# The Physics Of

Bicycles
Daniel Eley
First chain driven bicycle introduced in 1885
Structure hasn¶t changed much
How do they work?
John Starley¶s ³Rover´ of 1885
Lance Armstrong¶s 2004 Tour
de France bike
Topics of Discussion
Why does the bike move forward
when I pedal?
What are gear ratios?
What determines a bike¶s stability?
A Moving Bicycle
R = radius of the tires æ = angular velocity of the tires
r
1
= radius of the sprocket r
2
N
1
= normal force N
2
= normal force
M = total mass of bicycle and rider p = length of pedal arm
F = force applied vertically at a right angle to the pedal arm
F
1
= reactive push backwards from ground
F
2
= drive force forwards due to torque from pedaling
We know«
F
net x
= Ma (where a is the tangential acceleration)
a = eR (where e is the angular acceleration of the tires)
F
2
± F
1
= F
net x
Therefore«
F
2
± F
1
= MRe ´l)
X
net
= Ie
(where X is the torque and I is the moment of inertia of the back tire)
Fp(r1/r2) ± F
2
R = Ie ´2)
If we assume that the moment of inertia of the front wheel is
roughly the same as the back wheel, then we can say«
F
1
R = Ie ´1)
We combine equations 1,2, and 3 eliminating F
1
and F
2
Fp(r
1
/r
2
) = e(2I + MR
2
)
Using this equation and a=Re, the bicycle¶s linear acceleration is:
a = RFp(r
1
/r
2
)
(2I+MR
2
) (4)
the smaller the gear ratio (r
2
/r
1
), the larger the acceleration
So why don¶t all bikes have a small r
2
/r
1
ratio?
angular velocity of the sprocket (r
1
) be æ
1
(also equal to æ)
angular velocity of the chainring (r
2
) be æ
2
the velocity of the foot applied to the pedal is«
v
app
= pæ
2
or æ
2
= v
app
/p
The velocity of the bike is«
v
b
= Ræ = Ræ
1
= æ
2
(r
2
/r
1
)R
Substituting v
app
/p for æ
2
and rearranging gives us«
v
b
/ v
app
= r
2
R/r
1
p
v
b
/ v
app
= (r
2
/r
1
)R/p (6)
to maintain a constant velocity (v
b
), and a minimum v
app
,
you would want a large gear ratio (r
2
/r
1
).
But as we saw in eq. 4, for a higher acceleration, you want a
small gear ratio (r
2
/r
1
).
How do you give riders both?
Multiple sprockets or gears
Bicycle Gearing
The gearing on a bicycle is the
selection of appropriate gear ratios
for optimum efficiency or comfort.
The gear ratio is the ratio of the
number of teeth on the chainring of
the crankset to the teeth on the
rear sprocket.
Different gears are used for
different circumstances.
Cadence - number of revolutions the crank is
moved per minute
The average recreational cyclist has a cadence of
60-80 rpm
The average racing cyclist has a cadence of 80-
120 rpm (Lance Armstrong¶s cadence is 120 rpm)
Gear ratios allow optimal cadence in any terrain
Elevated ground means more force is required to
move the bike forward
Harder to turn the pedals on elevated ground ± lower
In order to maintain the same cadence, switch to lower
gear
We proved earlier that to get a higher acceleration, you
needed a smaller gear ratio.
F=ma; smaller gear ratio will also result in a higher force
output (per amount of force input).
Elevated slope: need higher output force, same applied
force to the pedals, same cadence. That means a smaller
gear ratio.
Downhill slope: need a smaller output force, so we need
a higher gear ratio.
Higher gear ratio: achieve higher v
b
while maintaining
the same v
app
.
Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection:
Downhill = High gear
Flat ground = Medium gear
Uphill = Low gear
You can calculate the equivalent wheel size
using the gear ratio.
Equivalent wheel size = gear ratio x wheel
diameter.
Ex. if you had a gear ratio of 4.0 and a wheel
diameter of 27´, then the equivalent wheel size
would be 108´.
That means that using a gear ratio of 4.0 on a
bike with a wheel diameter of 27´ is the same
as riding a direct-drive wheel with a diameter of
108´.
Penny-Farthing
(direct-drive)
Determine distance traveled from each
turn of pedals using equivalent wheel size.
Distance traveled = circumference of
equivalent wheel
For our previous example, the distance
traveled for each turn of the pedals would
be:
T(108´) = 339.3´ or 28.3 ft.
If it was a direct-drive wheel, each turn of
the pedals would take you:
T(27´) = 84.8´ or 7.1 ft.
Much greater rpm¶s of the bike tires at
How can a bicycle have multiple gear
ratios available?
Two types of bicycle gears: hub gears
and derailleur gears.
Derailleur Gear
Hub Gear
Derailleur Gears
A transmission system consisting of a chain,
multiple sprockets, and a mechanism
(derailleur) to shift the chain from one
