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# The Physics Of

Bicycles

Daniel Eley

First chain driven bicycle introduced in 1885

Structure hasn¶t changed much

How do they work?

John Starley¶s ³Rover´ of 1885

Lance Armstrong¶s 2004 Tour

de France bike

Topics of Discussion

Why does the bike move forward

when I pedal?

What are gear ratios?

What determines a bike¶s stability?

A Moving Bicycle

R = radius of the tires æ = angular velocity of the tires

r

1

= radius of the sprocket r

2

= radius of the chainring

N

1

= normal force N

2

= normal force

M = total mass of bicycle and rider p = length of pedal arm

F = force applied vertically at a right angle to the pedal arm

F

1

= reactive push backwards from ground

F

2

= drive force forwards due to torque from pedaling

We know«

F

net x

= Ma (where a is the tangential acceleration)

a = eR (where e is the angular acceleration of the tires)

F

2

± F

1

= F

net x

Therefore«

F

2

± F

1

= MRe ´l)

X

net

= Ie

(where X is the torque and I is the moment of inertia of the back tire)

Fp(r1/r2) ± F

2

R = Ie ´2)

If we assume that the moment of inertia of the front wheel is

roughly the same as the back wheel, then we can say«

F

1

R = Ie ´1)

We combine equations 1,2, and 3 eliminating F

1

and F

2

Fp(r

1

/r

2

) = e(2I + MR

2

)

Using this equation and a=Re, the bicycle¶s linear acceleration is:

a = RFp(r

1

/r

2

)

(2I+MR

2

) (4)

the smaller the gear ratio (r

2

/r

1

), the larger the acceleration

So why don¶t all bikes have a small r

2

/r

1

ratio?

angular velocity of the sprocket (r

1

) be æ

1

(also equal to æ)

angular velocity of the chainring (r

2

) be æ

2

the velocity of the foot applied to the pedal is«

v

app

= pæ

2

or æ

2

= v

app

/p

The velocity of the bike is«

v

b

= Ræ = Ræ

1

= æ

2

(r

2

/r

1

)R

Substituting v

app

/p for æ

2

and rearranging gives us«

v

b

/ v

app

= r

2

R/r

1

p

v

b

/ v

app

= (r

2

/r

1

)R/p (6)

to maintain a constant velocity (v

b

), and a minimum v

app

,

you would want a large gear ratio (r

2

/r

1

).

But as we saw in eq. 4, for a higher acceleration, you want a

small gear ratio (r

2

/r

1

).

How do you give riders both?

Multiple sprockets or gears

Bicycle Gearing

The gearing on a bicycle is the

selection of appropriate gear ratios

for optimum efficiency or comfort.

The gear ratio is the ratio of the

number of teeth on the chainring of

the crankset to the teeth on the

rear sprocket.

Different gears are used for

different circumstances.

Cadence - number of revolutions the crank is

moved per minute

The average recreational cyclist has a cadence of

60-80 rpm

The average racing cyclist has a cadence of 80-

120 rpm (Lance Armstrong¶s cadence is 120 rpm)

Gear ratios allow optimal cadence in any terrain

Elevated ground means more force is required to

move the bike forward

Harder to turn the pedals on elevated ground ± lower

cadence

In order to maintain the same cadence, switch to lower

gear

We proved earlier that to get a higher acceleration, you

needed a smaller gear ratio.

F=ma; smaller gear ratio will also result in a higher force

output (per amount of force input).

Elevated slope: need higher output force, same applied

force to the pedals, same cadence. That means a smaller

gear ratio.

Downhill slope: need a smaller output force, so we need

a higher gear ratio.

Higher gear ratio: achieve higher v

b

while maintaining

the same v

app

.

Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection:

Downhill = High gear

Flat ground = Medium gear

Uphill = Low gear

You can calculate the equivalent wheel size

using the gear ratio.

Equivalent wheel size = gear ratio x wheel

diameter.

Ex. if you had a gear ratio of 4.0 and a wheel

diameter of 27´, then the equivalent wheel size

would be 108´.

That means that using a gear ratio of 4.0 on a

bike with a wheel diameter of 27´ is the same

as riding a direct-drive wheel with a diameter of

108´.

Penny-Farthing

(direct-drive)

Determine distance traveled from each

turn of pedals using equivalent wheel size.

Distance traveled = circumference of

equivalent wheel

For our previous example, the distance

traveled for each turn of the pedals would

be:

T(108´) = 339.3´ or 28.3 ft.

If it was a direct-drive wheel, each turn of

the pedals would take you:

T(27´) = 84.8´ or 7.1 ft.

Much greater rpm¶s of the bike tires at

maximum cadence

How can a bicycle have multiple gear

ratios available?

Two types of bicycle gears: hub gears

and derailleur gears.

Derailleur Gear

Hub Gear

Derailleur Gears

A transmission system consisting of a chain,

multiple sprockets, and a mechanism

(derailleur) to shift the chain from one

sprocket to another (more common than hub

gears).

Move lever on handlebar, changes tension in

derailleur cable.

Change in tension moves derailleur to one

side or the other moving the chain from one

sprocket to another.

There are two pulleys: the guide pulley and

the tension pulley. Guide pulley pushes chain

from one sprocket to the other. The tension

pulley maintains tension in the chain.

Hub Gears

Work by epicyclic gearing: outer

casing (which is connected to the

spokes of the wheel) rotates at

different speeds depending on

which gear is chosen.

gears enclosed in hub, protecting

them.

Used mostly for utility bicycles

Advantages

Mechanism is enclosed within the hub, so it is not

exposed to dirt or weather. Hub gears need very little

maintenance and are very reliable.

The gear can be changed when the bike is stationary.

(city traffic-starts/stops)

Disadvantages

Limited space available in the hub, smaller range of

gears than derailleurs.

They¶re heavier and more expensive than derailleur

gears.

Gear Ratios (r

2

/r

1

)

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r

1

)

i gh

Medi um

Low

Li near ( i gh)

Li near ( Medi um)

Li near ( Low)

Rear Sprocket Radius (r1)

(cm)

Force Ratios (output over input) For Each Gear Combination

0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r

1

)

/

i gh

Medi um

Low

Li near ( i gh)

Li near ( Medi um)

Li near ( Low)

Rear Sprocket Radius (r

1

)

(cm)

Measured out 22 m

Started from rest and timed how long it took to go 22 m.

Calculating the acceleration for the bike

Motion equation:

(x = v

0

t + ½(at

2

)

v

0

= 0

a = 2(x/t

2

Acceleration For Each Gear Ratio

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6

R e a r S p r o c k e t R a d i u s ( r

1

)

i gh

Medi um

Low

Li near ( i gh)

Li near ( Medi um)

Li near ( Low)

Rear Sprocket Radius (r

1

)

(cm)

Stability

Prior to the work of David E. H. Jones and

his famous ³unridable bicycles´, there were

two main theories on why bicycles are so

stable.

Jones found faults in both theories, and

proposed his own theory, which is now widely

accepted by physicists.

Front fork swivel and skill of rider

Gyroscopic effects

First theory: ridability depends on the freedom of the

front forks to swivel and the skill of the rider.

Falling bicycle can be saved by proper steering of the

front wheel.

Bike is easier to ride the faster it is moving - a smaller

steering change is needed to create the centrifugal

correction

Centrifuge ± inertia of bike and friction of tires cause

torque

Stationary bike impossible to balance

Faults: when you push a bike it will travel a long time

riderless before falling over (as opposed to the second or

two it takes to fall over when it is stationary).

Second theory: gyroscopic effects from front wheel.

The angular momentum of the wheel is L=Iæ

L is in same direction as the angular velocity, æ, which

equals v x r.

As long as the bicycle is going straight, the angular

momentum stays in the same position.

If the rider leans left, a torque will be produced which causes a

counterclockwise precession of the bicycle wheel, tending to turn the

bicycle to the left. (Demo)

X = r x

The torque produced by leaning left points to the rear of the bike.

Torque is always perpendicular to angular momentum (L), and it causes

the angular momentum to change in the direction of the torque vector.

Angular momentum is in the same direction as the axis of rotation for

the wheel, so if the direction of L shifts backwards, so does the axis of

rotation, turning the wheel left (Demo ± volunteer)

David E. H. Jones: non-gyroscopic

bicycle (URB 1).

second wheel on front fork (clear of

the ground) - spun in opposite

direction of real front wheel, opposing

the gyroscopic effect.

Fell quickly when pushed rider less

Still able to ride it (above photo).

Proved gyroscopic effects of the front wheel weren¶t a

significant contributor to the stability of the bicycle (when

rider is present).

Mass of the wheel is so much less than the mass of the

bicycle and rider that the gyroscopic effects are too small to

really matter (weight of racing bike =15 lb)

This effect is more important at higher speeds (motorcycles)

So what causes the bicycle to be so stable?

Trail.

If you push a bike backwards it will fall over ± the two

wheels follow separate paths.

If you push the bike forwards, the two wheels follow the

same path.

Trailing frame and back wheel will swing into line

behind the front wheel.

It isn¶t the front wheel straightening out, it¶s the back of

the bike swinging into line.

Caster wheels on a shopping cart. If

you push the cart, the forks of the

wheels flip around backwards, and

the wheels ³trail´ the cart.

A bicycle¶s fork always points forward.

bicycle wheel¶s contact point with the

ground trails the steering axis

intersection with the floor (like caster).

Pivot point is in front of the place where

the tire touches the ground, the frictional

drag of the tire tends to keep the wheel

straight ahead (like the caster wheel).

Pull bike backwards, the wheel wants to

turn around

The difference in the wheel contact

point and the steering axis is referred to

as the fork trail of the bicycle, -

determines bike¶s stability.

Larger fork trail = more stable bike.

If the bicycle leans to the right, the

normal force of the road on the bicycle

tire moves to the left side of the bicycle

and deviates from the steering axis. This

turns the wheel to the right, steering the

bicycle to the side that is required to

keep the bicycle from falling over.

The greater the fork trail, the greater this

effect.

Since bicycles are balanced on two wheels in a line in

an unstable equilibrium, they must start to fall to one

side or the other.

A bicycle is stable when it automatically tends to

correct for this unwanted lean.

Since a larger trail means that the front wheel will turn

more sharply to correct a lean faster, then a larger trail

means that the bicycle is more stable.

Jones proved his trail theory with two

of his ³unridable bikes´ (URB III and

the URB IV)

URB III had the fork turned around,

(trail much larger).

URB III was the most stable bicycle

that Jones tested, actively righting itself

even without a rider.

Overcorrected the lean at each weave

until it ran out of speed and collapsed.

Traveled much farther, rider less, than

the same bike with the fork forward

(less trail).

URB III

The URB IV was the most unstable

bicycle that Jones created.

He moved the front wheel four inches

ahead of its normal position, creating a

negative trail.

The bicycle fell over immediately

when released rider less, and Jones

described it as ³very dodgy to ride.´

Why is negative trail less stable?

Demo

URB IV

So if making the trail larger makes the bike more stable,

why don¶t all bikes have a large trail?

Large trail = hard to maneuver.

A bike that is too stable is sluggish to turn and respond to

the rider¶s movements.

Great for going straight, but turning is difficult

Most modern bikes have relatively small trails, making

them less stable but more responsive.

Mountain bike - notice

the large fork rake,

making the trail small.

We know trail affects stability

How do you change trail (T)?

There are three components to trail:

U = head angle, R = fork rake,

r = radius of wheel

Head angle and wheel radius are

usually fixed

To change Trail, change fork rake

Bigger fork rake = smaller trail

Why Study Bicycles?

When buying a bicycle, you will have to answer the

following questions:

Do I want a large or small fork rake?

Do I want hub gears or derailleur gears?

What combinations of gear ratios do I want?

Become an informed shopper.

Design the bike that is best for your needs.

The Wright Brothers¶ pre-aeronautical profession was

bicycle repair and manufacture.

They used a number of concepts they had learned from

bicycles when they were building their plane:

The central importance of balance and control.

The need for strong but lightweight structures.

The chain-and-sprocket transmission system for propulsion.

Concerns regarding wind resistance and aerodynamic shape

of the operator

More than $3.5 million was up for grabs this

year at the tour de France, not including the

millions of dollars in endorsements.

Every rider had a dedicated team trying to

create the ³best´ bicycle.

Armstrong used different parts for different

days, depending on the terrain.

Changed out his gears and wheels each day

to fit the terrain for the day

Physics led to his 6

th

tour de France victory

Would have lost riding the 1885 ³Rover´

Sources

Forester, John; ³Report on Stability of the Da Hon Bicycle´.

Jones, David E. H. (1970). The Stability of the Bicycle

Leisegang, L. and Lee, L. R. Dynamics of a bicycle;

nongyroscopic aspects; American Journal of Physics --

February 1978 -- Volume 46, Issue 2, pp. 130-132

Peterson, Dr. Randolph

Popular Mechanics; ³Wheels of Fortune´; Wendy Booher

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bicycle

http://www.segway.com/segway/how_it_works.html

http://hyperphysics.phy-

astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mechanics/bicycle.html#c3

Zinn, Lennard; Zinn¶s Cycling Primer; Block 40.

Lance Armstrong¶s 2004 Tour de France bike

John Starley¶s ³Rover´ of 1885

First chain driven bicycle introduced in 1885 Structure hasn¶t changed much How do they work?

Topics of Discussion

Why does the bike move forward when I pedal? What are gear ratios? What determines a bike¶s stability?

A Moving Bicycle R = radius of the tires r1 = radius of the sprocket N1 = normal force M = total mass of bicycle and rider [ = angular velocity of the tires r2 = radius of the chainring N2 = normal force p = length of pedal arm F = force applied vertically at a right angle to the pedal arm F1 = reactive push backwards from ground F2 = drive force forwards due to torque from pedaling .

We know« Fnet x = Ma (where a is the tangential acceleration) a = ER (where E is the angular acceleration of the tires) F2 ± F1 = Fnet x Therefore« F2 ± F1 = MRE.

.

Xnet = IE (where X is the torque and I is the moment of inertia of the back tire) Fp(r1/r2) ± F2R = IE.

If we assume that the moment of inertia of the front wheel is roughly the same as the back wheel. then we can say« F1R = IE.

and 3 eliminating F1 and F2 Fp(r1/r2) = E(2I + MR2) .2. We combine equations 1.

Using this equation and a=RE. the bicycle¶s linear acceleration is: a = RFp(r1/r2) (2I+MR2) (4) the smaller the gear ratio (r2/r1). the larger the acceleration So why don¶t all bikes have a small r2/r1 ratio? .

angular velocity of the sprocket (r1) be [1 (also equal to [) angular velocity of the chainring (r2) be [2 the velocity of the foot applied to the pedal is« vapp = p[2 or [2 = vapp /p The velocity of the bike is« vb = R[ = R[1 = [2(r2/r1)R Substituting vapp /p for [2 and rearranging gives us« vb / vapp = r2R/r1p .

4. you would want a large gear ratio (r2/r1). for a higher acceleration. But as we saw in eq. How do you give riders both? Multiple sprockets or gears . and a minimum vapp.vb / vapp = (r2/r1)R/p (6) to maintain a constant velocity (vb). you want a small gear ratio (r2/r1).

.Bicycle Gearing The gearing on a bicycle is the selection of appropriate gear ratios for optimum efficiency or comfort. Different gears are used for different circumstances. The gear ratio is the ratio of the number of teeth on the chainring of the crankset to the teeth on the rear sprocket.

Cadence .number of revolutions the crank is moved per minute The average recreational cyclist has a cadence of 60-80 rpm The average racing cyclist has a cadence of 80120 rpm (Lance Armstrong¶s cadence is 120 rpm) Gear ratios allow optimal cadence in any terrain Elevated ground means more force is required to move the bike forward .

F=ma. That means a smaller gear ratio. Harder to turn the pedals on elevated ground ± lower cadence In order to maintain the same cadence. you needed a smaller gear ratio. so we need a higher gear ratio. . same applied force to the pedals. same cadence. smaller gear ratio will also result in a higher force output (per amount of force input). switch to lower gear We proved earlier that to get a higher acceleration. Downhill slope: need a smaller output force. Elevated slope: need higher output force. Higher gear ratio: achieve higher vb while maintaining the same vapp.

Penny-Farthing (direct-drive) Multi-speed bicycles allow gear selection: Downhill = High gear Flat ground = Medium gear Uphill = Low gear You can calculate the equivalent wheel size using the gear ratio. That means that using a gear ratio of 4.0 on a bike with a wheel diameter of 27´ is the same as riding a direct-drive wheel with a diameter of 108´. Ex. . Equivalent wheel size = gear ratio x wheel diameter.0 and a wheel diameter of 27´. if you had a gear ratio of 4. then the equivalent wheel size would be 108´.

the distance traveled for each turn of the pedals would be: T(108´) = 339. Distance traveled = circumference of equivalent wheel For our previous example. If it was a direct-drive wheel.3 ft.3´ or 28. Determine distance traveled from each turn of pedals using equivalent wheel size.1 ft. each turn of the pedals would take you: T(27´) = 84.8´ or 7. Much greater rpm¶s of the bike tires at maximum cadence .

Derailleur Gear Hub Gear . How can a bicycle have multiple gear ratios available? Two types of bicycle gears: hub gears and derailleur gears.

The tension pulley maintains tension in the chain. Guide pulley pushes chain from one sprocket to the other. changes tension in derailleur cable. and a mechanism (derailleur) to shift the chain from one sprocket to another (more common than hub gears). Change in tension moves derailleur to one side or the other moving the chain from one sprocket to another. . Move lever on handlebar.Derailleur Gears A transmission system consisting of a chain. There are two pulleys: the guide pulley and the tension pulley. multiple sprockets.

protecting them.Hub Gears Work by epicyclic gearing: outer casing (which is connected to the spokes of the wheel) rotates at different speeds depending on which gear is chosen. gears enclosed in hub. Used mostly for utility bicycles .

Hub gears need very little maintenance and are very reliable. They¶re heavier and more expensive than derailleur gears. . (city traffic-starts/stops) Disadvantages Limited space available in the hub.Advantages Mechanism is enclosed within the hub. The gear can be changed when the bike is stationary. so it is not exposed to dirt or weather. smaller range of gears than derailleurs.

5 Linear ( Low) 1 0.Gear Ratios (r 2 /r 1 ) 4 3.5 5 5.5 M edium Low 2 Linear ( igh) Linear ( M edium ) 1.5 3 3.5 0 2.5 3 igh 2.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .5 4 4.

4 0.15 Linear ( M edium ) Linear ( Low) 0.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .05 0 2.2 0.35 igh 0.1 0.5 0.45 0.Force Ratios (output over input) For Each Gear Combination 0.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.25 Linear ( igh) / 0.3 M edium Low 0.

Calculating the acceleration for the bike Measured out 22 m Started from rest and timed how long it took to go 22 m. Motion equation: (x = v0t + ½(at2) v0 = 0 a = 2(x/t2 .

2 M edium Low 1 Linear ( igh) 0.8 1.8 0.4 0.5 3 3.2 0 2.5 4 4.Acceleration For Each Gear Ratio 2 1.6 1.5 6 Rear Sprocket Radius (r1) (cm) R e a r S proc k e t R a dius ( r 1 ) .5 5 5.6 Linear ( M edium ) Linear ( Low) 0.4 igh 1.

Jones and his famous ³unridable bicycles´. and proposed his own theory. which is now widely accepted by physicists. H. there were two main theories on why bicycles are so stable. Front fork swivel and skill of rider Gyroscopic effects Jones found faults in both theories. .Stability Prior to the work of David E.

Falling bicycle can be saved by proper steering of the front wheel. First theory: ridability depends on the freedom of the front forks to swivel and the skill of the rider.a smaller steering change is needed to create the centrifugal correction Centrifuge ± inertia of bike and friction of tires cause torque Stationary bike impossible to balance Faults: when you push a bike it will travel a long time riderless before falling over (as opposed to the second or two it takes to fall over when it is stationary). . Bike is easier to ride the faster it is moving .

As long as the bicycle is going straight. the angular momentum stays in the same position. Second theory: gyroscopic effects from front wheel. The angular momentum of the wheel is L=I[ L is in same direction as the angular velocity. . [. which equals v x r.

so if the direction of L shifts backwards. (Demo) X=rx The torque produced by leaning left points to the rear of the bike. turning the wheel left (Demo ± volunteer) . and it causes the angular momentum to change in the direction of the torque vector. a torque will be produced which causes a counterclockwise precession of the bicycle wheel. so does the axis of rotation. If the rider leans left. Angular momentum is in the same direction as the axis of rotation for the wheel. Torque is always perpendicular to angular momentum (L). tending to turn the bicycle to the left.

Jones: non-gyroscopic bicycle (URB 1). Mass of the wheel is so much less than the mass of the bicycle and rider that the gyroscopic effects are too small to really matter (weight of racing bike =15 lb) This effect is more important at higher speeds (motorcycles) . second wheel on front fork (clear of the ground) .spun in opposite direction of real front wheel. Proved gyroscopic effects of the front wheel weren¶t a significant contributor to the stability of the bicycle (when rider is present). H. David E. opposing the gyroscopic effect. Fell quickly when pushed rider less Still able to ride it (above photo).

So what causes the bicycle to be so stable? Trail. the two wheels follow the same path. If you push a bike backwards it will fall over ± the two wheels follow separate paths. it¶s the back of the bike swinging into line. It isn¶t the front wheel straightening out. . If you push the bike forwards. Trailing frame and back wheel will swing into line behind the front wheel.

If you push the cart. and the wheels ³trail´ the cart. the frictional drag of the tire tends to keep the wheel straight ahead (like the caster wheel). the wheel wants to turn around . Pull bike backwards. the forks of the wheels flip around backwards. Pivot point is in front of the place where the tire touches the ground. Caster wheels on a shopping cart. bicycle wheel¶s contact point with the ground trails the steering axis intersection with the floor (like caster). A bicycle¶s fork always points forward.

. the greater this effect. The difference in the wheel contact point and the steering axis is referred to as the fork trail of the bicycle. determines bike¶s stability. the normal force of the road on the bicycle tire moves to the left side of the bicycle and deviates from the steering axis. The greater the fork trail. Larger fork trail = more stable bike. This turns the wheel to the right. If the bicycle leans to the right. steering the bicycle to the side that is required to keep the bicycle from falling over.

A bicycle is stable when it automatically tends to correct for this unwanted lean. Since bicycles are balanced on two wheels in a line in an unstable equilibrium. . they must start to fall to one side or the other. Since a larger trail means that the front wheel will turn more sharply to correct a lean faster. then a larger trail means that the bicycle is more stable.

(trail much larger). URB III Jones proved his trail theory with two of his ³unridable bikes´ (URB III and the URB IV) URB III had the fork turned around. rider less. Traveled much farther. Overcorrected the lean at each weave until it ran out of speed and collapsed. than the same bike with the fork forward (less trail). actively righting itself even without a rider. . URB III was the most stable bicycle that Jones tested.

´ Why is negative trail less stable? Demo URB IV . The URB IV was the most unstable bicycle that Jones created. He moved the front wheel four inches ahead of its normal position. and Jones described it as ³very dodgy to ride. The bicycle fell over immediately when released rider less. creating a negative trail.

Mountain bike .notice the large fork rake. making the trail small. So if making the trail larger makes the bike more stable. making them less stable but more responsive. but turning is difficult Most modern bikes have relatively small trails. why don¶t all bikes have a large trail? Large trail = hard to maneuver. A bike that is too stable is sluggish to turn and respond to the rider¶s movements. Great for going straight. .

R = fork rake. We know trail affects stability How do you change trail (T)? There are three components to trail: U!head angle. r = radius of wheel Head angle and wheel radius are usually fixed To change Trail. change fork rake Bigger fork rake = smaller trail .

Design the bike that is best for your needs. you will have to answer the following questions: Do I want a large or small fork rake? Do I want hub gears or derailleur gears? What combinations of gear ratios do I want? Become an informed shopper.Why Study Bicycles? When buying a bicycle. .

The chain-and-sprocket transmission system for propulsion. The need for strong but lightweight structures. They used a number of concepts they had learned from bicycles when they were building their plane: The central importance of balance and control. Concerns regarding wind resistance and aerodynamic shape of the operator . The Wright Brothers¶ pre-aeronautical profession was bicycle repair and manufacture.

not including the millions of dollars in endorsements. depending on the terrain. More than $3. Every rider had a dedicated team trying to create the ³best´ bicycle.5 million was up for grabs this year at the tour de France. Armstrong used different parts for different days. Changed out his gears and wheels each day to fit the terrain for the day Physics led to his 6th tour de France victory Would have lost riding the 1885 ³Rover´ .

³Report on Stability of the Da Hon Bicycle´. Dynamics of a bicycle. ³Wheels of Fortune´. Jones. H.html#c3 Zinn.Sources Forester. L.org/wiki/Bicycle http://www. R. 130-132 Peterson. Dr.html http://hyperphysics. . Block 40. Lennard. The Stability of the Bicycle Leisegang. Wendy Booher http://en. Randolph Popular Mechanics. American Journal of Physics -February 1978 -. nongyroscopic aspects. David E. L.gsu.phyastr. Zinn¶s Cycling Primer. (1970). John.wikipedia.segway. pp.Volume 46.edu/hbase/mechanics/bicycle. Issue 2. and Lee.com/segway/how_it_works.