Essential Introduction to Computers

Business Computer Applications Filer High School

Objectives
Define the term computer and discuss the four basic computer operations: input, processing, output, and storage. Define data and information Explain the principal components of the computer and their use Describe the use and handling of floppy disks and hard disks Discuss computer software and explain the difference between system software and application software.

Objectives (cont·d)
Identify several types of personal computer application software. Discuss computer communications channels and equipment and the Internet and World Wide Web. Explain how to purchase, install, and maintain a personal computer, a notebook computer, and a handheld computer. Define e-commerce.

Terminology
computer information processing cycle data information computer users, end users, or users computer program or software input devices mouse central processing unit memory output devices monitor storage devices formatting hard disk compact disc systems software application software network Internet World Wide Web URL electronic commerce

Computer
Essential question: What is a computer? A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory unit, that can accept data (input), manipulate the data according to specified rules (process), produce information (output) from the processing, and store the results for future use. Generally, the term is used to describe a collection of devices that function together as a system.

output.input.Information Processing Cycle Essential question: What does a computer do? Computers can perform four general operations that make up the Information Processing Cycle . and storage. process. .

such as numbers. given to a computer during the input operation. figures. images. . words. and symbols.Data All computer processing requires data ± a collection of raw facts. video. and sounds.

. and useful.Information Information is data that is organized. meaningful.

or sometimes. just users. end users. .Computer Users/End Users/Users People who use the computer directly or use the information it provides are called computer users.

it must be given a detailed set of instructions that tells it exactly what to do. . These instructions are called a computer program.Computer Program or Software sse tial uestio : is a computer so powerful For a computer to perform operations. or software.

Computer Components Essential question: What are the components of a computer? .

Input Devices An input device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data. programs. and user responses into a computer. . commands.

Mouse Essential question: What is the difference between a mechanical mouse and an optical mouse? .

Central Processing Unit The central processing unit (CPU) contains the electronic circuits that cause processing to occur. The control unit interprets the instructions. the CPU is designed into a chip called a processor. High-end processors contain 42 million transistors and are capable of performing some operations 10 million times in a tenth of a second. The arithmetic/logic unit performs the logical and arithmetic processes. . or in the time it takes to blink your eye. The CPU is made up of the control unit and arithmetic/logic unit. On personal computers.

. consists of electronic components that store data including numbers.Memory Memory. or RAM. One megabyte can hold approximately 500 pages of text information. and sound. Therefore. a computer with 96 MB or memory can store approximately 96 million characters. also called random access memory.000 memory locations and one megabyte (M or MB) equals approximately one million memory locations. A memory location. usually stores one character. letters of the alphabet. or byte. Any data to be processed must be stored in memory. graphics. The amount of memory in computers typically is measured in kilobytes or megabytes. One kilobyte (K or KB) equals approximately 1.

form characters by means other than striking a ribbon against paper. (Example: dot matrix printer) ‡ Nonimpact printers. such as ink-jet printers and laser printers. ± Printers used with computers can be either impact printers or nonimpact printers. . ‡ An impact printer prints by striking an inked ribbon against the paper.Output Devices Output devices make the information resulting from processing available for use.

Laser Printer .

Computer Screens .

are used to store instructions and data when they are not being used in memory. Two types of auxiliary storage more often used on personal computers are floppy disks and hard disks. . also called auxiliary storage devices or secondary storage devices.Storage Devices Storage devices. Compact discs also are common.

The disk¶s storage locations then are divided into pie-shaped sections. which break the tracks into small arcs called sectors. The time required to access and retrieve data is called the access time. CD. ± A track is a narrow recording band that forms a full circle on the surface of the disk. ± A sector is capable of holding 512 bytes of data. A typical floppy disk stores data on both sides and has 80 tracks on each side of the recording surface with 18 sectors per track.Fomatting Essential question: How do you format a disk? Formatting is the process of preparing a disk (floppy disk. or hard disk) for reading and writing by organizing the disk into storage locations called tracks and sectors. .

the data is recorded on hard disks on a series of tracks. most disks cannot be removed from the computer. A hard disk consists of one or more rigid metal platters coated with a metal oxide material that allows data to be recorded magnetically on the surface of the platters. The hard disk in a desktop computer normally resides permanently inside the system unit²it is not portable. The tracks are divided into sectors hen the disk is formatted. Although hard disks are available in removable cartridge form. . As with floppy disks.Hard Disk Another form of auxiliary storage is a hard disk.