sprocket to another (more common than hub
gears).
Move lever on handlebar, changes tension in
derailleur cable.
Change in tension moves derailleur to one
side or the other moving the chain from one
sprocket to another.
There are two pulleys: the guide pulley and
the tension pulley. Guide pulley pushes chain
from one sprocket to the other. The tension
pulley maintains tension in the chain.
Hub Gears
Work by epicyclic gearing: outer
casing (which is connected to the
spokes of the wheel) rotates at
different speeds depending on
which gear is chosen.
gears enclosed in hub, protecting
them.
Used mostly for utility bicycles
Mechanism is enclosed within the hub, so it is not
exposed to dirt or weather. Hub gears need very little
maintenance and are very reliable.
The gear can be changed when the bike is stationary.
(city traffic-starts/stops)
Limited space available in the hub, smaller range of
gears than derailleurs.
They¶re heavier and more expensive than derailleur
gears.
Gear Ratios (r
2
/r
1
)
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r
1
)
i gh
Medi um
Low
Li near ( i gh)
Li near ( Medi um)
Li near ( Low)
(cm)
Force Ratios (output over input) For Each Gear Combination
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r
1
)
/
i gh
Medi um
Low
Li near ( i gh)
Li near ( Medi um)
Li near ( Low)
1
)
(cm)
Measured out 22 m
Started from rest and timed how long it took to go 22 m.
Calculating the acceleration for the bike
Motion equation:
(x = v
0
t + ½(at
2
)
v
0
= 0
a = 2(x/t
2
Acceleration For Each Gear Ratio
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6
R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r
1
)
i gh
Medi um
Low
Li near ( i gh)
Li near ( Medi um)
Li near ( Low)
1
)
(cm)
Stability
Prior to the work of David E. H. Jones and
his famous ³unridable bicycles´, there were
two main theories on why bicycles are so
stable.
Jones found faults in both theories, and
proposed his own theory, which is now widely
accepted by physicists.
Front fork swivel and skill of rider
Gyroscopic effects
First theory: ridability depends on the freedom of the
front forks to swivel and the skill of the rider.
Falling bicycle can be saved by proper steering of the
front wheel.
Bike is easier to ride the faster it is moving - a smaller
steering change is needed to create the centrifugal
correction
Centrifuge ± inertia of bike and friction of tires cause
torque
Stationary bike impossible to balance
Faults: when you push a bike it will travel a long time
riderless before falling over (as opposed to the second or
two it takes to fall over when it is stationary).
Second theory: gyroscopic effects from front wheel.
The angular momentum of the wheel is L=Iæ
L is in same direction as the angular velocity, æ, which
equals v x r.
As long as the bicycle is going straight, the angular
momentum stays in the same position.
If the rider leans left, a torque will be produced which causes a
counterclockwise precession of the bicycle wheel, tending to turn the
bicycle to the left. (Demo)
X = r x
The torque produced by leaning left points to the rear of the bike.
Torque is always perpendicular to angular momentum (L), and it causes
the angular momentum to change in the direction of the torque vector.
Angular momentum is in the same direction as the axis of rotation for
the wheel, so if the direction of L shifts backwards, so does the axis of
rotation, turning the wheel left (Demo ± volunteer)
David E. H. Jones: non-gyroscopic
bicycle (URB 1).
second wheel on front fork (clear of
the ground) - spun in opposite
direction of real front wheel, opposing
the gyroscopic effect.
Fell quickly when pushed rider less
Still able to ride it (above photo).
Proved gyroscopic effects of the front wheel weren¶t a
significant contributor to the stability of the bicycle (when
rider is present).
Mass of the wheel is so much less than the mass of the
bicycle and rider that the gyroscopic effects are too small to
really matter (weight of racing bike =15 lb)
This effect is more important at higher speeds (motorcycles)
So what causes the bicycle to be so stable?
Trail.
If you push a bike backwards it will fall over ± the two
If you push the bike forwards, the two wheels follow the
same path.
Trailing frame and back wheel will swing into line
behind the front wheel.
It isn¶t the front wheel straightening out, it¶s the back of
the bike swinging into line.
Caster wheels on a shopping cart. If
