) is a layer within a body of water or air where the temperature changes rapidly with depth ‡ Below this layer however, the temperature drops very rapidly²perhaps as much as 200 C with an additional 150 m of depth ‡ In the ocean 90% of the water is below thermocline (consist of equal density)

Thermocline
‡ Varies with latitude and season. It is permanent in tropics, variable in temperate and weak to nonexistent in polar region ‡ PT formed at depth from 100- 500 m due to equator ward flow of deep coldwater from poles and the pole ward flow of warm water from the surface of equator ‡ Temporary derived mainly due to change in temperature and it is not stable, formed at the depth of 100 to 150 m ‡ Diurnal- formed very near to the surface (about 10 m depth) during day and governed by difference in temp. due to diurnal effect

Density of sea water
‡ Determined primarily by temperature and salinity ‡ Decreases with temperature and increases with salinity ‡ Changing salinity from 19 to 26 ppt at constant temp. (30 0 C) has the same effect as changing the temp. from 31 to 12 0 C at constant salinity (20 pot) ‡ Vertically stratified due to change in salinity ‡ Densest water at bottom ‡ Neutrally stable system when density is same

Density of sea water
‡ In coastal waters, mixing is common because tidal currents and movement of waters ‡ Three general depth zones according to density i.e. surface, pycnocline and deep zone are formed

Process of heating and cooling
‡ Heating (Qs)
± Insolation ± Convection through inner core ± Transformation of kinetic energy ± Heating due to chemical processes ± Convection of atmospheric heat ± Condensation of water vapour

‡ Cooling
± Back radiation (Qb) ± Convection of heat from earth to atmosphere (Qh) ± Heat loss due to evaporation (Qe)

Tolerance to temperature variation
‡ Stenothermal
‡ Tolerate only slight variation of temperature ‡ Internal body temperature fluctuate ‡ Example- marine invertebrates, marine fishes, reptiles

‡ Eurythermal
‡ Tolerate a wide range of temperature ‡ Have temperature regulating mechanism ‡ Example- sea birds, sea mammals,

Marine invertebrates and fishes

Marine mammals and birds

Temperature and distribution of organism
‡ No strict and well defined barriers in the oceans ‡ Controlled by latitudes and depth of water ‡ Surface water has three groups viz. warm (> 18 0C), cold (< 5 0C) and temperate (518 0C) waters ‡ Temperature influence physiological and metabolic processes directly

Salinity
‡ Most characteristic feature of sea. Deals with density and specific gravity of water ‡ Most of the elements occurring on earth, are encountered in oceanic water ‡ About 84 elements are so for known to making sea water but only 6 (Chlorine, sodium, magnesium, sulphate, potassium and calcium) are common ‡ Important compounds are MgCl2, MgBr2, MgSO4, CaCO3, CaSO4, K2SO4 and NaCl

Salinity
‡ The existence of trace elements viz. Co, Ni, Cd etc. are revealed from many marine plants and organisms which are able to concentrate ‡ Sulpher bacteria- sulpher ‡ Radiolarians- silica and strontium ‡ Molluscs- Nickel ‡ Lobsters and mussels- cobalt

Salinity
‡ Algae and sponges- Iodine ‡ Certain sea weeds(Gracilaria and Sargassum)- Aluminium ‡ Jelly fishes- Zn, Tin and Pb ‡ Crustacians and molluscs- copper in haemocyanin ‡ Blood of ascidians and holothuriansvanadium

Salinity
‡ Calcium is needed by molluscs, corals for making their shells ‡ Silica is utilized by diatoms and radiolarians for their glossy cells ‡ Presence can be detected by analysing ash of marine organism

Origin of elements
‡ Majority are introduce through cosmic sources (water is best solvent) ‡ Others are introduced through land drainage ‡ Chemical elements are found to be deposited at the ocean floor through the dead decay of the marine organism and their fresh supply from river drainage

Major chemical constituents of ocean
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Chloride- 19.353 g Sulphate- 2.511 Bicarbonate- 0.142 Trace- 0.181 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Sodium- 10.76 g Magnesium- 1.287 g Calcium- 0.41 g Strontium- 0.0077

Salinity definition
‡ In 1902, there was an establishment of International Commission headed by Fork, Knudson, and Sorenson, to define the salinity ‡ Salinity is an account of water or a measure of dissolved solids in grams in one kg of sea water when all carbonates are oxidized, Bromine and iodine are replaced as chloride and all organic matter completely oxidized

