NOISE POLLUTION

WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?

Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one s quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution. Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations. It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact that we can t see, smell, or taste it. World Health Organization stated that Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being

Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution. Construction of buildings. and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution. air conditioners. highways.SOURCES OF NOISE POLLUTION Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas. and pavement breakers. due to the usage of air compressors. generators. fans. loaders. plumbing. dump trucks. . bulldozers. and streets cause a lot of noise. boilers. Loud speakers.

It has been scientifically proved that noise more than 85 decibels can cause hearing impairment and does not meet the standards set for healthy working environment.INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL NOISE POLLUTION. This is posing to be a big challenge with very passing day and is a threat to safety and health of the people who are working in the industry and common people as well. . Industrial Noise resulting to noise pollution has many reasons such as industries being close to human habitats which prevents the noise from decaying before it reaches human ear.

EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL NOISE POLLUTION It has already been stated that continuous exposure to noise pollution leads to hearing impairment but it has various other effects as well which are as follows: It can result into increase in blood pressure Increased stress Fatigue Stomach ulcers vertigo Headaches. which means writing learning impairment Aggression Anxiety Withdrawal . Sleep disturbance Annoyance Speech Problems Dysgraphia.

It must be noted that different road transportation modes have different scales of noise emissions. Further. travel speed and the intensity of traffic are directly linked with its intensity of noise. Main sources of noise come from the engine and the friction of the wheels over the road surface. one truck moving at 90 km/hr makes as much noise as 28 cars moving at the same speed. . For instance.ROAD TRANSPORTATION NOISE Road accounts for approximately 70% of total noise emissions by transportation.

trees. The acoustics created by the surrounding environment (hills. Nearby road arterials. noise emissions are likely to alter the living environment of wildlife species. Noise level grows arithmetically with speed. etc.) alleviate or worsen local conditions. trucks and buses creates a permanent ambient noise (ranging from 45 to 65 db) that impairs the quality of life in urban areas and thus the property values of residences. open space. Along major highway arterials in inter-urban areas. The addition of all the noise generated by cars. at 80 km/hr 75 db and at 100 km/hr 80 db. buildings. For instance a car traveling at 20 km/hr emits 55 db of rolling noise. . at 40 km/hr 65 db. Ambient noise is a frequent result of road transportation in urban areas. ambient noise is replaced by direct noise and vibrations. Available evidence underlines that around 45% of the population in developed countries live in high levels of noise intensity (over 55 db) generated by road transportation.

when trains are moving at high speed. the friction of wheels over the rails. . Noise comes from the engine (mostly diesel). and whistle blowing. Furthermore. aeroacoustic (a branch of acoustics that studies noise generation via either turbulent fluid motion or aerodynamic forces interacting with surfaces) noise becomes more important than other sources.RAIL TRANSPORTATION NOISE y Rail accounts for 10% of total noise emissions by transportation. Depending of the train aerodynamics. noise emissions are from 50 to 80 times the logarithm of train speed and become significant at speeds higher than 200 km/hr.

Around 3% of the population may be exposed to high noise levels from rail transportation in OECD countries. Furthermore. The level of exposure is obviously related to the importance and location of rail transportation infrastructure. The most important noise impacts of rail operations are in urban areas where the majority transshipment functions are performed. . When rail / truck transshipment is involved. the convergence of trucks towards rail yards provides an additional source of noise related to rail transportation activities. rail terminals are often located in the central and high density areas of cities.

As air transportation took a growing importance in inter-city transportation and that jet engines were predominantly used. .AIR TRANSPORTATION NOISE y Air transportation accounts for 20% of total noise emissions by transportation. noise emissions have increased significantly to the point of becoming a major concern near airports.

Noise from aircraft operation is known to have direct impact on property values around airports. . Noise comes from the jet engine. This is particularly noted when those corridors are over densely populated areas. This effect is distributed along major approach and take off lanes. the aerodynamic friction and ground craft operations. Even if the turbofan is the least noisy jet propulsion technology available. aircrafts are an acute source of noise in several urban areas. The establishment of heavily used flight paths between major cities creates noise corridors where ambient noise is almost prevalent.

INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS AND MONITORING The loudness of noise is measured by decibels (db). Hearing loss begins with prolonged exposure (eight hours or more per day) to 80 or 90 dbA levels of sound pressure. Decibel scales are logarithmic rather than linear. High pitched sounds are the most annoying. . whose units are written dbA . Sound pressure becomes painful at around 140 dbA and can kill at 180 dbA. The most common sound pressure scale for high pitched sounds is the A scale. The frequency or pitch of a sound is also a factor in determining its degree of harm. Thus. the change from 40 db (a library) to 80 db (a dishwasher or garbage disposal) represents a ten-thousandfold increase in sound loudness.

INTENSITY OF NOISE Sound of source Intensity in decibels 145 140 130 120 110 100 98 96 93 90 90 85 85 80 65 60 60 Jet craft at take off Pain occurs Hydraulic pressure Jet airplane (160m overhead) Unmuffled motorcycle Subway train Farm tractor Gasoline lawnmower Food blender Heavy truck (15m away) Heavy city traffic Vaccum cleaner Hearing loss after long exposure Garbage disposal unit Diswasher Window air conditioner Normal speech .

Excessive noise results in hearing becoming dull and decreased hearing sensitivity.IMPACTS OF NOISE POLLUTION PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT If sound waves consist of regular vibrations it is often judged to be pleasing. whereas random wave forms are experienced as noise. Induced hearing loss can be prevented but can never be cured. but may already have experienced hearing loss. The danger is that a person may not perceive the noise to be a problem. Exposure to very loud noise or repeated exposure to more moderate noise may result in permanent hearing loss. . This effect is at first temporary and should the person remain in a quiet environment their hearing soon recovers.

nervous. stress and hypertension are symptoms of the psychological impacts of noise pollution. 1995). including digestive and cardiovascular problems (Veitch. affecting the endocrine. Noise that affects feelings and reactions has a psychological effect on humans. This normally occurs at noise levels that do not cause a physical effect. Adaptation and habituation can occur. and cardiovascular systems. but prolonged exposure may lead to any of the diseases of adaptation. . PSYCHOLOGICAL EFFECTS Noise can create a stress response in humans. digestive. Annoyance.

High blood pressure. HEALTH EFFECTS According to the USEPA. there are direct links between noise and health. hearing loss. . noise pollution adversely affects the lives of millions of people. stress related illness. and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution. Also. Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health. and panic attacks. severe depression. It can also cause memory loss. sleep disruption.

Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection. Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution. and ceilings.SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution. . Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing material for the walls. windows.

Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION Similar to automobiles. Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas. lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation. Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside. .

along with an aim to reduce noise pollution. . Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION Community development or urban management should be done with long-term planning.

SUBMITTED BY: Himanshu Malhotra(10105025) Ishaan Gambhir(10105027) .

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