you push the cart, the forks of the
wheels flip around backwards, and
the wheels ³trail´ the cart.
A bicycle¶s fork always points forward.
bicycle wheel¶s contact point with the
ground trails the steering axis
intersection with the floor (like caster).
Pivot point is in front of the place where
the tire touches the ground, the frictional
drag of the tire tends to keep the wheel
straight ahead (like the caster wheel).
Pull bike backwards, the wheel wants to
turn around
The difference in the wheel contact
point and the steering axis is referred to
as the fork trail of the bicycle, -
determines bike¶s stability.
Larger fork trail = more stable bike.
If the bicycle leans to the right, the
normal force of the road on the bicycle
tire moves to the left side of the bicycle
and deviates from the steering axis. This
turns the wheel to the right, steering the
bicycle to the side that is required to
keep the bicycle from falling over.
The greater the fork trail, the greater this
effect.
Since bicycles are balanced on two wheels in a line in
an unstable equilibrium, they must start to fall to one
side or the other.
A bicycle is stable when it automatically tends to
correct for this unwanted lean.
Since a larger trail means that the front wheel will turn
more sharply to correct a lean faster, then a larger trail
means that the bicycle is more stable.
Jones proved his trail theory with two
of his ³unridable bikes´ (URB III and
the URB IV)
URB III had the fork turned around,
(trail much larger).
URB III was the most stable bicycle
that Jones tested, actively righting itself
even without a rider.
Overcorrected the lean at each weave
until it ran out of speed and collapsed.
Traveled much farther, rider less, than
the same bike with the fork forward
(less trail).
URB III
The URB IV was the most unstable
bicycle that Jones created.
He moved the front wheel four inches
ahead of its normal position, creating a
negative trail.
The bicycle fell over immediately
when released rider less, and Jones
described it as ³very dodgy to ride.´
Why is negative trail less stable?
Demo
URB IV
So if making the trail larger makes the bike more stable,
why don¶t all bikes have a large trail?
Large trail = hard to maneuver.
A bike that is too stable is sluggish to turn and respond to
the rider¶s movements.
Great for going straight, but turning is difficult
Most modern bikes have relatively small trails, making
them less stable but more responsive.
Mountain bike - notice
the large fork rake,
making the trail small.
We know trail affects stability
How do you change trail (T)?
There are three components to trail:
U = head angle, R = fork rake,
usually fixed
To change Trail, change fork rake
Bigger fork rake = smaller trail
Why Study Bicycles?
following questions:
Do I want a large or small fork rake?
Do I want hub gears or derailleur gears?
What combinations of gear ratios do I want?
Become an informed shopper.
Design the bike that is best for your needs.
The Wright Brothers¶ pre-aeronautical profession was
bicycle repair and manufacture.
They used a number of concepts they had learned from
bicycles when they were building their plane:
The central importance of balance and control.
The need for strong but lightweight structures.
The chain-and-sprocket transmission system for propulsion.
Concerns regarding wind resistance and aerodynamic shape
of the operator
More than \$3.5 million was up for grabs this
year at the tour de France, not including the
millions of dollars in endorsements.
Every rider had a dedicated team trying to
create the ³best´ bicycle.
Armstrong used different parts for different
days, depending on the terrain.
Changed out his gears and wheels each day
to fit the terrain for the day
Physics led to his 6
th
tour de France victory
Would have lost riding the 1885 ³Rover´
Sources
Forester, John; ³Report on Stability of the Da Hon Bicycle´.
Jones, David E. H. (1970). The Stability of the Bicycle
Leisegang, L. and Lee, L. R. Dynamics of a bicycle;
nongyroscopic aspects; American Journal of Physics --
February 1978 -- Volume 46, Issue 2, pp. 130-132
Peterson, Dr. Randolph
Popular Mechanics; ³Wheels of Fortune´; Wendy Booher
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle
http://www.segway.com/segway/how_it_works.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-
astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mechanics/bicycle.html#c3
Zinn, Lennard; Zinn¶s Cycling Primer; Block 40.