Salinity
‡ Salinity is measured in the form of chlorinity ‡ Chlorinity can be measured by titrating sea water with AgNO3 using potassium chromate as indicator ‡ The empirical relationship between salinity and chlorinity is Salinity (ppt) = 0.03+ (1.805x chlorinity) ‡ Here other halides are ignored

Salinity
‡ The above relationship between salinity and chlorinity is no longer strictly true ‡ For improvement, the International Commission decided to prepare a primary standard of known chlorinity called as normal water and task was given to Hydrographical laboratory, Copenhagen, Denmark ‡ Accordingly 19.4 pot normal water was prepared and a table was prepared by Wood¶s Whole Oceanographic Institution, Masachussats,USA consisting of relation of salinity, chlorinity and normal water

Factors affecting salinity
‡ Evaporation and precipitation are two main factors which affect salinity very much ‡ It vary in fixed rate (does not go a wide fluctuations) ‡ The salinity change due to mixing process resulted due to horizontal and vertical currents ‡ It can be estimated by S= So + K (E- P) ‡ Where S is salinity of surface water, So is salinity change due to mixing process, E is rate of evaporation, P is rate of precipitation and K is constant

Evaporation and precipitation
‡ Total evaporation from earth is 334000 Km3/ yr ‡ Out of which 297000 Km3/ yr is the precipitation received by the ocean directly in a year time ‡ The remaining 37000 Km3/ yr is supplied by land run off. ‡ If any change in this ratio, the salinity change drastically ‡ The average precipitation , falling on the year time is 99000 Km3/ yr out of which 37000 Km3/ yr comes through ocean evaporation and 62000 Km3/ yr is supplied through evaporation of inland resources

Conditions required for evaporation
‡ If oceanic surface is warmer than the overlying air evaporation always take¶s place ‡ The vapour pressure initially remains greater at the sea surface than that in the air ‡ The evaporation greatly facilitated in such conditions because the turbulence of air will developed fully owing to unstable stratification of very lowest layer of atmosphere

Conditions required for evaporation
‡ In such conditions, the heat is transferred from warm surface water to the overlying air till the lowest layer of atmosphere gets laden with moisture equal to the surface water ‡ If the air is much colder, it gets rapidly saturated with water vapour and thus fog or mist is form over the water surface and when wind blows it carried upwards ‡ The evaporation process can be observed more keenly near the coast but not over open ocean because the necessary temperature gradient differences are rapidly eliminated as the distance increases

Conditions required for advection fog
‡ When the sea surface is colder than overlying air, advection fog is formed ‡ Here water vapour is rarely produced and air does not gets saturated with moisture ‡ The direction of heat transfer is reversed here and condensation takes place in such a way that the heat is brought to the surface oceanic water and heat carried away from it ‡ The turbulence in the air is greatly reduced and the heat transfer would stop only when vapour content of lowest layer of atmosphere has reached the value equivalent to heat of vapour pressure at the sea surface

Salinity of different oceans up to the depth of 400- 600 m
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Mid Pacific35.5 ppt Mid Atlantic37.0 ppt North Pacific33.7 ppt North Atlantic35.3 pot Red sea40.0 pot Inshore waters of Bahamas 155.0 ppt and West Indies (due to less depth and its enclosed geographic structure) ‡ Baltic sea 8.0 to 0.0 ppt ‡ Gulf of Bothnia (due to narrow connection with Atlantic ocean and North sea)8.0 to 0.0 ppt

Salinity changes at different latitude and longitude
‡ Salinity varies place to place due to change in average evaporation and precipitation rates at different latitude and longitude ‡ Evaporation changes due to change in solar radiation at different latitudes ‡ Surface water salinity is minimum at equator because the rate the rate of precipitation is more than the evaporation ‡ The surface water salinity is maximum in the world oceans between 20 0 N and 20 0 S because in this part evaporation is more than that of precipitation

Salinity changes at different latitude and longitude
‡ In temperate region, the melting of ice water get stagnated in the basin there by reducing salinity ‡ At higher latitude the average salinity is much lesser ‡ In Indian subcontinent, there is seasonal fluctuation owing to influence of monsoon, evaporation, precipitation and river discharge

Salinity changes at different latitude and longitude
‡ The salinity of Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal is between 36.0 to 36.5 ppt and 33.0 to 34.0 ppt ‡ Arabian sea is connected to most arid seas like Red sea and Parsian Gulf ‡ Bay of Bengal receives river discharge from most of the Indian rivers.

