AGRICULTURE

INTRODUCTION

Saima Merchant

‡Agriculture is very important for Pakistan. ‡It has played a direct and indirect role in generating economic growth. ‡Pakistan started as an agriculture-based economy in 1947.

THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR PLAYS AN IMPORTANT PART IN PAKISTAN'S ECONOMY BY:

Contributing 20 percent towards GDP. Providing food to about 130 million people. Earning about 60 percent of the country's total export earnings. Providing employment to 47 percent of the total work force. Providing the main source of livelihood for the rural population (which is 70%) of Pakistan. Providing raw materials for many industries and a market for many locally produced industrial products.

Policies
‡ Green Revolution (1960s)
± Water, HYV seeds, fertilizer and pesticide.

‡ ‡

Land Reforms (1959 & 1972)
± Abolition of the Jagir system

Other land reforms
± ± ± Hari Committee,Sindh Punjab Tenancy Act Sindh Tenancy Act

‡

Some to protect the landlords and some to protect the tenants.

Reasons for the decline of Agricultural Activity in Pakistan
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Interest in farming has declined over the years. The landlord system. More money in the industrial sector in large cities. Mechanization/Tractorization-less workers needed.

‡ Not all farmers can afford machines. ‡ Modern Irrigation system is expensive. ‡ Traditional Irrigation systems are slow and cannot reach far. ‡ Acute shortage of water. ‡ Floods.

GDP OF PAKISTAN-Composition By Sector (According to 2009 Statistics)

20.80%

Agriculture

54.90% 24.30%

Industry

Services

LABOR FORCE-Composition By Sector

(According to 2005 Statistics)

36.60%

Agriculture
43.00%

Industry

Services
23.30%

Tehmina Khalid

STRUCTURE OF AGRICULTURE
‡ Agriculture consists of: - Crops - Livestock - Fisheries - Forests

CROPS
‡ Major crops of Pakistan are wheat, rice, mai ze, cotton and sugar cane. ‡ Minor crops are oilseed, onions, mangoes, chillie s and pulses.

LIVESTOCK
‡ Livestock is the second important sector of agriculture. ‡ Products of livestock are Milk, Beef, Mutton, Poultry meat, Eggs, Wool, Skin and Hides. ‡ While other development sector experienced saturation and decline there has been an increase in livestock sector in 2009-10. Gross value addition of livestock at current factor cost has increased from Rs. 1304.6 billion (2008-09) to Rs. 1537.5 billion (2009-10) showing an increase of 17.8 percent as compared to previous year. ‡ Pakistan ranks 7th among milk producing countries, with an estimated 21 billion litres of milk produced annually.

FISHERIES
‡ Fishery plays an important role in the national economy. It provides employment to about 300,000 fishermen directly. ‡ A substantial quantity of fish is consumed locally. Remaining is exported in salted dried, frozen and chilled form. ‡ Fisheries share in GDP although is very little but it adds substantially to the national income through export earnings. ‡ During the year 2008-09, a total of 134,000 m. tons of fish and fishery products were exported earning US$ 236 million. ‡ Fish and fishery products are processed and exported to over 50 countries.

FISHERIES
‡ During the period July-March 2009-10 the total marine and inland fish production was estimated 952,735 M. tons out which 667,762 M. tons was marine production and the remaining catch come from inland waters. ‡ Whereas the Production for the July-March 2008-09 was estimated to be 914,141 M. Tons in which 660,141 M. tons was for marine and the remaining was produced by inland fishery sector. ‡ There is an increase of 1.3 percent in the quantity compared to the last year.

FORESTS
‡ Forests are crucial for the well being of humanity. ‡ They provide foundations of life on earth through ecological functions, by regulating the climate and water resources and by serving as habitats for plants and animals.