Lance Armstrong¶s 2004 Tour de France bike 

John Starley¶s ³Rover´ of 1885

First chain driven bicycle introduced in 1885 Structure hasn¶t changed much How do they work?  

Topics of Discussion  



Why does the bike move forward when I pedal? What are gear ratios? What determines a bike¶s stability?

A Moving Bicycle R = radius of the tires r1 = radius of the sprocket N1 = normal force M = total mass of bicycle and rider [ = angular velocity of the tires r2 = radius of the chainring N2 = normal force p = length of pedal arm F = force applied vertically at a right angle to the pedal arm F1 = reactive push backwards from ground F2 = drive force forwards due to torque from pedaling .

We know« Fnet x = Ma (where a is the tangential acceleration) a = ER (where E is the angular acceleration of the tires) F2 ± F1 = Fnet x Therefore« F2 ± F1 = MRE.

 .

Xnet = IE (where X is the torque and I is the moment of inertia of the back tire) Fp(r1/r2) ± F2R = IE.

 If we assume that the moment of inertia of the front wheel is roughly the same as the back wheel. then we can say« F1R = IE.

and 3 eliminating F1 and F2 Fp(r1/r2) = E(2I + MR2) .2. We combine equations 1.

Using this equation and a=RE. the bicycle¶s linear acceleration is: a = RFp(r1/r2) (2I+MR2) (4) the smaller the gear ratio (r2/r1). the larger the acceleration So why don¶t all bikes have a small r2/r1 ratio? .

   angular velocity of the sprocket (r1) be [1 (also equal to [) angular velocity of the chainring (r2) be [2 the velocity of the foot applied to the pedal is« vapp = p[2 or [2 = vapp /p The velocity of the bike is« vb = R[ = R[1 = [2(r2/r1)R Substituting vapp /p for [2 and rearranging gives us« vb / vapp = r2R/r1p .

4. you would want a large gear ratio (r2/r1). for a higher acceleration. But as we saw in eq. How do you give riders both? Multiple sprockets or gears    . and a minimum vapp.vb / vapp = (r2/r1)R/p  (6) to maintain a constant velocity (vb). you want a small gear ratio (r2/r1).

.Bicycle Gearing    The gearing on a bicycle is the selection of appropriate gear ratios for optimum efficiency or comfort. Different gears are used for different circumstances. The gear ratio is the ratio of the number of teeth on the chainring of the crankset to the teeth on the rear sprocket.

 Cadence .number of revolutions the crank is moved per minute The average recreational cyclist has a cadence of 60-80 rpm The average racing cyclist has a cadence of 80120 rpm (Lance Armstrong¶s cadence is 120 rpm) Gear ratios allow optimal cadence in any terrain Elevated ground means more force is required to move the bike forward     .

F=ma. That means a smaller gear ratio.       Harder to turn the pedals on elevated ground ± lower cadence In order to maintain the same cadence. you needed a smaller gear ratio. so we need a higher gear ratio. . same applied force to the pedals. same cadence. smaller gear ratio will also result in a higher force output (per amount of force input). switch to lower gear We proved earlier that to get a higher acceleration. Downhill slope: need a smaller output force. Elevated slope: need higher output force. Higher gear ratio: achieve higher vb while maintaining the same vapp.

       Penny-Farthing (direct-drive)  Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection: Downhill = High gear Flat ground = Medium gear Uphill = Low gear You can calculate the equivalent wheel size using the gear ratio. That means that using a gear ratio of 4.0 on a bike with a wheel diameter of 27´ is the same as riding a direct-drive wheel with a diameter of 108´. Ex. . Equivalent wheel size = gear ratio x wheel diameter.0 and a wheel diameter of 27´. if you had a gear ratio of 4. then the equivalent wheel size would be 108´.

the distance traveled for each turn of the pedals would be: T(108´) = 339. Distance traveled = circumference of equivalent wheel For our previous example. If it was a direct-drive wheel.3 ft.3´ or 28.       Determine distance traveled from each turn of pedals using equivalent wheel size.1 ft. each turn of the pedals would take you: T(27´) = 84.8´ or 7. Much greater rpm¶s of the bike tires at maximum cadence .