Types of waves
‡ Wind generating waves- formed due to sea surface due to transfer of energy from air to the sea surface and resultant pressure fluctuations create vibration over water surface to form waves during turbulent wind conditions ‡ Internal waves- Indirect effect of atmosphere, formed by bring into interaction of water of different densities and thermal gradients together

Types of waves
‡ Catastrophic waves- in the form of storm surges and tidal currents, atmospheric and cosmic influences are also responsible for creation of such waves

Ocean waves

Wave crest and trough

Waves
‡ Wave length- The horizontal distance between two successive crest or trough (L) ‡ The time required for two successive crests or two successive troughs to pass a fixed point in space is called the period T ‡ Wave height (H) is the vertical distance between crest and succeeding trough

Waves
‡ Steepness is the wave height divided by the wave length (H/L)- when wave steepness exceeds 1/7, wave become unstable and begin to break by raveling of over steepened crests ‡ The angle at the crest must be 1200 or greater for the wave to remain stable

Characteristic of wave
‡ A wave transfers a disturbance from one part of a material to another ‡ The disturbance is propagated through the material without any substantial overall motion of material itself ‡ The disturbance is propagated without any significant distortion of the wave form ‡ The disturbance appears to be propagated with constant speed

Characteristic of wave
‡ When small waves move through deep water, individual bits of water move in circular orbits which are vertical and nearly closed ‡ The water moves forward as crest passes, then vertically, and finally backward as the trough passes ‡ After each wave has passed, the water parcel is found nearly in its original position but there is some slight net movement of the water

Wave forms
‡ All waves are progressive waves ‡ Body waves travel through materials ‡ Surface waves occur at the interface between two bodies of fluid (capillary and gravity waves) ‡ Sine waves- crest and trough tend to be rounded and may be approximated ‡ Trochoid waves- crest is more sharply pointed

Deep water waves
‡ In the deeper water where depth is greater than L/2, water parcel move in nearly stationary circular orbits, are known as deep water waves. The diameter is equal to wave height. It decreases to one- half the wave height at a depth of L/9 and is nearly 0 at the depth of L/2

Formation of waves
‡ Involve two forces- disturbance and still water ‡ Disturbing waves are wind generating waves, tides, tsunamis etc. these are also called as forced waves ‡ Free waves move independently e.g. explosion generated wave

Formation of waves
‡ Once a wave has formed , restoring forces act to restore the equilibrium. ‡ For smallest wave (L 1.7 cm, TP < 0.1 sec.) the dominant restoring force is surface tension ‡ For waves with periods between 1 and 5 min., gravity is the restoring force ‡ The waves whose period is more than 5 min., gravity and coriolis forces are the restoring forces

Formation of waves
‡ Waves transmit energy in two forms- potential and kinetic energy ‡ The total energy in a wave is proportional to the square of the wave height ‡ 2 m high wave has 1200 cal/m2, 4 m has 4800 cal/m2 ‡ Nearly all the wave energy is dissipated as heat when wave strikes the coast

TSUNAMI
‡ These are long wavelength, shallow water progressive waves caused by rapid displacement of ocean water ‡ Displacement is caused by sudden vertical movement of the earth along a fault line, also by landslides, iceberg falling and volcanic eruptions ‡ These are shallow and deep water waves (> ½ of the wavelength) ‡ Speed will be calculated as c= ¥gd ‡ When it reaches shore, its wavelength and velocity decreases, increases wave height while period remain constant

Currents
‡ Large scale water movement occurring in the ocean and carrying the water everywhere in the ocean ‡ Winds and unequal heating and cooling are two forces for causing major currents ‡ It contribute to heat transfer from tropics to poles and from poles to tropic thereby partially equalizing earth surface temperature ‡ Around equator, the surface water carry warm water to the region of higher latitudes of both the hemisphere respectively

Ocean wise warm and cold water currents
‡ North Atlantic
± Warmwater currents
‡ North equatorial current after hitting the gulf of Mexico takes the water eastward as Gulf stream ‡ Some of the water of gulf stream is taken to the higher latitude in Arctic and surplus water return back to equator from Canary currents

± Coldwater currents
‡ From Arctic, the coldwater is brought as Labrador and East green land currents to the lower latitudes

Ocean wise warm and cold water currents
‡ South Atlantic
± Warmwater currents
‡ South equatorial currents bring warm water in Brazil region as Brazil currents ‡ Brazil current brings warm water to Antarctic and water return to the West Africa coast through Bengula currents

± Coldwater currents
‡ From Antarctic region, the Falkland current and West wind drift to lower latitude

Ocean wise warm and cold water currents
‡ North Pacific
± Warm water currents
‡ North Pacific current to higher latitude and surplus water as California current ‡ Through Kuroshio current from Japan region, warm water to higher latitude

