Paramecium

Dyastri Intan Pratiwi Kelas X.6 Remedial Biologi Bab Protista

What Is Paramecium?
A paramecium is a small one celled (unicellular) living organism that can move, digest food, and reproduce. They belong to the kingdom of Protista, which is a group (family) of similar living microorganisms. Micro-organism means they are a very small living cell. You might be able to see one as a tiny moving speck if your eyesight is extremely good but for any detail at all you need a microscope to look at and study them. They are about .02 inches long (.5mm). 

Paramecium, like all protist, are single-celled organisms. Cells are the building blocks for all life forms. "Single-celled" means that a paramecium has only one cell for its entire body. Most plants and animals have more cells than you can count.  The inside of a paramecium is a jelly-like fluid called protoplasm. Bits of food and other materials

Movement 
The outer surface of the cell is covered with many hundreds of tiny hair-like structures called cilia. These act like microscopic oars to push through the water, enabling the organism to swim. The speed of motion is about four times its own length per second. It moves so quickly that microscopists have to add a thickening agent to the water to slow it down to study it.  As it moves through the water it rotates on its axis and small particles of debris and food are collected and swept into the gullet. If Paramecium comes across an obstacle, it

Paramecium Structure 
Pellicle - a membrane covering that protects the paramecium like skin  Cilia - hair like appendages that help the paramecium move food into the oral groove  Oral Groove - collects and directs food into the cell mouth  Cell Mouth - opening for food  Contractile Vacuole - contracts and forces extra water out of the cell  Anal Pore - disposes of waste  Radiating Canals - paths to the contractile vacuole  Cytoplasm - intercellular fluid needed to contain vital cell parts  Trichocyst - used for defense  Gullet - forms food vacuoles  Food Vacuole - storage pocket for food  Macronucleus - larger nucleus which performs normal cell functions  Micronucleus - smaller nucleus which is responsible for cell division.

How¶s Paramecium Reproduce?
Paramecium are capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the most common, and this is accomplished by the organism dividing transversely. The macronucleus elongates and splits. Under ideal conditions, Paramecium can reproduce asexually two or three times a day. Normally, Paramecium only reproduce sexually under stressful conditions. This occurs via gamete agglutination and fusion. Two Paramecium join together and their respective micronuclei undergo meiosis. Three of the resulting nuceli disintegrate, the fourth undergoes mitosis. Daughter nuclei fuse and

This picture show how Paramecium reproduce with conjugate

WHAT IS THE DETAILED PARAMECIUM TAXONOMY?
Super Kingdom Eukaryotae Kingdom Animalia Phylum Ciliophora Class Ciliatea Subclass Rhabdophorina Order Hymenostomatida Suborder Peniculina Family Parameciidae Genus Paramecium Species aurelia, bursaria, caudatum ...

Reference 
Volume 1 of "Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms" by Sybil P. Parker, ©1982, McGraw Hill.  http://101science.com/paramecium.htm  http://www.microscopyuk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopyuk.org.uk/mag/articles/param1.html  http://www.ardianrisqi.com/2009/12/ciri-ciriparamecium.html

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