WBC Differential

By Jillian Giguere

How Is It Used?
‡ assesses the ability of the body to respond to and eliminate infection ‡ detects the severity of allergic and drug reactions ‡ detects response to parasitic and other types of infection. ‡ used in evaluating the reaction to viral infections and response to chemotherapy ‡ used to identify various stages of leukemia ‡ assess platelet numbers and RBC morphology

When is it ordered?
‡ Run as part of the CBC

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Differential Count ‡ Examination of the leukocytes and classification of cells into different types ‡ Used to diagnose and monitor the treatment of leukemias. and other diseases ‡ Record how many of each of the five types of WBCs seen . anemias.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Neutrophils----------.60% Lymphocytes--------25% Monocytes------------11% Eosophils--------------3% Basophils--------------1 % Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas . the normal or reference ranges are approx.‡ Normally we count 100 WBC's.

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4 x 109/L FUNCTION ‡ defense against bacterial infections by phagocytizing the pathogens and killing them .APPEARANCE ‡ circular ‡ light-grey to pink cytoplasm ‡ diameter: ~14µm ‡ granules are very fine and range in color from reddish-violet to brown ‡ nucleus is bent and oblong partly with constrictions which have not yet resulted in filament NORMAL RANGE ‡ Between 1.6 and 7.

it is a segmented neutrophil (The rule of one third). .Rule of 1/3 ‡ Neutrophilic granulocytes can be subdivided by means of their nuclear structure into band neutrophils and segmented neutrophils. ‡ if thickness is equal to 1/3 all along it's a band ‡ as soon as the diameter of the nucleus at any given place is less than 1/3 that of its widest point.

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5 x 109/L. This condition can be life threatening since it can lead to severe infections.4 x 109/L ‡ neutrophilia ‡ neutropenia ‡ under 0. severe neutropenia is present.6 and 7. .Clinical Significance The neutrophil count usually is between 1.

4 x 109/L FUNCTION ‡ role is not completely clear ‡ play an important role in allergic diseases. as well as in parasitic infections ‡ capable of phagocytosis and migration .APPEARANCE ‡ round ‡ slightly larger than neutrophil granulocytes ‡ diameter: 16 µm ‡ granules are coarse.02 and 0. bright red to honeyyellow and very densely packed ‡nucleus is usually bilobed NORMAL RANGE ‡Rarely found in blood film ‡Between 0.

Clinical Significance The eosinophil count usually is between 0.4 x 109/L ‡ eosinophilia ‡ eosinopenia .02 and 0.

dark violet.15 x 109/L FUNCTION ‡Play an important role in hypersensitivity reaction ‡ Able to leave the bloodstream and to emigrate to the surrounding tissue .APPEARANCE ‡diameter: 10 to 14µm ±smaller than the other granulocytes ‡ granules are coarse. tightly packed and extensively overlay the nucleus and cytoplasm NORMAL RANGE ‡Rarely found in blood film ‡Between 0 to 0.

Clinical Significance The basophil count usually is between 0 and 0.15 x 109/L ‡ basophilia .

they are referred to as macrophages ‡ important role in acute and chronic infection ‡ actively phagocytize and are important components of cell-mediated immunity . NORMAL RANGE ‡Between 0.2 to 1.APPEARANCE ‡diameter: 10 to 20µm ±are largest cells in the peripheral blood ‡ Form is diverse ‡ Cytoplasm is bluish gray ‡ Fine azure granules and vacuoles are often present ‡ Nucleus can be bean-shaped or lobulated ‡ Chromatin is medium fine.0 x 109/L FUNCTION ‡ have a distinct migration ability ‡ When they have emigrated to the tissue.

0 x 109/L ‡ ‡ monocytosis monocytopenia .Clinical Significance The monocytes count usually is between 0.2 and 1.

0 and 3.APPEARANCE ‡ round to oval nucleus ‡ approximately the size of erythrocytes ‡ cytoplasm is grey-blue ‡ cell size varies between 9 and 20µm ‡ large and small lymphocytes are distinguished by the volume of cytoplasm ‡ difference in size is an expression of different states of activation NORMAL RANGE ‡Between 1.5 x 109/L ‡Second most frequent leukocyte in the blood film after neutrophilic granulocytes FUNCTION ‡ participate in cellular and humoral defense against infection .

‡ have large volume of cytoplasm with clear azure granules ‡ constitute 5-10% of all lymphocytes ‡ correspond to either a subpopulation of T-cells or natural killer cells .

5 x 109/L ‡ ‡ lymphocytosis lymphopenia .Clinical Significance The lymphocytes count usually is between 1.0 and 3.

1 x 109/L ‡Rarely found in the blood film FUNCTION ‡ produce antibodies for defense against infection . they are larger than lymphocytes ‡ features include an eccentric nuclei and perinuclear halo NORMAL RANGE ‡Between 0 and 0.APPEARANCE ‡ rarely found in peripheral blood ‡ diameter: 15 to 20µm.

1 x 109/L ‡ plasmacytosis .Clinical Significance The plasma cell count usually is between 0 and 0.

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http://www.getbodysmart.html .com/ap2/circulatorysystem/blood/wbcs/wbcdifferential/tutorial.

Prepare blood smear on slide. 4. Dip slide in stain for 10 seconds. Dip slide in distilled water (pH 6-7) for 20 seconds (or more for darker staining). Air dry. 3. 2. .1.

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1 2 3 4 5 6 10 11 7 8 9 .

12 13 14 15 16 17 .

basophil . eosinophil 9. eosinophil 4. neutrophil 13. band (immature) neutrophil 3. monocyte 7. monocyte 14.1. small lymphocyte 11. neutrophil 8. eosinophil 15. monocyte 16. segmented (mature) neutrophil 2. basophil 5. eosinophil 17. basophil 10. lymphocyte 6. large lymphocytes 12.

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