± Cold water currents
‡ Oyashio, Sub Arctic and Alaska currents from Arctic to low latitudes

Ocean wise warm and cold water currents
‡ South Pacific
± Warm water currents
‡ South Equatorial currents, Peru currents and East Australian current

± Cold water currents
‡ West wind drift and West Australian currents

‡ Seasonal currents of North Indian region
± During summer the continental Asia is greatly warmed up, the continental air rises and draws air from the ocean towards land

Seasonal currents of North Indian region
‡ The South West monsoon current replaces North Equatorial currents ‡ In winter just reverse takes place. The North Equatorial current reappear and may cause cyclone

Ekman¶s spiral
‡ Current resulting from steady wind blowing across an ocean having unlimited depth and uniform viscosity causing spiral ‡ Created due to rotation of earth from west to east ‡ The surface layer from NH to drift at right angle between 450 to 900 all along the NH ‡ Water at successive depth would drift in directions more to the right until such time that the water would have to face directions opposite to the wind ‡ Speed decreases with depth through out the spiral ‡ The net water transport is 900 to right angle of the wind in NH

CO2
‡ Minor constituent of atmosphere and equilibrium concentration in pure water is small ‡ Derived from the atmosphere, respiration of animals and plants, bacterial decomposition of organic matter, inflowing ground waters which seep into the ponds, lakes and streams and from within the water itself in combination with other substances ‡ Solubility of CO2 is 30 times that of oxygen. It dissolves in water to produce H2CO3 which dissociates into various fractions depending upon the pH ‡ Solubility of CO2 is decreases with increase of temperature
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 00 C- 1.1 mg/l 100 C- 0.76 mg/l 200 C- 0.56 mg/l 300 C- 0.42 mg/l

CO2
‡ Reduction of CO2 by photosynthesis, marl forming organism, agitation of water, evaporation and bubble formation ‡ is not appreciably toxic to fish

Carbon dioxide
‡ At pH 6 to 8, bicarbonate is the most abundant carbon fraction and the rate limiting step from bicarbonate to CO2 is dehydration of the carbonic acid intermediate ‡ When demand for is CO2 high, part of CaCO3 occurs, especially in hard water lakes ‡ Temp. control the CO2 level, other factors are photosynthesis by plants, respiration of all organisms, aeration of the water, presence of other gases and any chemical reaction that may occur

P4 and N2 cycles in ocean
‡ In shallow waters nutrients recycle fairly quickly ‡ Seasonal variation in phosphorus cycle ‡ During winter, when phytoplankton populations are small, dissolved inorganic phosphorus concentrations are as high as 0.002 mg/l or more ‡ In spring, P4 level drop sharply. When nutrient level drop off, organisms die and release nutrients or in some cases a zooplankton bloom results from abundance of plant food and the animals release nutrients during metabolism

P4 and N2 cycles in ocean
‡ Dissolved and particulate organic phosphorus released by phytoplankton and animals is utilized by bacteria and certain heterotrophic phytoplankton ‡ N2 cycle is more slowly because energy is required to fix it in organic form, reduce it, and finally to oxidize it back to N2 ‡ Zooplankton facilitate this process by releasing soluble organic N2 compounds such as urea and NH3 which can be taken up by phytoplankton

Nitrogen
‡ Occurs in combination with other elements such as ammonia, nitrite and nitrate or free form ‡ Vital for all organisms, helps to synthesize complex protein molecules that affect growth and reproduction ‡ They regularly remove complex nitrogen compounds as excreta ‡ On the death, complex nitrogenous compounds decomposed into simpler chemical compounds by bacteria

Nitrogen
‡ There are two forms of nitrogen elemental or uncombined and inorganic/ organic compounds ‡ Elemental nitrogen come from atmosphere ‡ Solubility of nitrogen varies with temperature and super saturation cause gas bubble disease ‡ Inorganic nitrogen present in the form of NH3, NO2 and NO3

Nitrogen
‡ Organic nitrogen constitute about 50% of total. Most of it is composed as amino acid, polypeptides and proteins ‡ Process involve in N2 cycle are nitrification, denitrification and ammonification

Nitrogen cycle

Phosphorus cycle

Silica
‡ Occurs mainly as orthosilicate in an undissociated condition at the normally encountered pH values ‡ Most abundant in sedimentary rocks and therefore, occurs generally in higher concentrations in such regions ‡ Silica is utilized most by diatoms and a major

Silica cycle

TS diagram

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