Training on GT Controls

Introduction to Control Philosophy
A Gas Turbine Consists of 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Starting means Auxiliaries Compressor Combustion System Turbine Exhaust Load

Introduction to Control Philosophy
Control system
Communicates with the turbine to Measure, adjust the parameters

The Main Inputs are Air & Fuel and the Outputs are Load & Exhaust Gases.

It also protects the turbine from abnormal operations

Gas Turbine Controls 1. Minimum Gate Concept of Six Control Loop ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Start up Speed/Load Temperature Acceleration Manual Shut down Main Auxiliary . Basic Control Parameters of GT 2.

Simplified control schematic .

Min Value Example of Minimum FSR of Six Control Loops on HMI Screen .

Detailed Control Schematic We will use this as reference as we go in detail of the course .

Startup Control Start up control controls the amount of fuel to the GT from zero speed to Full Speed No Load FSRSU is minimum of the six control loops .

depending on whether the system is connected to Grid or Isolated)  This serves both Speed & Load functions and so called Speed/Load Controller FSRN is the minimum of Six Control Loops .Speed control schematic ‡ The Speed Control Loop ensures the correct speed as required by the system ‡ The Load Control Loop maintains the power out put. (The load control can be either Isochronous or Droop.

Speed Control Characteristics Droop speed control is a proportional control. Droop Control Curve . changing FSR in proportion to the difference between actual turbine speed and the speed reference (TNH & TNR) Isochronous Controller is a closed loop controller that maintains the Turbine Speed to the reference speed by regulating FSR during the isolated operation.

The firing temperature is difficult to measure and hence the Controller uses the exhaust thermocouples as reference which is directly proportional to Firing Temperature Tf = Tx (Pcd/Pa) k .Exhaust Temperature control Temperature Controller ensures that the Turbine internals are protected from over heat and Optimum power is produced.

FSR & CPR ratio with less exhaust temperatures .Exhaust/Firing Temperature Relation Curve comparing the load at different ambient The firing temperature remains constant even with increase in MW.

Temperature control scheme FSRT is the minimum of the Six Control Loops .

Exhaust Temp. control set points Exhaust temp control reference set point TTRXB calculated based on CPD The back up exhaust temp reference is based on FSR in case of CPD measurement failure TTKn_K TTKn_I TTKn_C Isothermal CPD FSR Protection of Turbine internals and optimum power .

Acceleration control 0.10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100% TNH Acceleration Control functions during sudden Load Changes and Start Up .35 %/sec 0.

Manual control Manual Control Loop Can be used to limit fuel to prevent over firing and over riding active control .

Shut Down control Shut down control loop reduces the fuel at a predetermined during shut down to reduce thermal stresses FSRSD is the minimum of Six Control Loops .

IGV Control IGV Control Loop ‡ Controls air fuel ratio ‡ Prevents Compressor Pulsations .

IGV Control IGV scheduling is required to ensure the protection from Pulsation/Stall by excessive opening at lower speeds/loads and negative pressures at partial loads by less opening IGV Schedule Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loadsfor Combined Cycle Operation .

varies for simple and combined cycle operations. IGV temperature control never exceeds the base temperature control set point CPD IGV control reference Maintains higher Exhaust Temperature at partial loads for Combined Cycle Operation .IGV Control Isothermal The exhaust temp.

. A null-bias spring positions the servo so that actuator goes to the fail safe position when ALL power and/or control signal is lost. Servo valve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor.Electro Hydraulic Servo valve Servo valve is the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems Servo valve controls the direction and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo.

it compares with demand signal and an error signal is created. The amplifier in the controller will change the signal to drive the servo Valve of the Bypass valve.Liquid Fuel Control Scheme As the speed sensors in the FD send a signal to controller. Amplifier .

Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image. Restart your computer. and then open the file again. the fuel necessary to meet the demand. If the red x still appears.Liquid Fuel Control The image cannot be displayed. The VSVO card receives the PR signals from 77FD ± 1. or the image may have been corrupted. you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.2 &3 and Outputs Analog Signal. The VSVO Card modulates Servo Valve based on FQROUT & FQ1 .

Gas Control Valve Controls .Gas Fuel Control Scheme Fuel Gas Control System consists of Stop ratio Valve.

Gas Stop Ratio Valve Scheme ‡ SRV is a dual function Valve. the signal FPRG ‡ Position Loop takes feed back from Valve Position FSGR The VSVO Card modulates Servo Valve based on FPRG. FPG & FSGR . as a stop Valve and to hold desired P2 Pressure ‡ Control loop consists of both Pressure and Position Control Loops ‡ P2 is Controlled by pressure loop as a function of TNH with a gain & offset.

Gas Control Valve Scheme The position of the gas control valve is proportional to FSR2 which represents called for gas fuel flow The VSVO Card modulates Servo Valve based on FSROUT & FSG .

. ‡ Allow time for filling the lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being transferred.Fuel Splitter Scheme ‡ Transfer from one fuel to the other on command.

IGV Control scheme VSVO The Inlet Guide Vanes (IGVs) modulate during ‡ Acceleration of the gas turbine to rated speed ‡ Loading and unloading ‡ Deceleration of the gas turbine The VSVO Card modulates Servo Valve based on CSRGV & CSGV .

IGV Schedule IGV modulation maintains ‡ Proper flows and pressures. and thus stresses. in the compressor ‡ Maintains a minimum pressure drop across the fuel nozzles ‡ High exhaust temperatures at low loads during combined cycle operation .

GT Protections ‡ GT is not allowed to start until permissives are set correctly ‡ GT Trips during operation if operating limits exceeded Protection System ensures that GT is safe from dangerous operating conditions .

Duel Fuel Trip oil scheme ‡ The Trip Oil System is the primary interference between the master protection circuits and the fuel flow and VIGV position control devices .

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