 Derailleur Gear Hub Gear . How can a bicycle have multiple gear ratios available? Two types of bicycle gears: hub gears and derailleur gears.

The tension pulley maintains tension in the chain. Guide pulley pushes chain from one sprocket to the other. changes tension in derailleur cable. and a mechanism (derailleur) to shift the chain from one sprocket to another (more common than hub gears). Change in tension moves derailleur to one side or the other moving the chain from one sprocket to another. . Move lever on handlebar.Derailleur Gears     A transmission system consisting of a chain. There are two pulleys: the guide pulley and the tension pulley. multiple sprockets.

protecting them.Hub Gears    Work by epicyclic gearing: outer casing (which is connected to the spokes of the wheel) rotates at different speeds depending on which gear is chosen. gears enclosed in hub. Used mostly for utility bicycles .

Hub gears need very little maintenance and are very reliable. They¶re heavier and more expensive than derailleur gears. . (city traffic-starts/stops) Disadvantages   Limited space available in the hub.Advantages   Mechanism is enclosed within the hub. The gear can be changed when the bike is stationary. so it is not exposed to dirt or weather. smaller range of gears than derailleurs.

5 Linear ( Low) 1 0.Gear Ratios (r 2 /r 1 ) 4 3.5 5 5.5 M edium Low 2 Linear ( igh) Linear ( M edium ) 1.5 3 3.5 0 2.5 3 igh 2.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .5 4 4.

4 0.15 Linear ( M edium ) Linear ( Low) 0.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .05 0 2.2 0.35 igh 0.1 0.5 0.45 0.Force Ratios (output over input) For Each Gear Combination 0.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.25 Linear ( igh) / 0.3 M edium Low 0.

Calculating the acceleration for the bike   Measured out 22 m Started from rest and timed how long it took to go 22 m. Motion equation: (x = v0t + ½(at2)   v0 = 0 a = 2(x/t2 .

2 M edium Low 1 Linear ( igh) 0.8 1.8 0.4 0.5 3 3.2 0 2.5 4 4.Acceleration For Each Gear Ratio 2 1.6 1.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .5 5 5.6 Linear ( M edium ) Linear ( Low) 0.4 igh 1.

Jones and his famous ³unridable bicycles´. and proposed his own theory. which is now widely accepted by physicists. H. there were two main theories on why bicycles are so stable.   Front fork swivel and skill of rider Gyroscopic effects  Jones found faults in both theories. .Stability  Prior to the work of David E.

Falling bicycle can be saved by proper steering of the front wheel.      First theory: ridability depends on the freedom of the front forks to swivel and the skill of the rider.a smaller steering change is needed to create the centrifugal correction Centrifuge ± inertia of bike and friction of tires cause torque Stationary bike impossible to balance Faults: when you push a bike it will travel a long time riderless before falling over (as opposed to the second or two it takes to fall over when it is stationary). . Bike is easier to ride the faster it is moving .

As long as the bicycle is going straight. the angular momentum stays in the same position.    Second theory: gyroscopic effects from front wheel. The angular momentum of the wheel is L=I[ L is in same direction as the angular velocity. . [. which equals v x r.

so if the direction of L shifts backwards. (Demo) X=rx The torque produced by leaning left points to the rear of the bike. turning the wheel left (Demo ± volunteer) . and it causes the angular momentum to change in the direction of the torque vector. a torque will be produced which causes a counterclockwise precession of the bicycle wheel. so does the axis of rotation.     If the rider leans left. Angular momentum is in the same direction as the axis of rotation for the wheel. Torque is always perpendicular to angular momentum (L). tending to turn the bicycle to the left.

Jones: non-gyroscopic bicycle (URB 1). Mass of the wheel is so much less than the mass of the bicycle and rider that the gyroscopic effects are too small to really matter (weight of racing bike =15 lb) This effect is more important at higher speeds (motorcycles) . second wheel on front fork (clear of the ground) .spun in opposite direction of real front wheel. Proved gyroscopic effects of the front wheel weren¶t a significant contributor to the stability of the bicycle (when rider is present). H.     David E. opposing the gyroscopic effect. Fell quickly when pushed rider less   Still able to ride it (above photo).