It can contain audio. metal storage medium that usually is 4. or compact disc read-only memory.75 inches in diameter and less than 1/20 of an inch thick. ± A DVD-ROM (digital video disc-ROM) is a very high capacity compact disc capable of storing from 4. round. graphics. ± A CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable) is a erasable disc you can write on multiple times. also called an optical disc. graphics. and audio. is a flat. . and video (Read-only) ± A CD-R (compact disc-recordable) is a multisession compact disc onto which you can record your own items such as text. text.7 GB to 17GB²more than enough to hold a telephone book containing every resident in the united states. ± A CD-ROM. portable.. is a compact disc that uses the same laser technology as audio CDs for recording music.Compact Disc A compact disc (CD).

Software can be categorized into two types: ± system software ± applications software .Computer Software Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. With the correct software. a computer can become a valuable too.

and executing an application program and how to transfer data. most computers use an operating system that has a graphical user interface (GUI) that provides visual cues such as icon symbols to help the user. ± Instructions in the operating system tell the computer how to perform the functions of loading. . ± Today. This process is called booting. ± When a computer is turned on. the operating system is loaded into the computer¶s memory from auxiliary storage.Systems Software System software consists of a program to control the operations of computer equipment. storing.

and update data in an organized and efficient manner. ± Presentation graphics software allows the user to create documents called slides to be used in making presentations. . ± Database software allows the user to enter. and print documents. format. and perform user-defined calculations on rows and columns of numbers. retrieve. edit. subtract. ± Word processing software is used to create.Application Software Application software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. ± Electronic spreadsheet software allows the user to add.

Network A network is a collection of computers and devices connected via communications media and devices such as cables. telephone lines. ± A network that covers a large geographical area. or group of buildings. modems. such as one that connects the district offices or a national corporation. is called a wide area network (WAN). or other means. is called a local area network (LAN). ± A network that connects computers in a limited geographic area. . such as a school computer laboratory. office.

telephones lines. airline schedules. which is a worldwide collection of networks that links together millions of computers by means of modems.Internet The world¶s largest network is the Internet. Reasons for using the Internet: ± Sending messages to other connected users (e-mail) ± Accessing a wealth of information. and other communications devices and media. and vacation planning guides . magazines. cables. and stock market data ± Shopping for goods and services ± Meeting or conversing with people around the world ± Accessing sources of entertainment and leisure. such as online games. such as news. maps.

called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). or hyperlinks. ± http:// stands for hypertext transfer protocol (communication standards used to transfer pages on the Web.World Wide Web One of the more popular segments of the Internet is the World Wide Web. and/or video. ± A Web page is a document that contains text. graphics. to other Web documents. also called the Web. and has built-in connections. sound. which contains billions of documents called Web pages. ± You access and view Web pages using a software program called a Web browser. . ± A Web site is a related collection of Web pages. ± A Web page has a unique address.

usatoday. protocol domain name http://www. ± A Web server is a computer that delivers (serves) requested Web pages. which is stored on a Web server. Most Web page URLs begin with ± http:// stands for hypertext transfer protocol (communication standards used to transfer pages on the Web).URL A Web page has a unique address. ± The domain name identifies the Web site. called a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). The URL consists of a protocol.com URL . domain name and sometimes the path to a specific Web page or location in a Web page.

Electronic Commerce When you conduct business activities online. also known as e-commerce. Today. ± Consumer to consumer (C2C) involves one consumer selling directly to another ± Business to business (B2B) provides good and services to to other businesses. . investing. you are participation I electronic commerce. three types of e-commerce exist: ± Business to consumer (B2C) involves the sale of goods to the general public. and any other venture that represents a business transaction. These activities include shopping.

Install.How to Purchase. and Maintain a Personal Computer .

. do some research. 4. or ordering by mail via telephone or the World Wide Web. 2. Before buying a computer. a local large retail store. a local computer dealer.How to Purchase a Desktop Computer 1. If you are buying a new computer. Determine what application products you will use on your computer. 3. you have several purchasing options: buying from your school bookstore. Look for free software.

monitor. network interface card) Any software included with the computer . CD-ROM. DVD-ROM. Zip® drive) Input/output devices included with the computer (e. CD-RW. floppy disk.. mouse. sound card.Purchasing Criteria Speed of the processor Size and types of memory (RAM) and storage (hared disk.g. printer. video card) Communications devices include with the computer (modem. keyboard.

10. 7. Avoid restocking fees. Consider more than just price. 6. Select an Internet service provider (ISP) or online service provider (OSP) 5. Use a worksheet to compare computers.How to Purchase a Desktop Computer (cont·d) If you are buying a used computer stick with name brands. 8. . 9. Be aware of hidden costs. and other considerations. services.

Consider purchasing an onsite service agreement 13. Avoid buying the smallest computer available. 14. 12. Use a credit card to purchase your new computer. . Buy a computer compatible with the ones you use elsewhere.How to Purchase a Desktop Computer (cont·d) 11.