FORESTS
‡ TOTAL FOREST COVER (1000 ha) 1Hectacre= 10,000 Square Metres
1990 2527 2000 2116 2005 1902 2010 1687

‡ ANNUAL CHANGE RATE
(Negative number represents deforestation)
YEAR
1000 ha Percent 1990-2000 -41 -1.76 2000-2005 -43 -2.11 2005-2010 -43 -2.37

AGRICULTURAL GROWTH
Year Agriculture % 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2.4 6.5 6.3 4.1 1.0 4.0 2.0 Major Crops % 1.7 17.7 -3.9 7.7 -6.4 7.3 -0.2 Minor Crops % 3.9 1.5 0.4 -1.0 10.9 -1.7 -1.2 Livestock % 2.9 2.3 15.8 2.8 4.2 3.5 4.1 Fishery % 2.0 0.6 20.8 15.4 9.2 2.3 1.4 Forestry % -3.2 -32.4 -1.1 -5.1 -13.0 -3.0 2.2

Source: Federal Bureau of Statistics

CROP SITUATION
MAJOR CROPS: 
Cotton:
Contributes significantly in foreign exchange earning. Accounts for 1.8 percent to GDP

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

The cotton production was 5.0 percent less than the target of 13.36 million bales mainly due to: The shortage of irrigation water. High temperatures in the month of August resulting in excessive fruit shedding. Flare up of sucking pest complexes Widespread of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus (CLCV).

Cotton Production (000 bales)

Grown in Kharif season Provides raw material to sugar 0.8 percent share in GDP. 

Sugarcane:

‡Sugarcane production for the year 2009 10 is estimated at 49.4 million tons, against 50.0 million tons last year. ‡This indicates a decline of 1.3 percent over the production of last year. Main factors contributing for lesser production are: -Maximum area under wheat crop during 2008 09 restricted the sugarcane acreage - Shortage of canal water - Load shedding of electricity - Realization of lower prices in the preceding season - High rate of inputs also discouraged the farmers to grow more sugarcane crop.

Sugarcane Production (000 Tons)

n essential cash crop One of the main export items Accounts for 1.4 percent in GDP. 

Rice: A

‡Area sown for rice is estimated at 2883 thousand hectares, 2.7percent less than last year. ‡The size of the crop is estimated at 6883 thousand tons 1.0 percent less than last year. ‡In Punjab sugarcane area was also shifted to rice crop, as the growers were discouraged due to non payment of their dues in time by the sugar mills.

Rice Production (000 Tons)

Leading food grain Staple diet of the people Contributes 3.1 percent to GDP  Area and production target of wheat for the year 2009 10 had been set at 9045 thousand hectares and 25 million tons, respectively. 
Wheat was cultivated on an area of 9042 thousand hectares, showing a decrease of 0.04 percent over last year·s area of 9046 thousand hectares.  The impact of water shortages (availability at farm gate) and lower rainfall during the sowing period has been the main reason for lesser acreage under wheat crop. 

Wheat:

Wheat Production (000 Tons)

MINOR CROPS 
Oilseeds
Includes cottonseed, rapeseed/mustard, sunflower and canola etc Local production of edible oil stood at 684 thousand tons during 2008-09, which is 24 percent of the total availability in the country. While the remaining 76 percent was made available through imports. During 2009-10 (July-March) 1.246 million tons edible oil which amounted to Rs. 77.78 billions has been imported.

Other Minor Crops: 
MASOOR ONOIN POTATO
The production of masoor, onion and potato increased by 1.4%, 9.0% and 15.9% respectively Timely rain supplemented to some extent for increasing production of masoor, onion and potato. However, the production of mung, mash and chillies decreased by 24.6%, 20.6 % and 0.5% respectively. The decreased in these crops is mainly due to reduction of area under such crops as the area of mung, mash and chillies decreased by 16.6 %, 12.7 % and 22.2 % respectively.

2010 Pakistan floods
‡ Duration: 26 July 2010-Present ‡ Damages: $43 billion (estimated) ‡ Fatalities: 1,781+] ‡ Areas affected: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan and Gilgit-Baltistan

How we Technically manage Flood in Pakistan?

Advance preparation:
‡ Construction of temporary flood protection works. ‡

Placing emergency response teams on high alert.

‡ Distribution of critical materials such as stockpiled sandbags to targeted locations. ‡ Preparation of emergency shelters and hospitals prepared for occupation. ‡ The population at risk can be informed of what is expected of them in the actuality of an extreme event. As the event becomes more certain, actions such as evacuation of people, goods and machinery can begin. ‡ Media and public information sessions help set the stage as well.

HOW CAN WE IMPROVE THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN?

‡ Feudalism should be abolished and lands should be allotted to poor farmers.

Solutions For Agricultural Problems In Pakistan:

‡ Taxes should be levied on Agricultural income but not without devising limit of land holding ‡ A new Agricultural policy must be framed in which following steps should be focussed on:

- Small farmer must be focused. The major problems of small farmers should be solved first. - Consumer friendly policy must be projected. - Productivity enhancement programme must be constituted to adjust and support prices. - Different Agricultural zones should be introduced.
‡

More dams should be constructed on Indus, Jehlum and Chenab rivers.