 So what causes the bicycle to be so stable? Trail. the two wheels follow the same path. If you push a bike backwards it will fall over ± the two wheels follow separate paths. it¶s the back of the bike swinging into line. It isn¶t the front wheel straightening out.      . If you push the bike forwards. Trailing frame and back wheel will swing into line behind the front wheel.

If you push the cart. and the wheels ³trail´ the cart. the frictional drag of the tire tends to keep the wheel straight ahead (like the caster wheel). the wheel wants to turn around . Pull bike backwards. the forks of the wheels flip around backwards. Pivot point is in front of the place where the tire touches the ground. Caster wheels on a shopping cart. bicycle wheel¶s contact point with the ground trails the steering axis intersection with the floor (like caster).     A bicycle¶s fork always points forward.

. the greater this effect.    The difference in the wheel contact point and the steering axis is referred to as the fork trail of the bicycle. determines bike¶s stability. the normal force of the road on the bicycle tire moves to the left side of the bicycle and deviates from the steering axis. The greater the fork trail. Larger fork trail = more stable bike. This turns the wheel to the right. If the bicycle leans to the right. steering the bicycle to the side that is required to keep the bicycle from falling over.

A bicycle is stable when it automatically tends to correct for this unwanted lean. Since bicycles are balanced on two wheels in a line in an unstable equilibrium.   . they must start to fall to one side or the other. Since a larger trail means that the front wheel will turn more sharply to correct a lean faster. then a larger trail means that the bicycle is more stable.

(trail much larger).    URB III  Jones proved his trail theory with two of his ³unridable bikes´ (URB III and the URB IV) URB III had the fork turned around. rider less. Traveled much farther. Overcorrected the lean at each weave until it ran out of speed and collapsed. than the same bike with the fork forward (less trail). actively righting itself even without a rider. . URB III was the most stable bicycle that Jones tested.

´ Why is negative trail less stable? Demo   URB IV   . The URB IV was the most unstable bicycle that Jones created. He moved the front wheel four inches ahead of its normal position. and Jones described it as ³very dodgy to ride. The bicycle fell over immediately when released rider less. creating a negative trail.

Mountain bike .notice the large fork rake. making the trail small.     So if making the trail larger makes the bike more stable. making them less stable but more responsive. but turning is difficult Most modern bikes have relatively small trails. why don¶t all bikes have a large trail? Large trail = hard to maneuver. A bike that is too stable is sluggish to turn and respond to the rider¶s movements. Great for going straight. .

R = fork rake.       We know trail affects stability How do you change trail (T)? There are three components to trail: U!head angle. r = radius of wheel Head angle and wheel radius are usually fixed To change Trail. change fork rake Bigger fork rake = smaller trail .

Design the bike that is best for your needs. you will have to answer the following questions:    Do I want a large or small fork rake? Do I want hub gears or derailleur gears? What combinations of gear ratios do I want?   Become an informed shopper.Why Study Bicycles?  When buying a bicycle. .

The chain-and-sprocket transmission system for propulsion. The need for strong but lightweight structures. They used a number of concepts they had learned from bicycles when they were building their plane:     The central importance of balance and control. Concerns regarding wind resistance and aerodynamic shape of the operator .  The Wright Brothers¶ pre-aeronautical profession was bicycle repair and manufacture.

not including the millions of dollars in endorsements. depending on the terrain.      More than \$3. Every rider had a dedicated team trying to create the ³best´ bicycle.5 million was up for grabs this year at the tour de France. Armstrong used different parts for different days. Changed out his gears and wheels each day to fit the terrain for the day Physics led to his 6th tour de France victory Would have lost riding the 1885 ³Rover´ .

³Report on Stability of the Da Hon Bicycle´. Dynamics of a bicycle. ³Wheels of Fortune´. Jones. H.html#c3 Zinn.Sources          Forester. L.org/wiki/Bicycle http://www. R. 130-132 Peterson. Dr.html http://hyperphysics. . Block 40. Lennard. The Stability of the Bicycle Leisegang. Wendy Booher http://en. Randolph Popular Mechanics. American Journal of Physics -February 1978 -. nongyroscopic aspects. David E. L.gsu.phyastr. Zinn¶s Cycling Primer. (1970). John.wikipedia.segway. pp.Volume 46.edu/hbase/mechanics/bicycle. Issue 2. and Lee.com/segway/how_it_works.