Experiment with different pointing devices and keyboards.How to Purchase a Notebook Computer 1. upgrade memory and disk storage at the time of purchase. 2. Make sure the notebook computer you purchase has a CD-EROM or DVD-ROM drive. If necessary. 4. Purchase a notebook computer with a sufficiently large active-matrix screen. 3. .

7. make sure the notebook computer is compatible with the video projector. If you plan to connect your notebook computer to a video projector. If you travel overseas. Purchase a well-padded and well-designed carrying case. purchase a second battery. If you are going to use your notebook computer on an airplane. obtain a set of electrical and telephone adapters. . 6. 8.How to Purchase a Notebook Computer (cont·d) 5.

5. Practice with the touch screen and handwriting recognition before deciding on a model. What do you want to pay? 3. 6. Compare battery life. . Decide if you want a color screen.How to Purchase a Handheld Computer 1. Determine the applications you plan to run on your handheld computer. 2. Check out the accessories. 4.

then consider e-mail and Web access from your handheld computer. Decide if you want additional functionality. If you travel often. Is synchronization of data with other handheld computers. personal computers. . 8. or printers important? 9.How to Purchase a Handheld Computer (cont·d) 7.

3. Have a telephone outlet and telephone or cable connection near your workplace so you can connect your modem and/or place calls while using your computer. with adequate workspace around the computer. Do some research. Read the installation manuals before you start to install your equipment. .How to Install a Personal Computer 1. Install bookshelves. Set up your computer in a well-designed work area. 2. 5. 4.

8. Save all the paperwork that comes with your computer.How to Install a Personal Computer (cont·d) 6. Computer tool sets include any screwdrivers and other tools you might need to work on your computer. . Record the serial number of all your equipment and software. Obtain a computer tool set. While working at your computer. 7. 9. be aware of health issues.

12. Complete and send in your equipment and software registration cards. . 11. Check your home or renter¶s insurance policy. 15. Keep your computer area clean. Install your computer in an area where you can maintain the temperature and humidity. Identify device connectors. Keep the shipping containers and packing materials for all you equipment. 14.How to Install a Personal Computer (cont·d) 10. 13.

5. 2. . Keep the area surrounding your computer dirt and dust free. Learn to use diagnostic tools. turn off the power and disconnect the equipment from the power source. PC Owner¶s Back up important files and data. Before you work inside your computer. Start a notebook that includes information on your computer. 7. 3. 4.How to Maintain a Personal Computer 1. 6. Keep your computer tuned. Notebook Outline Protect your computer from viruses.

follow the instructions to the exercises. and then enter http://scsite.com/ic4/learn. . click the Address box.Learn It Online To complete these exercises.cfm. Hint: Click on the Learn It Online link on the left of the web page to get back to the above link. start your browser. When the Introduction to Computers Web page displays.

Save this document in a sub-folder in your BCA folder of your U drive named Learn It Online. Project Reinforcement True/False. and Short Answer Record your answers in a Word document named Project Reinforcement 1. . (See example setup on next slide).1. Multiple Choice. Print off a copy and hand it in to your instructor.

Setup Example Essential Introduction to Computers Name __________________________ Date _____________ Multiple Choice 1. . Short Answer 1. D True/False 1.

Hand a printout of the final practice test to your instructor. Practice Test Click Practice Test. Answer each question. click Print on the File menu to print a hard copy. When the graded practice test displays on your screen. enter your first and last name at the bottom of the page.2. and then click the Grade Test button. Continue to take practice tests until your score is 80% or better. .

and then click the PLAY button.3. Read the instructions. Who Wants to Be a Computer Genius? Click Computer Genius. Submit your score to your instructor. enter your first and last name at the bottom of the page. .

click the Submit button. Crossword Puzzle Challenge Click Crossword Puzzle Challenge. When you are finished. . click the Print button.4. Work the crossword puzzle. When the crossword puzzle re-displays. Read the instructions. and then enter your first and last name. Click the PLAY button. Hand in the printout to your instructor.

and then take a tour of the Virtual Museum of Computing. Hand in your report and printouts (stapled together) to your instructor. and then use Word to prepare a brief report on your tour. Click the Computers and Computing link.5. . Using the Web Guide Click Web Guide. When you are finished. Visit four other Web sites listed in the Web Guide and print the main page of each. close the window.

6. Print a copy of the Scavenger Hunt page. use this page to write down your answers as you search the web. Scavenger Hunt Click Scavenger Hunt. . Hand in the completed page to your instructor.

Hand in your completed assignment to your instructor. Search Sleuth Click Search Sleuth to learn search techniques that will help make you a research expert.7. .

Proceed to Microsoft Windows XP and Office XP Projects .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful