(Sorghum bicolor) Gramineae Andropogoneae

3 Mha.poison livestock .Introduction ‡ Major cereal crop of rain fed agriculture in semi arid tropics ‡ Grown on heavier soils ‡ Crop occupy much area ‡ Estimated world area of sorghum in 1972 was 40Mha ‡ In India developing countries 33Mha ‡ Straw is used for livestock and feed and for cooking provide base ‡ HCN contents may produced in foliage .

in flora of tropical Africa separated sorghastrae as one of 16th tribe of Andropogoneae ‡ Sub tribe contains main genera sorghum.sorghastrum.Cytotaxonomic background ‡ Stapf.chaeto sorghum and hetro sorghum .para-sorghum.cleistachne ‡ Basic chromosome number x=5 ‡ Genera sorghum are sections ‡ Sorghum.

arundinaceum ‡ Distinctly different diploid population in southeast Asia.propinquum.indonesia and philippines.are fully fertile.propinquum .arundinaceum x S.has polymorphic diploid population (2n=2x=20) ‡ Found in tropical Africa S.propinquum ‡ Hybrid of S.S.halepense is auto or allo tetrapolid because cross produced by S.‡ Sorghum sections .arundinaceum x S.halepense tetrapolid spp occurs (2n=4x=40) ‡ Present populations are are probably sufficiently different in morphological characters ‡ Distributions considered as distinct spp ‡ Spp occupies continuous area from southern and eastern India through Pakistan and Afghanistan across Asia minor to Levant and Mediterranean ‡ One form is known as johnson grass ‡ controversy as to whether S.S.

halepense occurs .para-sorghum.‡ Very fertile forms of S.their fertility being due to low frequency of quadrivalents .x=5 ‡ Crop plants derived from wild types which cross pollinated freely ‡ Diverged by process of disruptive selection ‡ Man was selecting for the cultivated ‡ Natural selection favored wild types ‡ Disruptive selection has major influence in development of sorghum crop .chaeto sorghum as wel as of hetro sorghum and cleistachne ‡ A natural cross between diploid sorghum and S.trivalent and univalent's ‡ Distributions of Sorghum overlaps .halepense in Argentina gave rise to columbus grass ‡ Diploid chromosome number of sorghum is 20.assumed to be tetrapoid spp ‡ Since the sorghastrae is .

non center across Africa ‡ Main variation lies in eastern central Africa ‡ Diversity of both wild and cultivated sorghum in this region is widespread rather than localized in mountains ‡ Harlan noted lack of botanical diversity in ethopian cultivated forms ‡ Many of which belongs to durra ‡ Most highly developed of cultivated races or to durra bicolor intermediate type .Early history ‡ No established facts related to history of crop but one can infer probable sequence of events ‡ No doubt about sorghum presence in Africa ‡ By nuclear mande it developed in Ethiopia and surrounding countries or again long belt .

who originated in cameroons.worked with southern edge of Congo forests with aid of malaysian food plants principally coco yams and bananas .teff and sorghum ‡ Date of origin can only be guessed at around 3000 to 4000 B.sahara being much better watered 5000 years ago ‡ Guinea race was diversified in west Africa and durra in Ethiopia ±Sudan area ‡ Meanwhile .bantu people .including finger millet.‡ Certainly there is much diversity of head and grain type and there is probable that excellence of these durra's resulting from exclusion from others forms ‡ Probably agriculture was brought to Ethiopia from middle east centre of crop development by Caucasoid origin ‡ Cushiest developed range of crops . ‡ Developing crop was carried across north Africa to west Africa.C.

but moved along coast must have occurred at an early date ‡ Spread along coast of southeast Asia ‡ Grain sorghum first went to America from west Africa with slave trade . provide base for rapid expansion into dry savanna country to south ‡ Where race of kafir can be associated with nilotic and nilo hamatic people in youganda and western Kenya ‡ Development of main cultivated races is associated with wild varieties of sorghum ‡ Outside Africa crop was not in contact with wild diploid forms until it reaches south east Asia ‡ Sorghum most probably shifted to India from east africa.‡ At eastern end of forest belt sorghum came in contact with them.initiakky overland.

milo about 1880.feterita in 1906 and hegira in 1908 ‡ Kafirs were introduced from south Africa about 1876 ‡ Crop spread into central and south America and high altitude types are becoming increasingly popular in parts of Mexico .‡ Brown and white durra's were introduced from north Africa about 1874.

milo.feterita x Milo and from 3 way crosses involving hegira were released as varieties in 1920 .Recent history ‡ Sorghum improvement was pioneered in USA ‡ Crop used as stock feed their ‡ Series of mutants affecting both height and length of maturity selected by farmers and adaptations ‡ Giant Milo had given rise to standard Milo by 1906 and many parts of USA.milo maize are still names of sorghum ‡ Early Milo was grown in 1911 ‡ Double dwarf Milo yellow appeared in 1918 ‡ Milo belongs to durra race ‡ Kafir and Milo cross result in improvement of sorghum ‡ Segregates from kafir x Milo .

proven productive for wide range of conditions .such as NK 300 .‡ Hybrid vigor was recognized in certain early in certain crosses but years of work require before cytoplasmic male sterility suitable for commercial production of hybrid ‡ Elsewhere outside developing world.sorghum improvements in led to production of good combine hybrids ‡ Occasional hybrids from USA .

Prospects ‡ Greater attention is being given in USA to grain quality ‡ Partly at improving grain quality ‡ Establishment of international crops research institute for semi arid tropics ‡ No restrictions on height imposed by mechanical harvesting ‡ Hybrids show valuable ability to perform well ‡ Genetic male sterility have made possible recurrent selection ‡ Population pressure in semi arid tropics will require development of sorghum to greatest possible extent .

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