History of oceanography

‡ The first contribution was made by fishermen, merchants and traders as they explored ocean margins in search of new routes or fishing grounds ‡ Some basic principles of oceanography were understand by ancient scientists ‡ Aristotle, for instance noted in the fourth century B.C. that the sea neither dries up nor overflows; thus the amount of rainfall is equal to evaporation over the earth

History of oceanography
‡ Ptolemy (A. D. 150) developed a scheme of latitude and longitude for charting the known world and made surprisingly accurate maps of the Eastern hemisphere ‡ The Venerable Bede (673- 735) knew that the moon controls the tides ‡ In 15th century, cardinal Nicholas tries to devise a method of calculating the sea¶s depth without using a line. He suggested the rate of rise of a buoyant object in, ³diverse waters´ of known depth.

History of oceanography
‡ During later, the explorers circled the earth and made charts as they went ‡ During seventeenth century scientists as Sir Robert Boyle (1627- 1691) studied ocean temperatures, water pressure, sea salts and the effect of storm waves ‡ Study of oceanic processes were expensive and time consuming, most major advances have been sponsored by Governments or by very wealthy individuals

History of oceanography
‡ The voyages of Vasco da Gama, Colombus, Balboa, Magellan and Captain Cook mapped the major outlines of land and ocean ‡ Sir James Clark Ross (1800- 1862), sailed under his uncle, Sir John Ross and had tried to reach the North Pole. From 1839 to 1843 his ships Erebus and Terror made three separate voyages, circling Antarctica and charting hundreds of miles of its coastal waters (biological specimens were collected from great depths and measured temperature.

History of oceanography
‡ Edward Forbes (1815- 1854) claimed to have proven the absence of life below 600 m and concluded that most of the ocean was azoic ‡ Charles Darwin (1809- 1882) given theories about the origin of species through evolution ‡ Primitive animals on stalks, called crinoids, had recently been discovered by Michael Sars ‡ Royal Society of London and Admirallyprovided an important source of financial support

History of oceanography
‡ Edward Forbes (1815- 1854) claimed to have proven the absence of life below 600 m. He concluded that most of the ocean was azoic or devoid of animal life

World oceans
Oceans Area (m Volume Av. Km2) (m Km3) depth (m) Av. Temp. (0C) Av. Salinity (ppt)

Pacific 180. Atlantic 107 Indian World 74 361

3940 3310 3840 3730

3.36 3.72 3.73 3.52

34.62 34.76 34.90 34.72

Evaporation, precipitation and river inflow for oceans
Oceans Evaporation PPT (cm/yr) River inflow (cm/yr) (cm/yr)

Atlantic Pacific Indian World

124 132 132 126

89 133 117 114

23 07 09 12

Ocean profile

Ocean floor

Ocean floor

Beach profile

Ocean beach

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