Livestock!!

THE LIVESTOCK RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT18(1)2006

THE LIVESTOCK RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT18(1)2006

THE LIVESTOCK RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT18(1)2006

Livestock in National Economy
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

{Economic Survey (2006Economic Survey (2006--07)} Agriculture in Pak GDP ‡ 22%
Livestock in Pak GDP Share in agri GDP Livestock in export Dependent Population Growth Rate in 1990s Growth Rate 2000-07 ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 10.4% 49.1% 8.5% > 6.5m families 4.5% 3.2%

LIVESTOCK PRODUCTS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Milk Beef Mutton Poultry meat Eggs Wool Hair Skins and hides ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 33.230 million tons 1.237 million tons 0.827 million tons 0.514 million tons 9.618 billions 41.2 thousand tons 25.0 thousand tons 57.6 million nos

CHALLENGES FACED BY LIVESTOCK IN PAKISTAN
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Poor genetic & reproductive efficiency. Epidemics of infectious diseases. Lack of organized marketing. Small holders¶ production system. Unavailability of credit to the livestock farmers (11% of agricultural credit). Shortage (by 30%) of feed resources in quantity and quality.

Livestock losses compound Pakistan's misery
‡ Flood 2010 According to the U.N. agricultural agency: flooding has killed at least 200,000 livestock!!

ACCORDING TO THE LIVESTOCK RESEARCH FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT18(1)2006

Initiatives taken by the government to promote this Industry:
‡ ‡ ‡ Duty free import of agro based machinery etc. Provision of veterinary health coverage by livestock dept. Establishment of beef and mutton fattening farms , slaughter houses in private sector. Milk collection ,Processing and Dairy Production Development Programs (LDDB -15%financial assistance). National Poultry and Fisheries Development Policy. EU GOP Strengthening of Livestock Services in GOP Strengthening of Livestock Services in Pakistan (RP , PPR , Training of VETS, VET Asst , livestock farmers and women)

‡

‡ ‡

Measures to Improve the Rural Livestock Production should include the following: 

Improving the genetic potential of indigenous livestock through selection, crossbreeding.  Quality of poor fodders and straws can be improved with treatment of urea and molasses. The urea is cheap source of nitrogen while molasses provides ample energy to the ruminants.  Good, economical, efficient and flexible housing plans be developed through animal production experts or any other viable and sustainable sources.  Enforcement of vaccination schedules beside proper and timely veterinary cover.

‡ Control of ecto- and endo-parasites through proper dipping and drenching. Response of proper feeding and improved nutritional management is much lower if animals are infested with the parasites. ‡ Improvement of breed potential and good management will increase conception rate, growth rate, milk yield and decrease calving interval.

‡ Price stability in livestock production is a must for avoiding great seasonal fluctuations. Implementation of sound policies can bring the livestock economy to a great certainty. ‡ Preservation of surplus milk in winter by converting it into powder and saving enormous amount of foreign exchange being spent on the import of dry milk.

‡ Replacing draught animals to beef route through fattening and finishing programs. Also the encouragement of feedlot system for cattle, male buffalo calves, sheep, goats and other culled animals.

‡ Meat grading, preservation and suitable marketing are required. Proper pricing system is also the need of the hour.

‡ Encouragement of commercial producers by providing incentives and services.

‡ Proper manure handling, its preservation, timely application for increasing soil fertility and keeping pollution under control.

MARIUM AHMED
9243

PROBLEMS OF FISHING
‡ Water Pollution ‡ Over-Fishing ‡ Threat to mangroves

SOLUTIONS
‡ System of waste disposal ‡ Strict measures in breeding season

PROBLEMS OF FORESTRY
Deforestation causes: ‡ Growing population ‡ Industrialization and urbanization ‡ Demand for wood ‡ For heating and cooking purposes ‡ Overgrazing

SOLUTIONS TO THE PROBLEMS OF DEFORESTATION
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Growing trees Creating awareness Supply of natural gas in the hilly areas Improving techniques of planting Ensuring that logging companies use only selective cutting methods.

AFFORESTATION PROJECTS
‡ The selection of areas to be afforested ‡ The management of plantations ‡ The development of ways of using forest products.

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