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Josephine E. Paterson

Biography
Retired in 1985 as a clinical nurse specialist at the Northport Veterans Administration Medical Center at Northport, NY.

Graduated at Lenox Hill Hospital School of Nursing and St. John¶s University.

Received master's degree from Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.

Boston University School of Nursing, Boston, Massachusetts Specialized in mental and psychiatric nursing.

Conceptualized and taught humanistic nursing to graduate students, faculty, and staff in a variety of settings. Served on the faculty of the State University of New York at Stony brook.

Loretta T. Zderad

Retired in 1985 as the Associate Chief for Nursing Education at the Northport Veterans Administration Medical Center, Northport, NY.

Graduated at St. Bernard's Hospital School of Nursing and of Loyola University.

Recieved her Master of Science degree from Catholic University, Washington DC

Doctor of Philosophy from Georgetown University, Washington DC.

She has taught in several universities and has led groups on humanistic nursing. Served as the faculty of the State University of New York at Stony brook.

Definition of terms: 
Humanistic nursing
-Nursing response to the humanistic movement in psychology -Alternative to the two dominant psychological views of time. *Freudian psychology *Behavioral psychology -Tries to take a broader view of the potential of human beings, trying to understand them from the context of their experience of living in the world. -Concerned with phenomenological experiences of individual, the exploration of human experiences. -Rooted in the existential thought 

Existentialism
-a philosophical approach to understanding life. -individual - choices -Determine the direction and meaning of one's life -response to psychology of positivism and determinism -Individuals needed to understand life. -Choice -each act we choose is significant and gives meaning to our lives. -error -Emphasis on self determination, free choice and self responsibility -Requires analysis of the human situation from the perspective of individuals own experience

Corey (1991)
1.) Having the capacity for self awareness 2.) having freedom and responsibility 3.) Striving to find their own identity while being in relationship with others 4.) Being involve in a search for meaning in life. 5.) Having to experience anxiety or dread if they are going to assume responsibility for their own lives 6.) Being aware of the reality of death in order to experience the significance of living. 

Phenomenology
- study of meaning of phenomenon to a particular individual

HUMANISTIC NURSING
"Humanistic nursing embraces more than a benevolent technically competent subject-object one-way relationship guided by nursing behalf of another. Rather it dictates that nursing is a responsible searching, transactional relationship whose meaningfulness demands conceptualization founded on a nurse's existential awareness of self and of other" (Paterson and Zderad, 2008) 

Humanistic nursing theory is multidimensional (Kleiman, 2001) 

In humanistic nursing theory the components identified as human are the patient ( can refer to the person, family, community or humanity); and the nurse 

PATIENTS SENDS CALL FOR HELP PERSON RECEIVING AND RECOGNIZING IS THE NURSE.

Nurse has made a decision and dedicated themselves to helping others with their health care needs

‡ Nurses and patient have their own concept of wholeness. ‡ Nurse bring their whole self when helping in patient treatment, (experience, education, etc, to create a type of mosaic to use with nursing interventions.) ‡ This theory accepts the likeness in our difference in each other or our essence of nursing

"Man is an individual being necessarily related to other men in time and space. As every man is beholden to other men for his birth and development, interdependence is inherent in the human situations... Human existence is coexistence."

‡ Matter of personal survival ‡ It is a process of finding meaning in life.

It is the nurturing response of one person to another in time of need that aims towers the development of well-being and more being

Dialogue
‡Meeting ‡Relating ‡Call and Response

Meeting
‡ Coming together of human beings

Relating
‡ The process of nurse-nurse ³doing´ with each other. ‡ 2 Types
± Subject-object
‡ How human use objects and others through abstractions, conceptualizations, categorizing, labeling, etc.

± Subject-subject
‡ Two person open to each other as a fully human.

Presence
‡ The quality of being open, receptive, ready and available to another person in a reciprocal manner.

Call and Response
‡ Transactional ‡ Sequential ‡ Simultaneous

Community
‡ It is two or more person striving together, living-dying all at once. living-

PHENOMENOLOGIC NURSOLOGY
-Develop by Paterson and Zderad -methodology for understanding and describing nursing situations -assumes a perceived health need by an individual who is involved in an interaction with a health care provider. -Concerned with the nature of the facts and what they mean to individual.. -describes phenomena but does not attempt to explain or predict their occurrence.

Paterson and Zderad describe five phases in their study of nursing:

1.) Preparation of the nurse knower for coming to know 2.) Nurse knowing the other intuitively 3.) Nurse knowing the other scientifically 4.) Nurse Complimentary Synthesizing Known others 5.) Succession with the nurse from the many to the paradoxical one.

Preparation of the nurse knower for coming to know
-understanding own viewpoint/angle helps make sense and aid in acquiring meaning of experience -By identifying own views they can be withheld, so that they do not interfere with one's attempts to describe the experiences of another.

-By being open to new and different ideas/understandings is a necessary of another -Being open to new and different ideas/understanding is a necessary position in being able to get to know the other intuitively.

Nurse knowing the other intuitively
- "moving back and forth between the impressions the nurse becomes aware of herself and the recollected real experience of the other" (Paterson and Zderad, 1976) - dialogue back and forth between patient and nurse allows for clearer understanding further generalization in developing process

Nurse knowing the other scientifically
-Implies need for objectivity in coming to know the other scientifically -Reflective practice validates patterns and themes -"This is the time when the nurse mulls over, analyses, sorts out, compares, contrasts, relates, interprets, gives names to and categories

Nurse Complimentary Synthesizing Known others

-The ability of the nurse to develop or see themselves as a source of knowledge, to continually develop the nursing community through education, and increased understanding of their owned learned experiences.

Succession with the nurse from the many to the paradoxical one.
-"Nurse comes up with a conception or abstraction that is inclusive of and beyond the multiplicities and contradictions³ - Process that allows reflection, correction and expansion of own angular interpretation

- Implies universal understanding from the simplest to the most complex dialogue and interactions between the nurse and assimilates patient experience is the same as before -Coming together of patient and nurse

Nursing Process
Step 1 -assessment -collection of subjective and objective data - through observation, interaction, and information from the other sources.

Step 2 -Diagnosing -make a problem statement Step 3 -planning and implementation -nursing process describes a goal or outcome to be reached by the client with steps to accomplish toward the goal.

Step 4 -Evaluation -Phase of nursing process is deciding whether the client behavior has change as measured by the goals and objectives.

Paterson and Zderad·s Work and the Characteristic of Theory

1.) Theories can interrelate concept in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon.

2.) Theories must be logical in nature

3.) Theories should be logical in nature.

4.) Theories can be the bases for hypotheses that can be tested or for theory to be generated.

5.) Theories contribute to and assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them.

6.) Theories can be used by practitioners to guide and improve their practice.

7.) Theories must be consistent with other validated theories, laws, and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need investigation.

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